17.2 Fatty Acids We might think of saturated fatty acids as chips with regular shapes that stack c PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

Download liane-varnes | 2018-02-13 | General Similarly, irregularly shaped chips would be like unsaturated fatty acids that do not fit closely together.. Learning . Goal . Draw the condensed or line-angle structural formula for a fatty acid and identify it as saturated or unsaturated.. ID: 631042

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Label each of the following fatty acids as saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated.A. linolenic acid polyunsaturatedB. palmitoleic acid monounsaturatedC. stearic acid saturated


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Slide1

17.2 Fatty Acids

We might think of saturated fatty acids as chips with regular shapes that stack closely together in a can. Similarly, irregularly shaped chips would be like unsaturated fatty acids that do not fit closely together.

Learning Goal Draw the condensed or line-angle structural formula for a fatty acid and identify it as saturated or unsaturated.

Slide2

17.2 Fatty Acids

Fatty acids, the simplest type of lipids, arelong, unbranched carbon chains with a carboxylic acid group at the end.

typically 12–18 carbon atoms long.insoluble in water because of the long carbon chain.saturated when they do not contain C C double bonds in the carbon chain.unsaturated when they contain C C double bonds in the carbon chain.

Core Chemistry Skill

Identifying Fatty Acids

Slide3

Drawing Fatty Acids

In a line-angle structural formula of a fatty acid, the ends and bends of the line are the carbon atoms. The structural formula of lauric acid can be drawn in

several forms.

Slide4

Saturated Fatty Acids

Fatty acids can be saturated, with only C —

C single bonds in the carbon chain.

Slide5

Monounsaturated Fatty Acids

Fatty acids can be monounsaturated, with only one double C C

bond in the carbon chain.

Slide6

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Fatty acids can be polyunsaturated, with at least two double C

C bonds in the carbon chain.

Slide7

Cis

and Trans Unsaturated Fatty AcidsUnsaturated fatty acids can be drawn as cis

and trans isomers.Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid found in olives, with one double bond at carbon 9.The trans isomer of oleic acid is called elaidic acid and has a straight chain without a kink.

Almost all naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids have one or more

cis

double bonds.

Slide8

Essential Fatty Acids

Humansare capable of synthesizing some fatty acids from carbohydrates or other fatty acids.cannot synthesize sufficient amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid.

Because these polyunsaturated fatty acids must be obtained from the diet, they are known as essential fatty acids.

Slide9

Properties of Saturated Fatty Acids

Saturated fatty acidscontain only single C —

C bonds and fit close together in a regular pattern, with strong dispersion forces between carbon chains.require a significant amount of energy and high temperatures to separate and melt.

Slide10

Properties of Saturated Fatty Acids

In unsaturated fatty acids, cis double bonds cause the carbon chain to bend or kink, giving the molecules an irregular shape and thus allowing fewer interactions between molecules.

The reduced interactions in fatty acids with cis bonds reduce the melting point of the molecules.

Slide11

Study Check

Consider the condensed structural formula for vaccenic acid.Why is this molecule an acid?How many total carbon atoms are in vaccenic acid?Is this a saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acid?Is it likely to be a solid or liquid at room temperature?Would it be soluble in water?

Slide12

Solution

Consider the condensed structural formula for vaccenic acid.Why is this molecule an acid? It contains a carboxylic acid functional group.B. How many total carbon atoms are in vaccenic acid? Vaccenic acid contains 18 carbon atoms.

Slide13

Solution

Consider the condensed structural formula for vaccenic acid.Is this a saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acid? Vaccenic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid.D. Is it likely to be a solid or liquid at room temperature? It is a liquid at room temperature.Would it be soluble in water? The long carbon chain makes it insoluble in water.

Slide14

Prostaglandins

Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances produced in small amounts in most cells.are also known as eicosanoids, formed from arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid with 20 carbon atoms.differ by the substituents attached to the five-carbon ring.have many functions, such as lowering or raising blood pressure and stimulating contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle of the uterus.

Slide15

Prostaglandins

Prostaglandins differ by the substituents attached to the five-carbon ring:prostaglandin E (PGE) has a ketone group on carbon 9.prostaglandin F (PGF) has a hydroxyl group on carbon 9.The number of double bonds is shown as a subscript 1 or 2.

Slide16

Prostaglandins

When tissues are injured, arachidonic acid is converted to prostaglandins that produce inflammation and pain in the area.

Slide17

Prostaglandins: NSAIDs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) block production of prostaglandins, decreasing pain and inflammation.

Slide18

Prostaglandins: NSAIDs

NSAIDs include naproxen (Aleve and Naprosyn), ketoprofen (Actron), and nabumetone (Relafen).

Slide19

Chemistry Link to Health: Omega-6

Fatty AcidsUnsaturated fats such as those in vegetable oils and fish are recognized as more beneficial to health than saturated fats. Vegetables contain omega-6 acids, meaning the first double bond occurs at carbon 6 counting from the methyl end of the carbon chain. Examples of omega-6 acids are linoleic and arachidonic acids.

Slide20

Chemistry Link to Health: Omega-3

Fatty AcidsFish have high levels of omega-3 acids, meaning the first double bond occurs at carbon 3, counting from the methyl end of the chain. Examples of omega-3 acids include linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids.Cold-water fish are a source of omega-3 fatty acids.

Slide21

Chemistry Link to Health: Omega-3

Fatty AcidsIn atherosclerosis and heart disease, cholesterol forms plaques that adhere to the walls of the blood vessels.blood pressure rises as blood has to squeeze through a smaller opening in the blood vessel.more plaque forms and there is also a possibility of blood clots blocking the blood vessels and causing a heart attack.Omega-3 fatty acids lower the tendency of blood platelets to stick together, reducing the possibility of blood clots.

Slide22

Study Check

Label each of the following fatty acids as saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated.A. linolenic acid B. palmitoleic acid C. stearic acid

Slide23

Solution

Label each of the following fatty acids as saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated.A. linolenic acid polyunsaturatedB. palmitoleic acid monounsaturatedC. stearic acid saturated

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