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Page 1 Rupturing the norms: The social and political response to the rape of Anene Booysen Joy Watson & Vivienne Lalu Page 2 This publication is one of two comparative studies on sexual violence XQGHUWDNHQîE\îWKHî6RXWKî$IULFDîDQGîWKHîîQGLDîRîFHVîRIîWKHî+HLQULFKî%î¸OO Foundation Authors Joy Watson and Vivienne Lalu Layout Claudia Lopes Acknowledgements 6SHFLDOîWKDQNVîWRî3DXODî$VVXEXMLîî&ODXGLDî/RSHVîî.HUHQî%HQî=HHY /D\ODî$Oî=XEDLGLîDQGî+HOHQî'RXJODVîIRUîKHOSIXOîFRPPHQWVîRQîWKHîGUDIW version of this paper. +HLQULFKî%RHOOî6WLIWXQJî6RXWKHUQî$IULFD 8th Floor Vunani Chambers 33 Church Street &DSHî7RZQîî&%' South Africa 7HO )D[ ZZZî]DîERHOOîRUJ Page 3 2Qîîîî'HFHPEHUîîîîîîî-\RWLî6LQJK Pandey îîDîîîî\HDUîROGîSK\VLRWKHUDS\ student boarded a bus in New 'HOKLîîîQGLDîDIWHUîZDWFKLQJî7KHî/LIH of Pi with a male friend. They were accosted by six men who raped and attacked Jyoti with an iron rod, OHDYLQJîKHUîSDUWLDOO\îGLVHPERZHOOHG DQGîUHVXOWLQJîLQîKHUîGHDWK 2Qîîî)HEUXDU\îîîîîîîîîî\HDU ROGî$QHQHî%RR\VHQîîDîFOHDQHU at a construction company in %UHGDVGRUSîî6RXWKî$IULFD went out ZLWKîDîJURXSîRIîIULHQGVîWRîDîORFDOîSXE They had some drinks, danced a bit and Anene later left the pub in the company of some of the male friends VKHîKDGîEHHQîVRFLDOLVLQJîZLWKîî6KH ZDVîIRXQGîWKHîQH[WîPRUQLQJîE\îD VHFXULW\îJXDUGîDWîDîFRQVWUXFWLRQîVLWH î´JKWLQJîIRUîKHUîOLIHîî6KHîKDGîEHHQ JDQJîUDSHGîDQGîPXWLODWHGîDQGîKDG LQFXUUHGîH[WHQVLYHîJHQLWDOîLQMXULHV The doctor who initially treated her described her injuries as the worst she had ever seen. Like Jyoti, Anene had been disembowelled. 6L[îKRXUVîODWHUîîDIWHUîQDPLQJîRQHîRI her attackers, she died in hospital. %RWKîFDVHVîUHFHLYHGîDîJUHDWîGHDOîRI SXEOLFLW\îDQGîSXEOLFîRXWFU\îî%RWK \RXQJîZRPHQîZHUHîUDSHGîDQG EUXWDOO\îDWWDFNHGîDQGîERWKîIRXJKW EUDYHO\îIRUîWKHLUîOLYHVîî%RWKîZRPHQ OLYHGîLQîFRXQWULHVîZLWKîKLJKîOHYHOVîRI YLROHQFHîDJDLQVWîZRPHQîDQGîVWDUN JHQGHUîLQHTXDOLWLHVîî+RZHYHUîî$QHQH lived in a small rural town and knew KHUîDWWDFNHUîVîîîZKLOHî-\RWLîOLYHGîLQ an urban city and her attackers îQîîîîîîîWKHî6RXWKî$IULFDîDQGîWKHîîQGLDîRîFHVîRIîWKHî+HLQULFKî%î¸OOî)RXQGDWLRQ HPEDUNHGîRQîDîOHDUQLQJîH[FKDQJHîSURMHFWîRQîVH[XDOîYLROHQFHîî7KHîSURMHFW SURGXFHGîWZRîFRPSDUDWLYHîVWXGLHVîZKLFKîFULWLFDOO\îH[DPLQHGîSXEOLFîUHVSRQVHV WRîWKHîJUXHVRPHîPXUGHUVîDQGîUDSHVîRIî$QHQHî%RR\VHQîLQî6RXWKî$IULFDîDQG -\RWLî6LQJKî3DQGH\îLQîîQGLDîî&RQVLGHULQJîWKDWîOHYHOVîRIîYLROHQFHîDJDLQVW ZRPHQîDUHîKLJKîLQîERWKîFRXQWULHVîîEXWîHLWKHUîZLGHO\îLJQRUHGîRUîUHJUHWWDEO\ WDNHQîDVîQRUPDOF\îLQîPDLQVWUHDPîSROLWLFVîîZKDWîZHUHîWKHîG\QDPLFVîDQG VSHFLî´FîIDFWRUVîDQGîFLUFXPVWDQFHVîWKDWîSURSHOOHGîWKHPîLQWRîQDWLRQDOîDQG LQWHUQDWLRQDOîSURPLQHQFHîDQGîFDQîXQSDFNLQJîWKLVîLQîµXHQFHîWKHîGHYHORSPHQW RIîHQKDQFHGîVWUDWHJLHVîWRîWDFNOLQJîHQGHPLFîYLROHQFHîDJDLQVWîZRPHQ" background Page 4 were not known to her. In India, KXJHîPDVVîSURWHVWVîEURNHîRXWîLQîWKH ZDNHîRIî-\RWLîVîUDSHîî7KHîPDJQLWXGH RIîWKLVîRXWFU\îHOLFLWHGîDJDLQVWîDQ act of sexual violence is possibly unprecedented the world over. 3XEOLFîSURWHVWVîZHUHîVWDJHGîDWîîQGLD Gate and the national parliament. Thousands of demonstrators clashed with police, overturned FDUVîîZHUHîVKRWîZLWKîWHDUîJDVîVKHOOV and water cannons, and arrested. 6LPLODUîSURWHVWVîVSUHDGîWKURXJKRXW WKHîFRXQWU\îî$FFRUGLQJîWRîHVWLPDWHV thousands of people marched in &DOFXWWDîDQGîîîîîZRPHQîPDUFKHGîLQ %DQJDORUHîî0DQ\îSURWHVWHUVîZHQWîRQ KXQJHUîVWULNHVîî7KLVîZDVîDXJPHQWHG online by social media protests and DîSHWLWLRQîDJDLQVWîWKHîLQFLGHQWîVLJQHG by tens of thousands. While the state initially attempted to suppress the SURWHVWVîîLWîHYHQWXDOO\îDFTXLHVFHGîWR the publicâs call for a reaction to what had transpired. The Indian prime minister and the president of the UXOLQJîîQGLDQî1DWLRQDOî&RQJUHVVî3DUW\ not only issued statements but were DOVRîSUHVHQWîDWîWKHî1HZî'HOKLîDLUSRUW to receive Jyotiâs body when it arrived IURPîWKHî0RXQWî(OL]DEHWKîKRVSLWDO LQî6LQJDSRUH A convoy of more WKDQîWZHQW\îSROLFHîYHKLFOHVîFDUU\LQJ riot police led the ambulance that transported her body to the funeral. With this response to Jyotiâs death, India demonstrated to the world its capacity to take a social stand, and LWVîYHKHPHQWîRXWUDJHîDJDLQVWîUDSH 7KHî2QHî%LOOLRQî5LVLQJîFDPSDLJQ described the social mobilisation LQîîQGLDîDVîDîKXJHîEUHDNWKURXJK RIîFRQVFLRXVQHVVîZLWKîUHJDUGVîWR sexual violence. The story was IHDWXUHGîRQîWKHîIURQWîSDJHîRIîPRVW newspapers and it became a central topic of public discourse. In stark contrast, in South Africa, DîFRXQWU\îZLWKîDîVWURQJîDQGîSURXG history of mass protest the public responses to Aneneâs rape and death were sporadic and uncoordinated. While the case did not yield VLJQLî´FDQWîVRFLDOîPRELOLVDWLRQîîLW GLGîUHFHLYHîVLJQLî´FDQWîSROLWLFDOîDQG media attention. Aneneâs case has since become the exemplar of YLROHQFHîDJDLQVWîZRPHQîLQî6RXWK Africa and is often cited in discourse on sexual violence. This paper analyses media, political and social responses to Aneneâs rape DQGîGHDWKîî'UDZLQJîRQîQHZVSDSHU FRYHUDJHîîWKHîUHDFWLRQVîRIîSROLWLFLDQV and interviews conducted with PHPEHUVîRIîWKHî%UHGDVGRUS community, it explores whether WKHVHîUHVXOWHGîLQîDQ\îWDQJLEOHîVRFLDO transformation. The paper further discusses these responses in terms of South African normative views on sexual violence. Page 5 Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen Credit: Gallo Images Page 6 5DSHîKDVîEHFRPHîVRîHQGHPLFîLQ South African society that only the more violent and brutal acts appear to stimulate public attention. Yet it is the everyday acts of violence, such as those acted out within many intimate relationships that create the social conditions that allow the more brutal manifestations. (DFKîDFWîRIîVH[XDOîYLROHQFHîFDUULHV WZRîOD\HUVîRIîQDUUDWLYHîî7KHîî´UVW is the narrative of the person who experienced the violence. Anene, IRUîH[DPSOHîîZDVîDî\RXQJîZRPDQ ZKRîKDGîJURZQîXSîLQî%UHGDVGRUS +HUîPRWKHUîGLHGîZKHQîVKHîZDVîOLWWOH DQGîVKHîZDVîFRQVHTXHQWO\îPRYHG between relatives and foster homes. She lived in a community characterised by poverty and she dropped out of VFKRROîWRîî´QGîZRUNîî5HFUHDWLRQDO DFWLYLWLHVîLQî%UHGDVGRUSîDUHîOLPLWHG DQGîPDQ\î\RXQJîSHRSOHîVRFLDOLVH in the local pubs such as the one that Anene visited before her attack. It is important to individualise each story in this way. The traumatised subject of sexual violence is always DîSHUVRQîZLWKîDîUDQJHîRIîNQRZOHGJH experiences, emotions and desires. It is important to see each victim of sexual violence in this way. To universalise sexual violence and only talk about the collective QDUUDWLYHîUHPRYHVîWKHîVSHFLî´FîGHWDLOV of the individual histories. This, in HîHFWîîGHKXPDQLVHVîWKHîSHUVRQîRQ ZKRPîWKHîYLROHQFHîLVîLQîµLFWHGîDVîWKH\ become yet another statistic. The second layer of narrative is located within a communityâs experience of sexual violence and is indicative of that communityâs social performance. $QWKURSRORJLFDOîVWXGLHVîKDYH observed that rape is likely to be lower LQîVRFLHWLHVîFKDUDFWHULVHGîE\îJHQGHU HTXDOLW\îîSHDFHIXOQHVVîDQGîKLJK levels of womenâs economic power. 7KLVîPHDQVîWKDWîYLROHQFHîDJDLQVW women should be located within a EURDGHUîFRQWH[WîRIîJHQGHUîHTXLW\ ZLWKLQîDîVRFLHW\îî7KHîKLJKîOHYHOVîRI YLROHQFHîDJDLQVWîZRPHQîLQî6RXWKî$IULFD WHOOîXVîVRPHWKLQJîDERXWîWKHîJHQGHUHG VRFLDOîRUGHUîDWîSOD\îîDERXWîKHJHPRQLF constructions of masculinity and narratives of sexual violence Page 7 Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen IHPLQLQLW\îîDQGîWKHîXQGHUO\LQJ patriarchal norms that create the conditions within which such violence can thrive. Within such a context, UDSHîLVîKLJKO\îULWXDOLVHGîî$OWKRXJK it varies between countries and FKDQJHVîRYHUîWLPHîîWKHUHîLVîQRWKLQJ timeless or random about it. For perpetrators of sexual violence, LWîLVîQHYHUîHQRXJKîWRîPHUHO\îLQîµLFW VXîHULQJîîWKHîYLFWLPîDQGîWKHîYLFWLPîV UHVSRQVHîWRîWKHîYLROHQFHîJLYHîPHDQLQJ WRîWKHîUDSLVWîVîH[SHULHQFHîRIîLQîµLFWLQJ LQMXU\îî7KHîVSHFLî´FîVHWîRIîKLVWRULFDO social and contextual circumstances LQîRSHUDWLRQîDWîDîJLYHQîSRLQWîLQîWLPH LPSDFWîXSRQîDQGîJLYHîPHDQLQJîWRîWKH ritual of rape. Perpetrators of sexual violence learn and teach themselves how to act as perpetrators within VSHFLî´FîKLVWRULFîFRPPXQLWLHV 7KHîTXHVWLRQîZHîWKHUHIRUHîQHHG to ask is, âWhat is it about South Africaâs VSHFLî´FîVHWîRIîVRFLDOîFLUFXPVWDQFHV that resulted in more than a million contact crimes îDJDLQVWîZRPHQîLQîWKH last few years?â While Aneneâs rape and murder must be seen in terms RIîLWVîRZQîVSHFLî´FLW\îîLWîPXVWîDOVRîEH ORFDWHGîZLWKLQîDîFRQWH[WîRIîXQUHPLWWLQJ brutality, violence and sexualised violence towards women in South Africa â a context in which someone needs to be disembowelled before the public sits up and takes note. (YHQîWKHQîî6RXWKî$IULFDîVîVRFLDOîDQG political response to sexual violence LVîî´FNOHîDQGîQRîJXDUDQWHHîWKDWîIXWXUH acts of sexual violence will receive VLPLODUîDWWHQWLRQîîîWîLVîDOVRîLQWHUHVWLQJ to note that the rape of Anene captured less public attention than did the act of her disembowelment. This is indicative of the perceived hierarchy of the horror of violence. The question we therefore need to ask is, "What is it about South Africa's specific set of social circumstances that resulted in more than a million contact crimes against women in the last few years?" Page 8 Council and Genderlinks study of domestic violence, over half of the ZRPHQîLQWHUYLHZHGîLQî*DXWHQJ îîîîîîîîDGPLWWHGîWRîH[SHULHQFLQJ VRPHîIRUPîRIîYLROHQFHîîZKLOH RIîWKHîPHQîDGPLWWHGîWRîSHUSHWUDWLQJ DQîDFWîRIîYLROHQFHîDJDLQVWîDîZRPDQ 7KLVîRPQLSUHVHQWîJHQGHUîYLROHQFH KDVîUHVXOWHGîLQîVHQVRU\îIDWLJXHîîîQ todayâs society, it is mostly taken IRUîJUDQWHGîWKDWîUDSHîZLOOîKDSSHQ It has become enmeshed within the rhythm of our lives. In the face of some of the worst rape statistics ZRUOGZLGHîîîLQFOXGLQJîPRUHîWKDQ twice the number of rapes reported LQîîQGLDîîîDîUHFHQWî%%&îIHDWXUH GHVFULEHGî6RXWKî$IULFDîDVîEHLQJ unable to muster up more than a FROOHFWLYHîVKUXJ %HIRUHî$QHQHîVîGHDWKîîWKHUHîZHUH PDQ\îVLPLODUO\îKRUULî´FîLQFLGHQWV of sexual violence, none of which captured the public eye in the same way. Just a few weeks earlier, îîî\HDUîROGî&KDUPDLQHî0DUH IURPî0SXPDODQJDîîRQîKROLGD\ îQîWKHîîîîîîîîîîîUHSRUWLQJîSHULRG îîîîîîîVH[XDOîRîHQFHVîDJDLQVW ZRPHQîDQGîîîîîîîîVH[XDOîRîHQFHV DJDLQVWîFKLOGUHQîZHUHîUHSRUWHGîWRîWKH police in South Africa. There were 87 îîîîUHSRUWHGîLQFLGHQWVîRIîDVVDXOWîDQG îîîîîîîRIîDVVDXOWîZLWKîWKHîLQWHQWîWR FDXVHîJULHYRXVîERGLO\îKDUPîDJDLQVW women. $îVWXG\îFRQGXFWHGîE\îWKHî0HGLFDO 5HVHDUFKî&RXQFLO found that rape KDGîEHHQîSHUSHWUDWHGîE\îîîîîîîRI the sample of men interviewed in WKHî(DVWHUQî&DSHîDQGî.ZD=XOXî1DWDO SURYLQFHVîîZKLOHîîîîîRIîWKHîPHQ LQWHUYLHZHGîLQî*DXWHQJîDGPLWWHGîWR UDSHîî0DQ\îKDGîUDSHGîPRUHîWKDQ once. The men who admitted to rape ZHUHîVLJQLî´FDQWO\îPRUHîOLNHO\îWRîKDYH HQJDJHGîLQîDîUDQJHîRIîULVN\îVH[XDO activity. They were likely to have KDGîPRUHîWKDQîîîîVH[XDOîSDUWQHUV transactional sex, heavy alcohol consumption and unprotected sex. The study found that South Africaâs KLJKîSUHYDOHQFHîRIîUDSHîLVîOLQNHG to deeply embedded ideas about PDQKRRGîîîQîDî0HGLFDOî5HVHDUFK sexual violence in South Africa Page 9 Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen in the Western Cape, was raped and murdered in Kraaifontein on the outskirts of Cape Town. +HUîDWWDFNHUîFXWîRîîKHUîDUPVîDQG OHJVîZLWKîDîEROWîFXWWHUîDIWHUîUDSLQJ KHUîîDQGîVHWîKHUîERG\îDOLJKWîî$îPRQWK IROORZLQJî$QHQHîVîGHDWKîî7KDQGHND 0DGRQVHODîîDîîîî\HDUîROGîJLUOîîZDV IRXQGîGHDGîLQîDîî´HOGîQHDUîKHU KRPHîLQî-RKDQQHVEXUJîî6KHîKDGîEHHQ JDQJîUDSHGîDQGîGLVHPERZHOOHG in the early hours of a Saturday PRUQLQJ 7KDQGHNDîVîVWRULHVîîDORQJîZLWKîPDQ\ others, remain unknown to most South Africans. in today's society, it is mostly taken for granted that rape will happen... In the face of some of the worst rape statistics worldwide a recent BBC feature described South Africa as being unable to muster up more than a collective shrug. kîîîîîî=DSLURîî$OOî5LJKWVî5HVHUYHG 3ULQWHGî8VHGîZLWKîSHUPLVVLRQîIURPîZZZî]DSLURîFRP Page 10 IRUîZRPHQîZDVîîîîîîSRLQWVîKLJKHU than that of men, 18 îDQGîîîîîîKLJKHU than the national unemployment DYHUDJHîRI 19 /HYHOVîRIîJHQGHUîLQHTXLW\ DUHîWKHUHIRUHîVWLOOîYHU\îKLJK LQî6RXWKî$IULFDîî%XWîZLWKîWKH QDWLRQDOîJHQGHUîPDFKLQHU\ QRWîSHUIRUPLQJîDVîLWîVKRXOG 20 DQGîDîUHVXUJHQFHîRIîWUDGLWLRQDOLVP DQGîHîRUWVîWRîQRUPDOLVH patriarchal values and institutions îHîJîîWKHîLQWURGXFWLRQîRIîWKH 7UDGLWLRQDOî&RXUWVî%LOO 21 îîîVSDFHVîIRU IHPLQLVWîDGYRFDF\îKDYHîFKDQJHG It becomes important to understand the nuances of this shift in the political landscape and ZKDWîLWîPHDQVîIRUîZRPHQîVîULJKWV îQîWKHîLPPHGLDF\îRIîWKHîSRVW îîîîîWUDQVLWLRQîWRîGHPRFUDWLF JRYHUQDQFHîîWKHî6RXWKî$IULFDQ state, spurred on by the advocacy of feminists, seemed to espouse a FRPPLWPHQWîWRîDGGUHVVLQJîJHQGHU LQHTXLW\îLQî6RXWKî$IULFDQîVRFLHW\ 16 paint a bleak picture. $SSUR[LPDWHO\îîîîîîîRIîEODFN ZRPHQîKDYHîQRîIRUPDOîVFKRROLQJ LQîFRPSDULVRQîZLWKîîîîîîîRIîEODFN PHQîî0HQîWRRîRXWUDQNîZRPHQîLQ HPSOR\PHQWîîZLWKîRQO\îîîîîîîRI EODFNîZRPHQîYHUVXVîîîîîîîRIîEODFN PHQîîîîîîîîRIîFRORXUHGîZRPHQ YHUVXVîîîîîîîRIîFRORXUHGîPHQ îîîîîîRIîîQGLDQ 17 women versus îîîîîîRIîîQGLDQîPHQîîDQG RIîZKLWHîZRPHQîYHUVXVîîîîîîîRI ZKLWHîPHQîîEHLQJîHPSOR\HGîî0RVW of these women are employed in WKHîLQIRUPDOîVHFWRUîîLQîORZîVNLOOHG ORZîSD\LQJîMREVîî6WDWLVWLFVî6RXWK Africa reports that women are far more likely to be unemployed than PHQîDFURVVîDOOîJHRJUDSKLFDOîDUHDV îQîîîîîîîWKHîXQHPSOR\PHQWîUDWH Locating sexual violence in South Africaâs social context photograph: Activists protesting outside parliament. Photographer: Brendon Bosworth Page 11 Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen Page 12 10 Some of the utterances, such as WKHîVXJJHVWLRQîWKDWî$QHQHîVKRXOG QRWîKDYHîEHHQîRXWîVRîODWHîDWîQLJKW SUREOHPDWLFDOO\îLQWHUURJDWHGîWKH victim and not the act of rape itself or those who committed it. Other statements were made in inappropriate spaces, such as the SDUW\îSROLWLFNLQJîDWî$QHQHîVîIXQHUDO In conversation with members of the community, we were somewhat taken aback by their less cynical view of the role of political leaders. In their view, the role of leaders is to lead and WRîUHVSRQGîLQîHPSDWKHWLFîODQJXDJH to the trauma experienced by the community in the wake of an act of VH[XDOîYLROHQFHîî%XWîWKLVîDSSURYDO FRPHVîZLWKîWKHîî´UPîSURYLVRîWKDWîWKH words must be backed up with the UHTXLVLWHîDFWLRQîWRîEULQJîDERXWîVRFLDO transformation. 7KHîODQJXDJHîRIîîJHQGHUîSURJUHV sivenessâ has been employed perennially by the South African state, but a cursory look reveals the extent to which womenâs lived realities UHIXWHîWKLVîSOHGJH 7KHîPDQLSXODWLRQîRIîODQJXDJH IRUîLGHRORJLFDOîSXUSRVHVîLVîQRWîD new phenomenon. When used HîHFWLYHO\îîLWîFUHDWHVîDQîHPRWLRQDO response in the listener, a rush in the limbic system that calls on our GHHSHVWîIHHOLQJVîDVîKXPDQîEHLQJV 22 :KHQîWKHîPHGLDîEHJDQîWRîPDNH $QHQHîWKHLUîFHQWUHSLHFHîîGLîHUHQW YRLFHVîHPHUJHGîWRîH[SUHVVîJULHIîDQG condemnation. Prominent politicians from across the spectrum invoked DîODQJXDJHîRIîRXWUDJHîWKDWîVXJJHVWHG the political will to address the social conditions that enable sexual violence. The president issued a VWURQJîVWDWHPHQWîFRQGHPQLQJîWKH DWWDFNîîDVîGLGîYDULRXVîJRYHUQPHQW ministers, opposition parties, the WUDGHîXQLRQîIHGHUDWLRQî&26$78 WKHî$1&î:RPHQîVî/HDJXHîDQGîFLYLO VRFLHW\îJURXSV sexual violence and political rhetoric photograph: Western Cape ANC leader Marius Fransman, leads a protest march in Bredasdorp. Credit: Cape Times Page 13 Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 11 It was good that they came but they not going far enough and they are not keeping the promises. (Interview 3, 23 September 2013) It is right that as a leader to come forward. They must lead, so it was a good thing that politicians came. Does not matter which political spectrum. I don't think that they were opportunistic; they are meant to come. They must not just show their face but they must take things further. (Interview 1, 24 August 2013) Page 14 12 Political leaders of the opposition DA party, join a protest against rape outside Parliament, Cape Town. Credit: Gallo Images VXSSRUWîYLFWLPVîîîWîLVîJODULQJO\ obvious that, other than this JHVWXUHîîQRWKLQJîPXFKîKDV happened. Apart from isolated church initiatives, there have been few opportunities for women to FRPHîWRJHWKHUîDQGîWDONîDERXWîWKH LVVXHVîWKDWîWKH\îIDFHîî7KHî2YHUEHUJ 'HYHORSPHQWî$VVRFLDWLRQîPDGHîDQ DWWHPSWîWRîEULQJîZRPHQîWRJHWKHU EXWîWKLVîGLGîQRWîJHWîRîîWKHîJURXQG Feminist NGOs that were once DFWLYHîLQîWKHîDUHDîQRîORQJHUîKDYHîD SUHVHQFHîGXHîWRîGZLQGOLQJîGRQRU funds. From the perspective of one interviewee, activism has GZLQGOHGîLQîWKHîSRVWîîîîîîSHULRG DQGîWKHîFRPPXQLW\îRIî%UHGDVGRUS has become a whole lot more complacent. In the aftermath of Aneneâs GHDWKîîWKHîJRYHUQPHQWîLQYHVWHG 5îîîPLOOLRQîLQî%UHGDVGRUS 23 î0RVW RIîWKLVîKDVîJRQHîWRîWKHîFRQVWUXFWLRQ LQGXVWU\îDVîSDUWîRIîDîMREîFUHDWLRQ LQLWLDWLYHîIRUî\RXQJîSHRSOH While youth unemployment is rife, the initiative did not directly address the issue of violence DJDLQVWîZRPHQîîîWîFHUWDLQO\îZDV DîQHZVZRUWK\îJHVWXUHîDQGîLW successfully captured public attention and seemed to elicit community favour. Within the community, the investment is seen to have made VRPHîGLîHUHQFHîLQîMREîFUHDWLRQ DOWKRXJKîIDUîIURPîHQRXJK 7KHîJRYHUQPHQWîVîLQWHUYHQWLRQ VWUDWHJ\îLOOXVWUDWHVîDîFOHDUîODFNîRI XQGHUVWDQGLQJîRIîWKHîFRQWH[WîIRU sexual violence in the community. îWîDOVRîIDLOVîWRîVWUDWHJLFDOO\îXVH this case to inform appropriate and sustainable local interventions to prevent sexual violence and Beyond rhetoric â An analysis of social and political responses Governments response Page 15 Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 13 7KHUHîDUHîVLJQLî´FDQWO\îOHVV resources for women to turn to (in Bredasdorp). After 1994 people became more accepting of the system, but the system failed people. There is a huge gap. (Interview 2, 24 August 2013) Page 16 %UHGDVGRUSîLVîQRWîDORQHîLQîWKLV SUHGLFDPHQWîî(YHQîLQîXUEDQîDUHDV support services for victims of JHQGHUîEDVHGîYLROHQFHîDUHîVHYHUHO\ XQGHUIXQGHGîîîQîîîîîîîIRUîH[DPSOH 5DSHî&ULVLV had to retrench all EXWîRQHîRIîLWVîVWDîîPHPEHUV îQîWKHîVDPHîî´QDQFLDOî\HDU the Western Cape provincial JRYHUQPHQWîVSHQWîDSSUR[LPDWHO\ îîîRIîLWVî5îîîîELOOLRQîVRFLDO GHYHORSPHQWîEXGJHWîRQîYLFWLP empowerment, of which only a portion went into direct services IRUîYLFWLPVîRIîJHQGHUîEDVHG violence. Substantially fewer funds were allocated to victim HPSRZHUPHQWîRUJDQLVDWLRQVîWKDQ WRîRUJDQLVDWLRQVîZRUNLQJîLQîRWKHU welfare sectors. 25 7KHîDEVHQFHîRIîJRYHUQPHQW LQWHUYHQWLRQVîLQî%UHGDVGRUSîWR focus on sexual and domestic violence in the community and its inextricable link to womenâs HTXDOLW\îLVîDîVHULRXVîRPLVVLRQîî:LWK no initiatives beyond job creation, the idea of rape is subliminally naturalised, normalised and trivialised. The community remains steeped in deeply patriarchal YDOXHVîîQRUPDWLYHîJHQGHUîUROHV DQGîOLPLWLQJîFRQVWUXFWLRQVîRI masculinity and femininity that ODUJHO\îJRîXQFKDOOHQJHGîîîDOOîWKH PRUHîVRîEHFDXVHî%UHGDVGRUSîLVîD small rural town with entrenched conservative values. It would, however, be incorrect to VXJJHVWîWKDWî$QHQHîVîGHDWKîGLGîQRW UHVXOWîLQîDQ\îDWWHQWLRQîWRîJHQGHU EDVHGîYLROHQFHîî7KHîGD\VîIROORZLQJ KHUîGHDWKîVDZîDîîµXUU\îRIîDFWLYLW\ LQîWKHî1DWLRQDOî&RXQFLOî$JDLQVW *HQGHUî%DVHGî9LROHQFH which had been relatively dormant. It remains to be seen whether the &RXQFLOîZLOOîPDNHîDîPHDQLQJIXO FRQWULEXWLRQîWRZDUGVîSUHYHQWLQJ JHQGHUîEDVHGîYLROHQFHîDQG GHYHORSLQJîDîPRUHîLQWHJUDWHG DSSURDFKîZLWKLQîJRYHUQPHQW 7KHîVHFRQGîDQGîPRUHîVLJQLî´FDQW policy development linked to Aneneâs death is the reintroduction RIî6H[XDOî2îHQFHVî&RXUWV î´UVWîLQWURGXFHGîLQîîîîîîDVîDQ innovative measure to improve the prosecution and adjudication of VH[XDOîRîHQFHVîîîQîWKHîSLORWîFRXUW ORFDWHGîLQî:\QEHUJîLQîWKHî:HVWHUQ Cape, conviction rates improved 14 (Violence against women) is how men control the community, to keep women on their place. It breaks women down. It's not a pretty picture. We must still go a long way to educate the community. (Interview 2, 24 August 2013) Page 17 WRîRYHUîîîîîDQGîYLFWLPVîUHSRUWHG enhanced levels of sensitivity LQîWKHLUîHQJDJHPHQWîZLWKîWKH criminal justice system. 27 î%\îWKH HQGîRIîîîîîîîîîî6H[XDOî2îHQFHV &RXUWVîZHUHîRSHUDWLQJîDFURVVîWKH country. This resulted in more FDVHVîEHLQJîî´QDOLVHGîîLPSURYHG KDQGOLQJîRIîYLFWLPVîîLPSURYHGîF\FOH times and improved conviction UDWHVîî'HVSLWHîWKHVHîVLJQLî´FDQW DGYDQFHVîîKRZHYHUîîWKHQî0LQLVWHU RIî-XVWLFHî%ULJLWWHî0DEDQGODîQRWHG with concern that the proliferation RIîWKHî6H[XDOî2îHQFHVî&RXUWV meant that they were better UHVRXUFHGîWKDQîUHJXODUîFRXUWV which was seen as an impediment WRîWKHîUHDOLVDWLRQîRIîWKHîJRDOV of the Victims Service Charter. 28 A moratorium was then imposed on their further expansion. After the moratorium, conviction rates GURSSHGîE\îDERXWîîîîîDQGîWKH F\FOHîWLPHîIRUîî´QDOLVLQJîFDVHV LQFUHDVHGîE\îDERXWîHLJKWîPRQWKV 29 )ROORZLQJî$QHQHîVîGHDWKîîD decision was taken to expedite the UROOîRXWîRIî6H[XDOî2îHQFHVî&RXUWV $OWKRXJKîWKLVîLVîLQGHHGîJRRGîQHZV WZRîLPPHGLDWHîFRQFHUQVîUHTXLUH PRQLWRULQJîîWKHîGHYHORSPHQWîRI DîOHJLVODWLYHîIUDPHZRUNîIRUîWKH FRXUWVîDQGîVXîFLHQWîEXGJHWDU\ UHVRXUFHVîîîZKLFKîîDWîDîJODQFH DOUHDG\îVHHPîLQDGHTXDWH Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 15 The absence of government interventions in Bredasdorp to focus on sexual and domestic violence in the community and its inextricable link to women's equality is a serious omission. With no initiatives beyond job creation, the idea of rape is subliminally naturalised, normalised and trivialised. Page 18 The department of justice and constitutional development has estimated that the initial cost ZLOOîEHîDQîHVWLPDWHGî5îîîîPLOOLRQ per court, but only an estimated 5îîîPLOOLRQîKDVîEHHQîEXGJHWHGîWR launch 22 new courts. It is not FOHDUîZKDWîWKHîFRQVHTXHQFHVîRI WKLVîXQGHUîEXGJHWLQJîZLOOîEH 5DSHîLVîDîQRWRULRXVO\îGLîFXOW crime to prosecute. One reason for this is the patriarchal nature of state institutions and their LQDELOLW\îWRîWDNHîDîWRXJKîVWDQFH DJDLQVWîUDSHîî2IîWKHîWRWDOîQXPEHU RIîVH[XDOîRîHQFHVîUHSRUWHGîWRîWKH SROLFHîLQîîîîîîîîîîîîRQO\ resulted in a conviction. The moral of this story is very clear: in all OLNHOLKRRGîîDîVH[XDOîRîHQGHUîZLOO JHWîDZD\îZLWKîLWîî$QRWKHUîFKDOOHQJH pertains to police sloppiness when SURFHVVLQJîHYLGHQFHîî$îFDVHîLQ point comes from a commission RIîLQTXLU\îLQWRîDOOHJDWLRQVîRIîSROLFH LQHîFLHQF\îLQîRQHîRIî&DSHî7RZQîV ODUJHVWîWRZQVKLSVîî$îPHGLFDO GRFWRUîZKRîFRîRUGLQDWHVîDîORFDO Thuthuzela Care Centre 32 îîWHVWLî´HG that the police had admitted WRîORVLQJîDîQXPEHUîRIîVH[XDO assault kits they had collected in îîîîîî7KHîNLWVîZHUHîODWHUîIRXQG GXPSHGîLQîDîî´HOG 33 The loss of this FUXFLDOîHYLGHQFHîKHOGîIDUîUHDFKLQJ FRQVHTXHQFHV Similarly, community members IURPî%UHGDVGRUSîHFKRHGîWKHLU frustrations with sloppy police work in Aneneâs case. 16 There were a major slip-up in forensics. And if they only have one person now, they (the police) must have slipped up. That means the people are still out WKHUHîî7KLVîLVîQRWîWKHîî´UVWîWLPH this happened in Bredasdorp ZKHUHîWKH\îFRXOGîQRWîî´QGîSHRSOH who committed crimes. (Interview 4 & 5, 23 August 2013) Rape is a notoriously difficult crime to prosecute. One reason for this is the patriarchal nature of state institutions and their inability to take a tough stance against rape. Page 19 When Aneneâs death was catapulted into the public domain QDWLRQDOO\îîLWîJHQHUDWHGîRQO\îDîVDG PXUPXULQJîRIîVRFLDOîPRELOLVDWLRQ îQî%UHGDVGRUSîîVXSSRUWîJURXSV JDWKHUHGîDWîWKHîFRXUWîZKHQîWKHîFDVH was heard, an opposition party and trade union representatives OHGîDîSURWHVWîPDUFKîîDQGîQRQ SURî´WîRUJDQLVDWLRQVîVFKHGXOHG ZRUNVKRSVîDQGîVHOIîGHIHQFH classes for community members. In other parts of the country, LVRODWHGîVKRUWîWHUPîLQLWLDWLYHV VSUDQJîXSîVSRUDGLFDOO\îîLQFOXGLQJ RQOLQHîSHWLWLRQVîîDîFDPSDLJQ to wear black on Fridays to GHPRQVWUDWHîVXSSRUWîIRUîHQGLQJ JHQGHUîEDVHGîYLROHQFHîîSURWHVW PDUFKHVîîDQGîVLOHQWîYLJLOVîîRQHîRI ZKLFKîZDVîOHGîE\îWKHîVLQJHUî$QQLH /HQQR[îî0DQ\îRIîWKHVHîLQLWLDWLYHV KDGîDîKROORZîULQJîWRîWKHP 1HGLQHî0RRQVDP\îZURWHîDQîLQ DUWLFOHîLQîWKHî0DLOîDQGî*XDUGLDQ WKDWî$QHQHî%RR\VHQîVîGHDWK became symbolic and was used to H[SUHVVîPRUDOîRXWUDJH 34 Yet she FULWLTXHVîWKHîHîHFWLYHQHVVîRIîWKHVH DZDUHQHVVîUDLVLQJîFDPSDLJQVîLQ WKHîOLJKWîRIî6RXWKî$IULFDîVîWDFLW DFFHSWDQFHîRIîPLVRJ\Q\îî5DLVLQJ DZDUHQHVVîLVîQRWîHQRXJKîWRîEULQJ DERXWîV\VWHPLFîFKDQJHîîîWîLVîRIWHQ QRWîHQRXJKîWRîFKDQJHîLQGLYLGXDO behaviour either. What remains VLJQLî´FDQWîDERXWîWKHîUHVSRQVHîWR Aneneâs death is that, unlike the FDVHîRIî-\RWLîîWKHUHîZDVîQRîDZH LQVSLULQJîPRPHQWîRIîDîQDWLRQ FRPLQJîWRJHWKHUîWRîGHPDQGîDFWLRQ DJDLQVWîUDPSDQWîVH[XDOîYLROHQFH Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 17 Public response What remains significant about the response to Anene's death is that, unlike the case of Jyoti, there was no awe-inspiring moment of a nation coming together to demand action against rampant sexual violence. Page 20 $VîKRUULî´FîDVî$QHQHîVîGHDWKîZDV LWîGLGîQRWîJDOYDQLVHîDîFRPPXQLW\ outcry that would cut across the deep racial and class divides in %UHGDVGRUSîî&RPPXQLW\îPHPEHUV PHQWLRQHGîWKHîXQGHUO\LQJîUDFLDO WHQVLRQVîWKDWîHPHUJHGîDIWHU Aneneâs murder. îWîLVîDOVRîZRUWKîQRWLQJîWKDWîPRVWîRI the social mobilisation initiatives that took place came from feminist RUîZRPHQîVîRUJDQLVDWLRQVîVHHNLQJ WRîEULQJîDWWHQWLRQîWRîWKHîKLJKîOHYHOV of sexual violence in the country. $OWKRXJKîVWUHWFKHGîE\îWKHîODFNîRI IXQGLQJîîWKHVHîRUJDQLVDWLRQVîGLG the best they could to drive protest DQGîDZDUHQHVVîUDLVLQJîLQLWLDWLYHV 18 Racial issues is reality in our country. Initially not a race thing, but a brutal thing. But part of it was when the name "Zwai" came out. And people in the community did not want to believe that this known person could do it and so came out the story that there was another guy called Zwai and he is a black guy so maybe he did it. People were looking for another culprit and it was convenient to blame someone you don't know - not close to you. (Interview 4 & 5, 23 August 2013) There was also racial tensions rising because after Anene there was this coloured guy that stabbed a black guy from Zwelitsha. (Interview 3, 23 September 2013) The ODA (Overberg Development Association) called women together after Anene's murder - a broad group of women. We tried to get it going and elect a steering committee and then nothing happened - it fell apart. No one wanted to step forward to make it happen. Maybe it was about courage or it was about time. Women were all involved LQîWKHLUîVWXîîîIDPLOLHVîîZRUNîDQG other organisations. (Interview 4 & 5, 23 August 2013) (Top) Protestors outside Bredasdorp Magistrateâs Court. Credit: Mail & Guardian (Bottom) Silent protest led by Annie Lennox at St. Georgeâs Cathedrazl in Cape Town. Photographer: Zubair Sayed Page 21 Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 19 Page 22 The media, like the politicians, HPHUJHGîDVîDîGRPLQDQWîYRLFH IROORZLQJî$QHQHîVîPXUGHUîî0DLQ VWUHDPîPDVVîPHGLDîKDYHîORQJ IDFHGîFULWLTXHîIRUîKDYLQJîORVW WKHLUîNH\îSXUSRVHîîîUHSRUWLQJîLQ a fair, unbiased and balanced way on stories of public inter HVWîîîDQGîDFFXVDWLRQVîRIîKDYLQJ EHFRPHîSURî´WîGULYHQîPXOWL national corporations. Far too often, it seems that stories are featured on the principle of âif it EOHHGVîîLWîOHDGVîîîHPSOR\LQJîWKH tactics of shock and sensational LVPîWRîGULYHîXSîUDWLQJVîîDWWUDFW DGYHUWLVHUVîDQGîERRVWîSURî´WV $îîîîîîVWXG\îFRQGXFWHGîE\îWKH 7VKZDUDQDQJî/HJDOî$GYRFDF\ Centre found that court proceed LQJVîUHODWHGîWRîVH[XDOîYLROHQFH attracted media attention if the UDSHVîPHWîWKHîFULWHULDîRIîEHLQJ EUXWDOîDQGîVKRFNLQJ 35 The study also found that while the brutality of these acts was reported on, this was often devoid of a contextual DQDO\VLVîRIîJHQGHUîEDVHGîYLROHQFH 7KHîUHSRUWLQJîRQî$QHQHîVîPXUGHU followed these trends. Those inter YLHZHGîLQî%UHGDVGRUSîVHHPHGîWR think that the media frenzy was di UHFWO\îUHODWHGîWRîWKHîJUXHVRPHîDQG brutal way in which Anene died. 20 Media response I think it is how it happened and how she was assaulted. It was not strangers who did this to her. (Interview 1, 24 September 2013) I think it is how they murdered KHUîîFXWWLQJîKHUîVWRPDFKîRSHQ (Interview 2, 24 September 2013) The way Anene died it was terrible. What did they use to kill Anene? You can't slaughter someone like a sheep. What was happening in their minds? You would not even slaughter an animal while it is still alive. They cut her while she was still alive. (Interview 3, 23 September 2013) The story centred largely around the gruesomeness of it. There are many other gruesome attacks on women, and in Bredasdorp. There were two baby dumpings in that same period and quite a number of murders. It just happened to be Anene and it just happened to be Bredasdorp. (Interview 4 & 5, 23 September 2013) Page 23 *UDîWLîRQîDîZDOOîLQîFHQWUDOî&DSHî7RZQ promoting the Black Friday campaign. Photographer: Ashleigh Furlong Page 24 0RVWîRIîWKHîPHGLDîGHEDWHîUHJDUG LQJî$QHQHîVîUDSHîDQGîPXUGHU IRFXVHGîRQîYLROHQFHîDJDLQVW ZRPHQîLQîLVRODWLRQîîIDLOLQJîWRîORRN at the broader social context for women in South Africa and for UXUDOî\RXQJîZRPHQîLQîSDUWLFXODU 7KHUHîZDVîYHU\îOLWWOHîTXHVWLRQ LQJîRIîWKHîVWUXFWXUDOîURRWVîRIîWKLV violence. The âwomen as victims GLVFRXUVHîOLPLWHGîWKHîHPHUJHQFH of a public discussion on how to keep women safe, how to eradicate JHQGHUîEDVHGîYLROHQFHîDQGîKRZ to deal with the constructions of masculinity that makes such violence possible. At a sympo sium earlier this year held at &ROXPELDî8QLYHUVLW\îLQî1HZ +HOHQî%HQHGLFWîREVHUYHGîWKDW â[j]ust about any discussion of ZRPHQîVîULJKWVîLVîVWLOOîVHHQîLQîWKH mainstream press as radical, opinionated and biased, not as OHJLWLPDWHîQHZV 36 7KHîî´FNOHîQDWXUHîRIîQHZVîUHSRUW LQJîZDVîDJDLQîGHPRQVWUDWHGîZKHQ $QHQHî%RR\VHQîVîPXUGHUîZDV displaced in the media by the PXUGHUîRIî5HHYDî6WHHQNDPSîE\ Oscar Pistorius, her boyfriend and JOREDOîVSRUWVîLFRQîîRQî9DOHQWLQHîV 'D\îîîîîîîî7KHîPHGLDîVîREVHV VLRQîZLWKî5HHYDîVîVWRU\îLVîSDUWLDOO\ explained by his celebrity status. Yet it is clear from the manner in which these two cases were reported that class and race dynamics say much about whose OLIHîLVîGHHPHGîRIîJUHDWHUîYDOXH %HDXWLIXOîDQGîJODPRURXVîî5HHYD OHGîWKHîOLIHîRIîDQîXSîDQGîFRPLQJ socialite, model and television personality. The media devoted a JUHDWîGHDOîRIîDWWHQWLRQîWRîKHUîDVîD SHUVRQîLQîKHUîRZQîULJKWîîZLWKîGH tailed stories about the life she led, her friends and family, her WKRXJKWVîDQGîYLHZVîRQîDVVRUWHG subjects, what she did on the day before she died, what she ate, and so on. For the media, it seems that $QHQHî%RR\VHQîZDVîLQWHUHVW LQJîRQO\îLQVRIDUîDVîKHUîERG\îZDV a site for brutality and for the courtroom dramas that ensued DIWHUîKHUîGHDWKîî+HUîWKRXJKWV and views, what she did and said, ZHUHîGHHPHGîLQFRQVHTXHQWLDOîDQG certainly not newsworthy. 22 Page 25 Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 23 WKHQîLQIRUPîVWUDWHJLFîDGYRFDF\ LQîWHUPVîRIîFKDOOHQJLQJîWKHîVWDWH to prioritise sexual violence in its SROLF\îDQGîEXGJHWDU\îDJHQGDVîîîI WKHUHîLVîWRîEHîDQ\îKRSHîRIîWXUQLQJ DURXQGîWKHîFRXQWU\îVîKLJKîOHYHOV RIîYLROHQFHîDQGîSUHYHQWLQJîIXUWKHU cases like Aneneâs, there is a need WRîFDSDFLWDWHîDQGîVWUHQJWKHQ feminist endeavours to subvert the patriarchal social norms within ZKLFKîJHQGHUîEDVHGîYLROHQFHîFDQ thrive. This will also entail the SROLWLFVîRIîVHQVLWLVLQJîRXUîVRFLHW\ to the horror of sexual violence DQGîHOLFLWLQJîPRUHîDUGHQWîVRFLDO mobilisation. While the physical VXîHULQJîRIîYLFWLPVîPD\îIDGHîDZD\ WKHîSV\FKRORJLFDOîZRXQGVîFDXVHG by rape rarely heal completely. Aneneâs rape and murder and the HQVXLQJîSROLWLFDOîîFLYLOîDQGîPHGLD UHVSRQVHVîKDYHîQRWîEURXJKW DQ\îUHDOîFKDQJHîWRî%UHGDVGRUS DFFRUGLQJîWRîWKHîFRPPXQLW\ members interviewed. It has not FKDQJHGîKRZîSHRSOHîWKLQNîDERXW JHQGHUîîQRUîKDVîLWîFKDQJHGîKRZ women experience violence. It is fair to say that South Africa is at a point of crisis in terms of YLROHQFHîDJDLQVWîZRPHQîî$WîD URXQGWDEOHîKRVWHGîE\îWKHî+HLQULFK %î¸OOî)RXQGDWLRQîîZKHUHîDîGUDIW of this paper was presented, 37 a number of important lessons HPHUJHGîIURPîUHîµHFWLQJîRQîWKH JRYHUQPHQWîîPHGLDîDQGîSXEOLF responses to Aneneâs death. Importantly, there is a need to UHFRJQLVHîWKDWîDGGUHVVLQJîVH[XDO violence is a political issue. Current UHVSRQVHVîGRîQRWîVXîFLHQWO\ address the structural nature of womenâs oppression and the role that sexual violence plays within LWîî(YRNLQJîWKLVîJHQGHUHGîSROLWLFDO framework, sexual violence is clearly both a symptom and also an instrument for womenâs oppression. 7KHîVWDUWLQJîSRLQWîLVîWKHUHIRUHîWR build a political analysis into our XQGHUVWDQGLQJîRIîVH[XDOîYLROHQFH and to create feminist spaces to drive this work. This analysis must concluding comments Page 26 If Aneneâs death teaches us DQ\WKLQJîDWîDOOîîLWîLVîWKDWîQRWLRQVîRI PDVFXOLQLW\îîWKHîXQGHUO\LQJîJHQGHU social order, and the sexual entitlement of men are issues that UHTXLUHîXUJHQWîSROLWLFDOîDQGîVRFLDO attention. While a comprehensive SROLF\îUHVSRQVHîLVîUHTXLUHGîWR provide support services to victims of sexual violence, this alone will not stem the rampant tide of sexual violence. There are no TXLFNîî´[îVROXWLRQVîDQGîDîFRQFHUWHG ORQJîWHUPîSROLF\îUHVSRQVHîLV UHTXLUHG %H\RQGîDGGLWLRQDOîUHVRXUFHV VWUDWHJLFîWKRXJKWîQHHGVîWRîEH invested in the prevention of sexual violence. Otherwise, both private and public spaces will continue to be sites of potential GDQJHUîIRUîZRPHQîDQGîJLUOVîLQ South Africa. All they (politicians) did was the Construction Seta. But in terms of the psychosocial side - how people viewed the case, where women could openly debate and voice how they feel - that did not happen (in Bredasdorp). People (in Bredasdorp) did not face things head on. After apartheid there was a TRC. The community here did not go through a phase to heal and bandage the raw wound. Many people were in shock but they did not know how to process it. The community was DîHFWHGîEXWîSHRSOHîMXVWîJRîRQ with their lives. (Interview 2, 24 September 2013) There is nothing really that is transforming the community. (Interview 2, 24 September 2013) 24 If Anene's death teaches us anything at all, it is that notions of masculinity, the underlying gender social order, and the sexual entitlement of men are issues that require urgent political and social attention. Page 27 A photo of Anene Booysen. Credit: Daily Maverick Page 28 26 endnotes & photography references 1. The law on rape in India prohibits WKHîSXEOLFîXVHîRIîDîYLFWLPîVXUYLYRUîV )ROORZLQJîKHUîGHDWKîî-\RWLîVîIDWKHUîUH TXHVWHGîWKDWîWKHîPHGLDîXVHîKHUîQDPH WRîJLYHîRWKHUîYLFWLPVîRIîUDSHîFRXUDJH South African laws on sexual offences GRîQRWîH[SOLFLWO\îIRUELGîSXEOLVKLQJîD victimâs name however the Criminal Procedures Act as well as the South African Press Code note that a victim may not be named unless the victim RUîWKHîYLFWLPîVîSDUHQWVîRUîJXDUGLDQVîîLQ WKHîFDVHîRIîPLQRUVîîJUDQWîSHUPLVVLRQ to do so. 2. %UHGDVGRUSîLVîDîVPDOOîFRPPXQLW\îLQ WKHî2YHUEHUJîUHJLRQîRIîWKHî:HVWHUQ Cape province of South Africa. The îîîîîFHQVXVîUHSRUWHGîDîSRSXODWLRQîRI îîîîîîîSHRSOH 3. -\RWLî6LQJKîKDGîEHHQîPRYHGîWRî6LQ JDSRUHîIRUîPHGLFDOîFDUHîîEXWîGLHGîHQ route. 4. 5HWULHYHGîIURPîKWWSîîîHQîZLNLSHGLD RUJîZLNLîîîîîB'HOKLBJDQJBUDSHîFLWHB QRWH 5. The authors conducted separate inter views with five community members IURPî%UHGDVGRUSîWRîJDLQîWKHLUîLQVLJKW LQWRîYLROHQFHîDJDLQVWîZRPHQîLQîWKH community as well as their opinion re JDUGLQJîWKHîUDSHîDQGîPXUGHUîRIî$QHQH %RR\VHQ 6. %RXUNHîî-îîîîîîîî5DSHîîî$î+LVWRU\îIURP îîîîîWRîWKHî3UHVHQWîî9LUDJRîî*UHDWî%ULW ain. 7. 1RWHîWKDWîWKHî*OREDOîDQGî5HJLRQDOî(V WLPDWHVîRIî9LROHQFHî$JDLQVWî:RPHQ 3UHYDOHQFHîDQGî+HDOWKî(IIHFWVîRIîîQWL PDWHî3DUWQHUî9LROHQFHîDQGî1RQî3DUW QHUî6H[XDOî9LROHQFHîî8QLWHGî1DWLRQV :RUOGî+HDOWKî2UJDQLVDWLRQ UHSRUWVîWKDWîWKHîUHJLRQîZLWKîWKHîORZ HVWîSUHYDOHQFHîRIîQRQîSDUWQHUîVH[XDO YLROHQFHîLVî6RXWKî(DVWî$VLDîîZLWKîD SUHYDOHQFHîOHYHOîRIîîîîîîî+RZHYHUîîWKLV needs to be interpreted with caution as the lower levels of sexual violence indicated could also partly be attrib XWHGîWRîXQGHUîUHSRUWLQJ 8. Ibid. 9. 6RXWKî$IULFDQî3ROLFHî6HUYLFHV &ULPHî6WDWLVWLFVî2YHUYLHZ 5HWULHYHGîIURPîKWWSîîîZZZîVDSVîJRY ]DîUHVRXUFHBFHQWUHîSXEOLFDWLRQVîVWD WLVWLFVîFULPHVWDWVîîîîîîGRZQORDGV FULPHBVWDWLVWLFVBSUHVHQWDWLRQîSGI 10. 6$36î&ULPHî6WDWLVWLFV 11. Ibid. 12. -HZNHVî5îî6LNZH\L\Dî6îî0RUUHOOî5îîDQG 'XQNOHî.îîîîîîîîî8QGHUVWDQGLQJîPHQîV health and use of violence: Interface of UDSHîDQGî+î9îLQî6RXWKî$IULFDîî0HGLFDO 5HVHDUFKî&RXQFLO 13. 0DFKLVDî0îî-HZNHVî5îî/RZHî0RUQDî& DQGî5DPDî.îîîîîîîî7KHî:DUîDWî+RPH *HQGHUî%DVHGî9LROHQFHîîQGLFDWRUVî3URM HFWîî*DXWHQJî5HVHDUFKî5HSRUWîî0HGLFDO 5HVHDUFKî&RXQFLOîDQGî*HQGHUOLQNVîî-R KDQQHVEXUJ 14. :KLOHî6RXWKî$IULFDîKDVîKLJKîOHYHOVîRI YLROHQFHîDJDLQVWîZRPHQîîLWîLVîLPSRU WDQWîWRîQRWHîWKDWîDQîHVWLPDWHGîîîîîRI women worldwide have experienced SK\VLFDOîDQGîRUîVH[XDOîLQWLPDWHîSDUW QHUîYLROHQFHîRUîQRQîSDUWQHUîVH[XDOîYLR lence. Some national violence studies Page 29 Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 27 VKRZîWKDWîXSîWRîîîîîRIîZRPHQîKDYH H[SHULHQFHGîSK\VLFDOîDQGîRUîVH[XDOîYL olence in their lifetime from a partner. 6HHî*OREDOîDQGî5HJLRQDOî(VWLPDWHVîRI 9LROHQFHî$JDLQVWî:RPHQîî3UHYDOHQFH DQGî+HDOWKî(IIHFWVîRIîîQWLPDWHî3DUWQHU 9LROHQFHîDQGî1RQî3DUWQHUî6H[XDOî9LR OHQFHîî8QLWHGî1DWLRQVî:RUOGî+HDOWKî2U JDQLVDWLRQ 15. $QGUHZî+DUGLQJîî:LOOî6RXWKî$IULFDQV HYHUîEHîVKRFNHGîE\îUDSH"î5HWULHYHG IURPîKWWSîîîZZZîEEFîFRPîQHZV ZRUOGîDIULFDîîîîîîîîîîî$FFHVVHG 6HSWHPEHU 16. 6WDWLVWLFVî6RXWKî$IULFDîîîîîîîîî*HQGHU 6WDWLVWLFVîLQî6RXWKî$IULFDîî5HWULHYHG IURPîKWWSîîîZZZîVWDWVVDîJRYî]D SXEOLFDWLRQVî5HSRUWîîîîîîîîîî5H SRUWîîîîîîîîîîîîîîSGI 17. 3HUVRQVîRIîîQGLDQîGHVFHQWîOLYLQJîLQ South Africa. 18. 6WDWLVWLFVî6RXWKî$IULFDîîîîîîîîî*HQGHU Statistics in South Africa. 19. 0RUHîZRPHQîVWUXJJOLQJîîî6WDWVî6$ -XO\îîîîîîî5HWULHYHGîIURPîKWWSîîîZZZ QHZVîîîFRPî6RXWK$IULFDî1HZVî0RUH ZRPHQîVWUXJJOLQJî6WDWVî6$ 20. 7KHîQDWLRQDOîJHQGHUîPDFKLQHU\ ZDVîHVWDEOLVKHGîIROORZLQJîWKHîDER lition of apartheid. It comprises of VWDWHîLQVWLWXWLRQVîFKDUJHGîZLWKîJLY LQJîHIIHFWîWRîSURPRWLQJîJHQGHUîHTXLW\ such as the Commission for Gender (TXDOLW\îî7KHîVWUXFWXUHîKDVîXQ GHUJRQHîYDULRXVîUHFRQILJXUDWLRQV VLQFHîLQFHSWHGîDQGîFKDOOHQJHVîZLWK RYHUODSSLQJîPDQGDWHVîDQGîFRQIOLFWîEH WZHHQîLQVWLWXWLRQVîîDPRQJVWîRWKHUîKLQ drances, has impeded the realisation of its full potential. 21. 7KHî7UDGLWLRQDOî&RXUWVî%LOOîZDVîILUVWîLQ WURGXFHGîLQîîîîîîE\îWKHî'HSDUWPHQW RIî-XVWLFHîDQGî&RQVWLWXWLRQDOî'HYHORS PHQWîîîWîZDVîLQWHQGHGîWRîJLYHîWUDGL tional leaders power to exercise judi FLDOîODZîZLWKLQîWKHîUHJLRQVîWKH\îJRYHUQ 7KHîGUDIWî%LOOîZDVîPHWîZLWKîJUHDWîRS SRVLWLRQîE\îDîUDQJHîRIîFLYLOîVRFLHW\îRU JDQLVDWLRQVîîDFDGHPLFVîîSROLWLFLDQVîDQG community members who declared it unconstitutional, undemocratic and UHIOHFWLYHîRIîWKHîDSDUWKHLGîUHJLPHîî2QH RIîWKHîNH\îFULWLFLVPVîRIîWKHî%LOOîîSUH dominantly from feminist activists and UXUDOîZRPHQîîZDVîWKDWîîDOWKRXJKîLWîDS SHDUHGîWRîEHîJHQGHUîQHXWUDOîîZRPHQ DUHîQRWîDIIRUGHGîHTXDOîULJKWVîDQGîDUH often subject to harmful cultural prac tices under most traditional customs. 7KHî%LOOîZDVîZLWKGUDZQîLQîîîîîîîUHLQ WURGXFHGîWKHîIROORZLQJî\HDUîDQGîZLWK GUDZQîDJDLQîLQîHDUO\îîîîîîî$îZHHNîIRO ORZLQJîQHZVîRIîWKHî%LOOîVîZLWKGUDZDO WKHî'HSDUWPHQWîRIî-XVWLFHîDQGî&RQVWL WXWLRQDOî'HYHORSPHQWîLVVXHGîDîSXEOLF VWDWHPHQWîUHIXWLQJîUXPRXUVîWKDWîWKH %LOOîKDGîEHHQîVTXDVKHGîî7KHî7UDGL WLRQDOî&RXUWVî%LOOîZLOOîEHîUHLQWURGXFHG to the parliamentary schedule follow LQJî6RXWKî$IULFDîVîJHQHUDOîHOHFWLRQV LQî0D\îîîîîîî5HWULHYHGîIURPîKWWS DOODIULFDîFRPîVWRULHV KWPOîDQGîKWWSîîîZZZîMXVWLFHîJRYî]DîPB VWDWHPHQWVîîîîîîîîîîîîîîîîîWUDG courts.html. 22. +XVWYHGWî6îîîîîîîî/LYLQJîî7KLQNLQJ /RRNLQJîî6FHSWUHîî*UHDWî%ULWDLQ 23. 5îîîPLOOLRQîSURMHFWîWRîEHQHILWî%UH GDVGRUSîFRPPXQLW\îîîîî$SULO 5HWULHYHGîIURPîKWWSîîîZZZîVDQHZV JRYî]DîVRXWKîDIULFDîUîîîPLOOLRQîSURM HFWîEHQHILWîEUHGDVGRUSîFRPPXQLW\ 24. 5DSHî&ULVLVîLVîDîQRQîSURILWîRUJDQLVD WLRQ IRXQGHGîLQîWKHîHDUO\îîîîîVîLQ the Western Cape province of South Africa. It was the first of its kind and FRQWLQXHVîWRîEHîDîOHDGLQJîRUJDQLVD WLRQîRIIHULQJîVSHFLDOLVWîVHUYLFHVîWR YLF WLPVîRIîVH[XDOîRIIHQFHVîî7KHîRUJDQLVD tion is actively involved at Thuthuzela Care Centres and the Sexual Offences Courts. 25. %KDQDîî.îî/RSHVîî&îDQGî0DVVDZHî' îîîîîî6KHOWHUVî+RXVLQJî:RPHQî:KR +DYHî([SHULHQFHGî$EXVHîî3ROLF\îî)XQG LQJîDQGî3UDFWLFHîî3URILOLQJî7KUHHî6KHO WHUVîLQîWKHî:HVWHUQî&DSHîî+HLQULFKî%î¸OO 6WLIWXQJîî&DSHî7RZQ 26. 7KHî1DWLRQDOî&RXQFLOî$JDLQVWî*HQGHU Page 30 28 %DVHGî9LROHQFHîLVîORFDWHGîZLWKLQîWKH 'HSDUWPHQWîRIî:RPHQîî&KLOGUHQîDQG 3HRSOHîZLWKî'LVDELOLWLHVîîDQGîWDVNHG ZLWKîPDQDJLQJîJRYHUQPHQWîVîUHVSRQVH WRîDGGUHVVLQJîJHQGHUîEDVHGîYLROHQFH It includes line officials from across GLIIHUHQWîJRYHUQPHQWîGHSDUWPHQWVîDV ZHOOîDVîFLYLOîVRFLHW\îRUJDQLVDWLRQVîZRUN LQJîWRîFRPEDWîJHQGHUîEDVHGîYLROHQFH 27. 5HSRUWîRQîWKHî5Hî(VWDEOLVKPHQWîRIîWKH 6H[XDOî2IIHQFHVî&RXUWVîî0LQLVWHULDOî$G visory Task Team on the Adjudication RIî6H[XDOî2IIHQFHVî0DWWHUVîî'HSDUW PHQWîRIî-XVWLFHîDQGî&RQVWLWXWLRQDOî'H YHORSPHQWîî$XJXVW 28. The Victims Charter, formally known as The Service Charter for Victims of &ULPHîLQî6RXWKî$IULFDîîLVîDîOHJDOîIUDPH ZRUNîHVWDEOLVKHGîLQîîîîîîWRîSURWHFW WKHîULJKWVîRIîYLFWLPVîRIîFULPHVîî7KHVH UHODWHîWRîWKHîULJKWîWRîEHîWUHDWHGîZLWK IDLUQHVVîDQGîUHVSHFWîîWKHîULJKWîWRîRIIHU DQGîUHFHLYHîLQIRUPDWLRQîîWKHîULJKWîWR SURWHFWLRQîîWKHîULJKWîWRîDVVLVWDQFHîîWKH ULJKWîWRîFRPSHQVDWLRQîDQGîWKHîULJKWîWR restitution. 29. 5HSRUWîRQîWKHî5HîHVWDEOLVKPHQWîRI 6H[XDOî2IIHQFHVî&RXUWVîî0LQLVWHULDOîDG visory Task Team on the Adjudication RIî6H[XDOî2IIHQFHVî0DWWHUVîî$XJXVW 30. Ibid. 31. 5HSRUWîE\îWKHî'HSDUWPHQWîRIî-XVWLFH DQGî&RQVWLWXWLRQDOî'HYHORSPHQWîWR the Select Committee on Women, Chil GUHQîDQGî3HUVRQVîZLWKî'LVDELOLWLHV $XJXVW 32. Thuthuzela Care Centres are special ist facilities for victims of sexual of fences. The Centres are located in a number of public hospitals and work closely with the police, courts and other victim support services WRîIDFLOLWDWHîWKHîSURFHVVîRIîUHSRUWLQJ DQGîSURVHFXWLQJîFDVHVîRIîVH[XDOîRI fences and to prevent the secondary traumatisation of victims. 33. .DWHî6WHJHPDQîî%ULEHVîDQGîEXQJOHG rape, murder cases: Khayelitsha police XQGHUîILUHîîîî)HEUXDU\îîîîîîî5HWULHYHG IURPîKWWSîîîZZZîGDLO\PDYHULFNîFRî]D DUWLFOHîîîîîîîîîîîîEULEHVîDQGîEXQ JOHGîUDSHîPXUGHUîFDVHVîNKD\HOLWVKD SROLFHîXQGHUîILUHîîî8î]îRQîEZîN 34. 1HGLQHî0RRQVDP\îî1RîPRUHîJHQ GHUîEDVHGîDFWLYLVPîîîîî)HEUXDU\ îîîîîîKWWSîîîPJîFRî]DîDUWLFOH îîîîîîîîîQRîPRUHîJHQGHUîEDVHGîDF tivism. 35. 3UHVVîUHOHDVHîLVVXHGîE\î7VKZDUDQDQJ /HJDOî$GYRFDF\î&HQWUHîîîî'HFHPEHU 36. 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This publication analyses media, political and social responses to the rape of Anene and explores whether these responses UHVXOWHGîLQîDQ\îWDQJLEOHîVRFLDOîWUDQVIRUPDWLRQ