Rupturing the norms The social and political response PDF document - DocSlides

Download
Loading ...

  • Likes: 2
  • Views: 120
  • conchita-marotz

Description

Rupturing the norms The social and political response PDF document - DocSlides - HUHQHQHHY DODOXEDLGLDQGHOHQRXJODVIRUKHOSIXOFRPPHQWVRQWKHGUDIW version of this paper HLQULFKRHOO6WLIWXQJ6RXWKHUQIULFD 8th Floor Vunani Chambers 33 Church Street DSH7RZQ South Africa 7HO D ZZZDERHOORUJ brPage 3br 2QHFHPEHURWL6LQJK Pandey DHDUROGSKVLRWK

Rupturing the norms The social and political response PDF document - DocSlides


    Page 1
    Rupturing the norms: The social and political response to the rape of Anene Booysen Joy Watson & Vivienne Lalu
    Page 2
    This publication is one of two comparative studies on sexual violence XQGHUWDNHQE\WKH6RXWK$IULFDDQGWKHQGLDRFHVRIWKH+HLQULFK%OO Foundation Authors Joy Watson and Vivienne Lalu Layout Claudia Lopes Acknowledgements 6SHFLDOWKDQNVWR3DXOD$VVXEXML&ODXGLD/RSHV.HUHQ%HQ=HHY /D\OD$O=XEDLGLDQG+HOHQ'RXJODVIRUKHOSIXOFRPPHQWVRQWKHGUDIW version of this paper. +HLQULFK%RHOO6WLIWXQJ6RXWKHUQ$IULFD 8th Floor Vunani Chambers 33 Church Street &DSH7RZQ&%' South Africa 7HO )D[ ZZZ]DERHOORUJ
    Page 3
    2Q'HFHPEHU-\RWL6LQJK Pandey D\HDUROGSK\VLRWKHUDS\ student boarded a bus in New 'HOKLQGLDDIWHUZDWFKLQJ7KH/LIH of Pi with a male friend. They were accosted by six men who raped and attacked Jyoti with an iron rod, OHDYLQJKHUSDUWLDOO\GLVHPERZHOOHG DQGUHVXOWLQJLQKHUGHDWK 2Q)HEUXDU\\HDU ROG$QHQH%RR\VHQDFOHDQHU at a construction company in %UHGDVGRUS6RXWK$IULFD went out ZLWKDJURXSRIIULHQGVWRDORFDOSXE They had some drinks, danced a bit and Anene later left the pub in the company of some of the male friends VKHKDGEHHQVRFLDOLVLQJZLWK6KH ZDVIRXQGWKHQH[WPRUQLQJE\D VHFXULW\JXDUGDWDFRQVWUXFWLRQVLWH JKWLQJIRUKHUOLIH6KHKDGEHHQ JDQJUDSHGDQGPXWLODWHGDQGKDG LQFXUUHGH[WHQVLYHJHQLWDOLQMXULHV The doctor who initially treated her described her injuries as the worst she had ever seen. Like Jyoti, Anene had been disembowelled. 6L[KRXUVODWHUDIWHUQDPLQJRQHRI her attackers, she died in hospital. %RWKFDVHVUHFHLYHGDJUHDWGHDORI SXEOLFLW\DQGSXEOLFRXWFU\%RWK \RXQJZRPHQZHUHUDSHGDQG EUXWDOO\DWWDFNHGDQGERWKIRXJKW EUDYHO\IRUWKHLUOLYHV%RWKZRPHQ OLYHGLQFRXQWULHVZLWKKLJKOHYHOVRI YLROHQFHDJDLQVWZRPHQDQGVWDUN JHQGHULQHTXDOLWLHV+RZHYHU$QHQH lived in a small rural town and knew KHUDWWDFNHUVZKLOH-\RWLOLYHGLQ an urban city and her attackers QWKH6RXWK$IULFDDQGWKHQGLDRFHVRIWKH+HLQULFK%OO)RXQGDWLRQ HPEDUNHGRQDOHDUQLQJH[FKDQJHSURMHFWRQVH[XDOYLROHQFH7KHSURMHFW SURGXFHGWZRFRPSDUDWLYHVWXGLHVZKLFKFULWLFDOO\H[DPLQHGSXEOLFUHVSRQVHV WRWKHJUXHVRPHPXUGHUVDQGUDSHVRI$QHQH%RR\VHQLQ6RXWK$IULFDDQG -\RWL6LQJK3DQGH\LQQGLD&RQVLGHULQJWKDWOHYHOVRIYLROHQFHDJDLQVW ZRPHQDUHKLJKLQERWKFRXQWULHVEXWHLWKHUZLGHO\LJQRUHGRUUHJUHWWDEO\ WDNHQDVQRUPDOF\LQPDLQVWUHDPSROLWLFVZKDWZHUHWKHG\QDPLFVDQG VSHFLFIDFWRUVDQGFLUFXPVWDQFHVWKDWSURSHOOHGWKHPLQWRQDWLRQDODQG LQWHUQDWLRQDOSURPLQHQFHDQGFDQXQSDFNLQJWKLVLQXHQFHWKHGHYHORSPHQW RIHQKDQFHGVWUDWHJLHVWRWDFNOLQJHQGHPLFYLROHQFHDJDLQVWZRPHQ" background
    Page 4
    were not known to her. In India, KXJHPDVVSURWHVWVEURNHRXWLQWKH ZDNHRI-\RWLVUDSH7KHPDJQLWXGH RIWKLVRXWFU\HOLFLWHGDJDLQVWDQ act of sexual violence is possibly unprecedented the world over. 3XEOLFSURWHVWVZHUHVWDJHGDWQGLD Gate and the national parliament. Thousands of demonstrators clashed with police, overturned FDUVZHUHVKRWZLWKWHDUJDVVKHOOV and water cannons, and arrested. 6LPLODUSURWHVWVVSUHDGWKURXJKRXW WKHFRXQWU\$FFRUGLQJWRHVWLPDWHV thousands of people marched in &DOFXWWDDQGZRPHQPDUFKHGLQ %DQJDORUH0DQ\SURWHVWHUVZHQWRQ KXQJHUVWULNHV7KLVZDVDXJPHQWHG online by social media protests and DSHWLWLRQDJDLQVWWKHLQFLGHQWVLJQHG by tens of thousands. While the state initially attempted to suppress the SURWHVWVLWHYHQWXDOO\DFTXLHVFHGWR the public’s call for a reaction to what had transpired. The Indian prime minister and the president of the UXOLQJQGLDQ1DWLRQDO&RQJUHVV3DUW\ not only issued statements but were DOVRSUHVHQWDWWKH1HZ'HOKLDLUSRUW to receive Jyoti’s body when it arrived IURPWKH0RXQW(OL]DEHWKKRVSLWDO LQ6LQJDSRUH A convoy of more WKDQWZHQW\SROLFHYHKLFOHVFDUU\LQJ riot police led the ambulance that transported her body to the funeral. With this response to Jyoti’s death, India demonstrated to the world its capacity to take a social stand, and LWVYHKHPHQWRXWUDJHDJDLQVWUDSH 7KH2QH%LOOLRQ5LVLQJFDPSDLJQ described the social mobilisation LQQGLDDVDKXJHEUHDNWKURXJK RIFRQVFLRXVQHVVZLWKUHJDUGVWR sexual violence. The story was IHDWXUHGRQWKHIURQWSDJHRIPRVW newspapers and it became a central topic of public discourse. In stark contrast, in South Africa, DFRXQWU\ZLWKDVWURQJDQGSURXG history of mass protest the public responses to Anene’s rape and death were sporadic and uncoordinated. While the case did not yield VLJQLFDQWVRFLDOPRELOLVDWLRQLW GLGUHFHLYHVLJQLFDQWSROLWLFDODQG media attention. Anene’s case has since become the exemplar of YLROHQFHDJDLQVWZRPHQLQ6RXWK Africa and is often cited in discourse on sexual violence. This paper analyses media, political and social responses to Anene’s rape DQGGHDWK'UDZLQJRQQHZVSDSHU FRYHUDJHWKHUHDFWLRQVRISROLWLFLDQV and interviews conducted with PHPEHUVRIWKH%UHGDVGRUS community, it explores whether WKHVHUHVXOWHGLQDQ\WDQJLEOHVRFLDO transformation. The paper further discusses these responses in terms of South African normative views on sexual violence.
    Page 5
    Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen Credit: Gallo Images
    Page 6
    5DSHKDVEHFRPHVRHQGHPLFLQ South African society that only the more violent and brutal acts appear to stimulate public attention. Yet it is the everyday acts of violence, such as those acted out within many intimate relationships that create the social conditions that allow the more brutal manifestations. (DFKDFWRIVH[XDOYLROHQFHFDUULHV WZROD\HUVRIQDUUDWLYH7KHUVW is the narrative of the person who experienced the violence. Anene, IRUH[DPSOHZDVD\RXQJZRPDQ ZKRKDGJURZQXSLQ%UHGDVGRUS +HUPRWKHUGLHGZKHQVKHZDVOLWWOH DQGVKHZDVFRQVHTXHQWO\PRYHG between relatives and foster homes. She lived in a community characterised by poverty and she dropped out of VFKRROWRQGZRUN5HFUHDWLRQDO DFWLYLWLHVLQ%UHGDVGRUSDUHOLPLWHG DQGPDQ\\RXQJSHRSOHVRFLDOLVH in the local pubs such as the one that Anene visited before her attack. It is important to individualise each story in this way. The traumatised subject of sexual violence is always DSHUVRQZLWKDUDQJHRINQRZOHGJH experiences, emotions and desires. It is important to see each victim of sexual violence in this way. To universalise sexual violence and only talk about the collective QDUUDWLYHUHPRYHVWKHVSHFLFGHWDLOV of the individual histories. This, in HHFWGHKXPDQLVHVWKHSHUVRQRQ ZKRPWKHYLROHQFHLVLQLFWHGDVWKH\ become yet another statistic. The second layer of narrative is located within a community’s experience of sexual violence and is indicative of that community’s social performance. $QWKURSRORJLFDOVWXGLHVKDYH observed that rape is likely to be lower LQVRFLHWLHVFKDUDFWHULVHGE\JHQGHU HTXDOLW\SHDFHIXOQHVVDQGKLJK levels of women’s economic power. 7KLVPHDQVWKDWYLROHQFHDJDLQVW women should be located within a EURDGHUFRQWH[WRIJHQGHUHTXLW\ ZLWKLQDVRFLHW\7KHKLJKOHYHOVRI YLROHQFHDJDLQVWZRPHQLQ6RXWK$IULFD WHOOXVVRPHWKLQJDERXWWKHJHQGHUHG VRFLDORUGHUDWSOD\DERXWKHJHPRQLF constructions of masculinity and narratives of sexual violence
    Page 7
    Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen IHPLQLQLW\DQGWKHXQGHUO\LQJ patriarchal norms that create the conditions within which such violence can thrive. Within such a context, UDSHLVKLJKO\ULWXDOLVHG$OWKRXJK it varies between countries and FKDQJHVRYHUWLPHWKHUHLVQRWKLQJ timeless or random about it. For perpetrators of sexual violence, LWLVQHYHUHQRXJKWRPHUHO\LQLFW VXHULQJWKHYLFWLPDQGWKHYLFWLPV UHVSRQVHWRWKHYLROHQFHJLYHPHDQLQJ WRWKHUDSLVWVH[SHULHQFHRILQLFWLQJ LQMXU\7KHVSHFLFVHWRIKLVWRULFDO social and contextual circumstances LQRSHUDWLRQDWDJLYHQSRLQWLQWLPH LPSDFWXSRQDQGJLYHPHDQLQJWRWKH ritual of rape. Perpetrators of sexual violence learn and teach themselves how to act as perpetrators within VSHFLFKLVWRULFFRPPXQLWLHV 7KHTXHVWLRQZHWKHUHIRUHQHHG to ask is, “What is it about South Africa’s VSHFLFVHWRIVRFLDOFLUFXPVWDQFHV that resulted in more than a million contact crimes DJDLQVWZRPHQLQWKH last few years?” While Anene’s rape and murder must be seen in terms RILWVRZQVSHFLFLW\LWPXVWDOVREH ORFDWHGZLWKLQDFRQWH[WRIXQUHPLWWLQJ brutality, violence and sexualised violence towards women in South Africa – a context in which someone needs to be disembowelled before the public sits up and takes note. (YHQWKHQ6RXWK$IULFDVVRFLDODQG political response to sexual violence LVFNOHDQGQRJXDUDQWHHWKDWIXWXUH acts of sexual violence will receive VLPLODUDWWHQWLRQWLVDOVRLQWHUHVWLQJ to note that the rape of Anene captured less public attention than did the act of her disembowelment. This is indicative of the perceived hierarchy of the horror of violence. The question we therefore need to ask is, "What is it about South Africa's specific set of social circumstances that resulted in more than a million contact crimes against women in the last few years?"
    Page 8
    Council and Genderlinks study of domestic violence, over half of the ZRPHQLQWHUYLHZHGLQ*DXWHQJ DGPLWWHGWRH[SHULHQFLQJ VRPHIRUPRIYLROHQFHZKLOH RIWKHPHQDGPLWWHGWRSHUSHWUDWLQJ DQDFWRIYLROHQFHDJDLQVWDZRPDQ 7KLVRPQLSUHVHQWJHQGHUYLROHQFH KDVUHVXOWHGLQVHQVRU\IDWLJXHQ today’s society, it is mostly taken IRUJUDQWHGWKDWUDSHZLOOKDSSHQ It has become enmeshed within the rhythm of our lives. In the face of some of the worst rape statistics ZRUOGZLGHLQFOXGLQJPRUHWKDQ twice the number of rapes reported LQQGLDDUHFHQW%%&IHDWXUH GHVFULEHG6RXWK$IULFDDVEHLQJ unable to muster up more than a FROOHFWLYHVKUXJ %HIRUH$QHQHVGHDWKWKHUHZHUH PDQ\VLPLODUO\KRUULFLQFLGHQWV of sexual violence, none of which captured the public eye in the same way. Just a few weeks earlier, \HDUROG&KDUPDLQH0DUH IURP0SXPDODQJDRQKROLGD\ QWKHUHSRUWLQJSHULRG VH[XDORHQFHVDJDLQVW ZRPHQDQGVH[XDORHQFHV DJDLQVWFKLOGUHQZHUHUHSRUWHGWRWKH police in South Africa. There were 87 UHSRUWHGLQFLGHQWVRIDVVDXOWDQG RIDVVDXOWZLWKWKHLQWHQWWR FDXVHJULHYRXVERGLO\KDUPDJDLQVW women. $VWXG\FRQGXFWHGE\WKH0HGLFDO 5HVHDUFK&RXQFLO found that rape KDGEHHQSHUSHWUDWHGE\RI the sample of men interviewed in WKH(DVWHUQ&DSHDQG.ZD=XOX1DWDO SURYLQFHVZKLOHRIWKHPHQ LQWHUYLHZHGLQ*DXWHQJDGPLWWHGWR UDSH0DQ\KDGUDSHGPRUHWKDQ once. The men who admitted to rape ZHUHVLJQLFDQWO\PRUHOLNHO\WRKDYH HQJDJHGLQDUDQJHRIULVN\VH[XDO activity. They were likely to have KDGPRUHWKDQVH[XDOSDUWQHUV transactional sex, heavy alcohol consumption and unprotected sex. The study found that South Africa’s KLJKSUHYDOHQFHRIUDSHLVOLQNHG to deeply embedded ideas about PDQKRRGQD0HGLFDO5HVHDUFK sexual violence in South Africa
    Page 9
    Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen in the Western Cape, was raped and murdered in Kraaifontein on the outskirts of Cape Town. +HUDWWDFNHUFXWRKHUDUPVDQG OHJVZLWKDEROWFXWWHUDIWHUUDSLQJ KHUDQGVHWKHUERG\DOLJKW$PRQWK IROORZLQJ$QHQHVGHDWK7KDQGHND 0DGRQVHODD\HDUROGJLUOZDV IRXQGGHDGLQDHOGQHDUKHU KRPHLQ-RKDQQHVEXUJ6KHKDGEHHQ JDQJUDSHGDQGGLVHPERZHOOHG in the early hours of a Saturday PRUQLQJ 7KDQGHNDVVWRULHVDORQJZLWKPDQ\ others, remain unknown to most South Africans. in today's society, it is mostly taken for granted that rape will happen... In the face of some of the worst rape statistics worldwide a recent BBC feature described South Africa as being unable to muster up more than a collective shrug. k=DSLUR$OO5LJKWV5HVHUYHG 3ULQWHG8VHGZLWKSHUPLVVLRQIURPZZZ]DSLURFRP
    Page 10
    IRUZRPHQZDVSRLQWVKLJKHU than that of men, 18 DQGKLJKHU than the national unemployment DYHUDJHRI 19 /HYHOVRIJHQGHULQHTXLW\ DUHWKHUHIRUHVWLOOYHU\KLJK LQ6RXWK$IULFD%XWZLWKWKH QDWLRQDOJHQGHUPDFKLQHU\ QRWSHUIRUPLQJDVLWVKRXOG 20 DQGDUHVXUJHQFHRIWUDGLWLRQDOLVP DQGHRUWVWRQRUPDOLVH patriarchal values and institutions HJWKHLQWURGXFWLRQRIWKH 7UDGLWLRQDO&RXUWV%LOO 21 VSDFHVIRU IHPLQLVWDGYRFDF\KDYHFKDQJHG It becomes important to understand the nuances of this shift in the political landscape and ZKDWLWPHDQVIRUZRPHQVULJKWV QWKHLPPHGLDF\RIWKHSRVW WUDQVLWLRQWRGHPRFUDWLF JRYHUQDQFHWKH6RXWK$IULFDQ state, spurred on by the advocacy of feminists, seemed to espouse a FRPPLWPHQWWRDGGUHVVLQJJHQGHU LQHTXLW\LQ6RXWK$IULFDQVRFLHW\ 16 paint a bleak picture. $SSUR[LPDWHO\RIEODFN ZRPHQKDYHQRIRUPDOVFKRROLQJ LQFRPSDULVRQZLWKRIEODFN PHQ0HQWRRRXWUDQNZRPHQLQ HPSOR\PHQWZLWKRQO\RI EODFNZRPHQYHUVXVRIEODFN PHQRIFRORXUHGZRPHQ YHUVXVRIFRORXUHGPHQ RIQGLDQ 17 women versus RIQGLDQPHQDQG RIZKLWHZRPHQYHUVXVRI ZKLWHPHQEHLQJHPSOR\HG0RVW of these women are employed in WKHLQIRUPDOVHFWRULQORZVNLOOHG ORZSD\LQJMREV6WDWLVWLFV6RXWK Africa reports that women are far more likely to be unemployed than PHQDFURVVDOOJHRJUDSKLFDODUHDV QWKHXQHPSOR\PHQWUDWH Locating sexual violence in South Africa’s social context photograph: Activists protesting outside parliament. Photographer: Brendon Bosworth
    Page 11
    Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen
    Page 12
    10 Some of the utterances, such as WKHVXJJHVWLRQWKDW$QHQHVKRXOG QRWKDYHEHHQRXWVRODWHDWQLJKW SUREOHPDWLFDOO\LQWHUURJDWHGWKH victim and not the act of rape itself or those who committed it. Other statements were made in inappropriate spaces, such as the SDUW\SROLWLFNLQJDW$QHQHVIXQHUDO In conversation with members of the community, we were somewhat taken aback by their less cynical view of the role of political leaders. In their view, the role of leaders is to lead and WRUHVSRQGLQHPSDWKHWLFODQJXDJH to the trauma experienced by the community in the wake of an act of VH[XDOYLROHQFH%XWWKLVDSSURYDO FRPHVZLWKWKHUPSURYLVRWKDWWKH words must be backed up with the UHTXLVLWHDFWLRQWREULQJDERXWVRFLDO transformation. 7KHODQJXDJHRIJHQGHUSURJUHV siveness” has been employed perennially by the South African state, but a cursory look reveals the extent to which women’s lived realities UHIXWHWKLVSOHGJH 7KHPDQLSXODWLRQRIODQJXDJH IRULGHRORJLFDOSXUSRVHVLVQRWD new phenomenon. When used HHFWLYHO\LWFUHDWHVDQHPRWLRQDO response in the listener, a rush in the limbic system that calls on our GHHSHVWIHHOLQJVDVKXPDQEHLQJV 22 :KHQWKHPHGLDEHJDQWRPDNH $QHQHWKHLUFHQWUHSLHFHGLHUHQW YRLFHVHPHUJHGWRH[SUHVVJULHIDQG condemnation. Prominent politicians from across the spectrum invoked DODQJXDJHRIRXWUDJHWKDWVXJJHVWHG the political will to address the social conditions that enable sexual violence. The president issued a VWURQJVWDWHPHQWFRQGHPQLQJWKH DWWDFNDVGLGYDULRXVJRYHUQPHQW ministers, opposition parties, the WUDGHXQLRQIHGHUDWLRQ&26$78 WKH$1&:RPHQV/HDJXHDQGFLYLO VRFLHW\JURXSV sexual violence and political rhetoric photograph: Western Cape ANC leader Marius Fransman, leads a protest march in Bredasdorp. Credit: Cape Times
    Page 13
    Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 11 It was good that they came but they not going far enough and they are not keeping the promises. (Interview 3, 23 September 2013) It is right that as a leader to come forward. They must lead, so it was a good thing that politicians came. Does not matter which political spectrum. I don't think that they were opportunistic; they are meant to come. They must not just show their face but they must take things further. (Interview 1, 24 August 2013)
    Page 14
    12 Political leaders of the opposition DA party, join a protest against rape outside Parliament, Cape Town. Credit: Gallo Images VXSSRUWYLFWLPVWLVJODULQJO\ obvious that, other than this JHVWXUHQRWKLQJPXFKKDV happened. Apart from isolated church initiatives, there have been few opportunities for women to FRPHWRJHWKHUDQGWDONDERXWWKH LVVXHVWKDWWKH\IDFH7KH2YHUEHUJ 'HYHORSPHQW$VVRFLDWLRQPDGHDQ DWWHPSWWREULQJZRPHQWRJHWKHU EXWWKLVGLGQRWJHWRWKHJURXQG Feminist NGOs that were once DFWLYHLQWKHDUHDQRORQJHUKDYHD SUHVHQFHGXHWRGZLQGOLQJGRQRU funds. From the perspective of one interviewee, activism has GZLQGOHGLQWKHSRVWSHULRG DQGWKHFRPPXQLW\RI%UHGDVGRUS has become a whole lot more complacent. In the aftermath of Anene’s GHDWKWKHJRYHUQPHQWLQYHVWHG 5PLOOLRQLQ%UHGDVGRUS 23 0RVW RIWKLVKDVJRQHWRWKHFRQVWUXFWLRQ LQGXVWU\DVSDUWRIDMREFUHDWLRQ LQLWLDWLYHIRU\RXQJSHRSOH While youth unemployment is rife, the initiative did not directly address the issue of violence DJDLQVWZRPHQWFHUWDLQO\ZDV DQHZVZRUWK\JHVWXUHDQGLW successfully captured public attention and seemed to elicit community favour. Within the community, the investment is seen to have made VRPHGLHUHQFHLQMREFUHDWLRQ DOWKRXJKIDUIURPHQRXJK 7KHJRYHUQPHQWVLQWHUYHQWLRQ VWUDWHJ\LOOXVWUDWHVDFOHDUODFNRI XQGHUVWDQGLQJRIWKHFRQWH[WIRU sexual violence in the community. WDOVRIDLOVWRVWUDWHJLFDOO\XVH this case to inform appropriate and sustainable local interventions to prevent sexual violence and Beyond rhetoric – An analysis of social and political responses Governments response
    Page 15
    Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 13 7KHUHDUHVLJQLFDQWO\OHVV resources for women to turn to (in Bredasdorp). After 1994 people became more accepting of the system, but the system failed people. There is a huge gap. (Interview 2, 24 August 2013)
    Page 16
    %UHGDVGRUSLVQRWDORQHLQWKLV SUHGLFDPHQW(YHQLQXUEDQDUHDV support services for victims of JHQGHUEDVHGYLROHQFHDUHVHYHUHO\ XQGHUIXQGHGQIRUH[DPSOH 5DSH&ULVLV had to retrench all EXWRQHRILWVVWDPHPEHUV QWKHVDPHQDQFLDO\HDU the Western Cape provincial JRYHUQPHQWVSHQWDSSUR[LPDWHO\ RILWV5ELOOLRQVRFLDO GHYHORSPHQWEXGJHWRQYLFWLP empowerment, of which only a portion went into direct services IRUYLFWLPVRIJHQGHUEDVHG violence. Substantially fewer funds were allocated to victim HPSRZHUPHQWRUJDQLVDWLRQVWKDQ WRRUJDQLVDWLRQVZRUNLQJLQRWKHU welfare sectors. 25 7KHDEVHQFHRIJRYHUQPHQW LQWHUYHQWLRQVLQ%UHGDVGRUSWR focus on sexual and domestic violence in the community and its inextricable link to women’s HTXDOLW\LVDVHULRXVRPLVVLRQ:LWK no initiatives beyond job creation, the idea of rape is subliminally naturalised, normalised and trivialised. The community remains steeped in deeply patriarchal YDOXHVQRUPDWLYHJHQGHUUROHV DQGOLPLWLQJFRQVWUXFWLRQVRI masculinity and femininity that ODUJHO\JRXQFKDOOHQJHGDOOWKH PRUHVREHFDXVH%UHGDVGRUSLVD small rural town with entrenched conservative values. It would, however, be incorrect to VXJJHVWWKDW$QHQHVGHDWKGLGQRW UHVXOWLQDQ\DWWHQWLRQWRJHQGHU EDVHGYLROHQFH7KHGD\VIROORZLQJ KHUGHDWKVDZDXUU\RIDFWLYLW\ LQWKH1DWLRQDO&RXQFLO$JDLQVW *HQGHU%DVHG9LROHQFH which had been relatively dormant. It remains to be seen whether the &RXQFLOZLOOPDNHDPHDQLQJIXO FRQWULEXWLRQWRZDUGVSUHYHQWLQJ JHQGHUEDVHGYLROHQFHDQG GHYHORSLQJDPRUHLQWHJUDWHG DSSURDFKZLWKLQJRYHUQPHQW 7KHVHFRQGDQGPRUHVLJQLFDQW policy development linked to Anene’s death is the reintroduction RI6H[XDO2HQFHV&RXUWV UVWLQWURGXFHGLQDVDQ innovative measure to improve the prosecution and adjudication of VH[XDORHQFHVQWKHSLORWFRXUW ORFDWHGLQ:\QEHUJLQWKH:HVWHUQ Cape, conviction rates improved 14 (Violence against women) is how men control the community, to keep women on their place. It breaks women down. It's not a pretty picture. We must still go a long way to educate the community. (Interview 2, 24 August 2013)
    Page 17
    WRRYHUDQGYLFWLPVUHSRUWHG enhanced levels of sensitivity LQWKHLUHQJDJHPHQWZLWKWKH criminal justice system. 27 %\WKH HQGRI6H[XDO2HQFHV &RXUWVZHUHRSHUDWLQJDFURVVWKH country. This resulted in more FDVHVEHLQJQDOLVHGLPSURYHG KDQGOLQJRIYLFWLPVLPSURYHGF\FOH times and improved conviction UDWHV'HVSLWHWKHVHVLJQLFDQW DGYDQFHVKRZHYHUWKHQ0LQLVWHU RI-XVWLFH%ULJLWWH0DEDQGODQRWHG with concern that the proliferation RIWKH6H[XDO2HQFHV&RXUWV meant that they were better UHVRXUFHGWKDQUHJXODUFRXUWV which was seen as an impediment WRWKHUHDOLVDWLRQRIWKHJRDOV of the Victims Service Charter. 28 A moratorium was then imposed on their further expansion. After the moratorium, conviction rates GURSSHGE\DERXWDQGWKH F\FOHWLPHIRUQDOLVLQJFDVHV LQFUHDVHGE\DERXWHLJKWPRQWKV 29 )ROORZLQJ$QHQHVGHDWKD decision was taken to expedite the UROORXWRI6H[XDO2HQFHV&RXUWV $OWKRXJKWKLVLVLQGHHGJRRGQHZV WZRLPPHGLDWHFRQFHUQVUHTXLUH PRQLWRULQJWKHGHYHORSPHQWRI DOHJLVODWLYHIUDPHZRUNIRUWKH FRXUWVDQGVXFLHQWEXGJHWDU\ UHVRXUFHVZKLFKDWDJODQFH DOUHDG\VHHPLQDGHTXDWH Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 15 The absence of government interventions in Bredasdorp to focus on sexual and domestic violence in the community and its inextricable link to women's equality is a serious omission. With no initiatives beyond job creation, the idea of rape is subliminally naturalised, normalised and trivialised.
    Page 18
    The department of justice and constitutional development has estimated that the initial cost ZLOOEHDQHVWLPDWHG5PLOOLRQ per court, but only an estimated 5PLOOLRQKDVEHHQEXGJHWHGWR launch 22 new courts. It is not FOHDUZKDWWKHFRQVHTXHQFHVRI WKLVXQGHUEXGJHWLQJZLOOEH 5DSHLVDQRWRULRXVO\GLFXOW crime to prosecute. One reason for this is the patriarchal nature of state institutions and their LQDELOLW\WRWDNHDWRXJKVWDQFH DJDLQVWUDSH2IWKHWRWDOQXPEHU RIVH[XDORHQFHVUHSRUWHGWRWKH SROLFHLQRQO\ resulted in a conviction. The moral of this story is very clear: in all OLNHOLKRRGDVH[XDORHQGHUZLOO JHWDZD\ZLWKLW$QRWKHUFKDOOHQJH pertains to police sloppiness when SURFHVVLQJHYLGHQFH$FDVHLQ point comes from a commission RILQTXLU\LQWRDOOHJDWLRQVRISROLFH LQHFLHQF\LQRQHRI&DSH7RZQV ODUJHVWWRZQVKLSV$PHGLFDO GRFWRUZKRFRRUGLQDWHVDORFDO Thuthuzela Care Centre 32 WHVWLHG that the police had admitted WRORVLQJDQXPEHURIVH[XDO assault kits they had collected in 7KHNLWVZHUHODWHUIRXQG GXPSHGLQDHOG 33 The loss of this FUXFLDOHYLGHQFHKHOGIDUUHDFKLQJ FRQVHTXHQFHV Similarly, community members IURP%UHGDVGRUSHFKRHGWKHLU frustrations with sloppy police work in Anene’s case. 16 There were a major slip-up in forensics. And if they only have one person now, they (the police) must have slipped up. That means the people are still out WKHUH7KLVLVQRWWKHUVWWLPH this happened in Bredasdorp ZKHUHWKH\FRXOGQRWQGSHRSOH who committed crimes. (Interview 4 & 5, 23 August 2013) Rape is a notoriously difficult crime to prosecute. One reason for this is the patriarchal nature of state institutions and their inability to take a tough stance against rape.
    Page 19
    When Anene’s death was catapulted into the public domain QDWLRQDOO\LWJHQHUDWHGRQO\DVDG PXUPXULQJRIVRFLDOPRELOLVDWLRQ Q%UHGDVGRUSVXSSRUWJURXSV JDWKHUHGDWWKHFRXUWZKHQWKHFDVH was heard, an opposition party and trade union representatives OHGDSURWHVWPDUFKDQGQRQ SURWRUJDQLVDWLRQVVFKHGXOHG ZRUNVKRSVDQGVHOIGHIHQFH classes for community members. In other parts of the country, LVRODWHGVKRUWWHUPLQLWLDWLYHV VSUDQJXSVSRUDGLFDOO\LQFOXGLQJ RQOLQHSHWLWLRQVDFDPSDLJQ to wear black on Fridays to GHPRQVWUDWHVXSSRUWIRUHQGLQJ JHQGHUEDVHGYLROHQFHSURWHVW PDUFKHVDQGVLOHQWYLJLOVRQHRI ZKLFKZDVOHGE\WKHVLQJHU$QQLH /HQQR[0DQ\RIWKHVHLQLWLDWLYHV KDGDKROORZULQJWRWKHP 1HGLQH0RRQVDP\ZURWHDQLQ DUWLFOHLQWKH0DLODQG*XDUGLDQ WKDW$QHQH%RR\VHQVGHDWK became symbolic and was used to H[SUHVVPRUDORXWUDJH 34 Yet she FULWLTXHVWKHHHFWLYHQHVVRIWKHVH DZDUHQHVVUDLVLQJFDPSDLJQVLQ WKHOLJKWRI6RXWK$IULFDVWDFLW DFFHSWDQFHRIPLVRJ\Q\5DLVLQJ DZDUHQHVVLVQRWHQRXJKWREULQJ DERXWV\VWHPLFFKDQJHWLVRIWHQ QRWHQRXJKWRFKDQJHLQGLYLGXDO behaviour either. What remains VLJQLFDQWDERXWWKHUHVSRQVHWR Anene’s death is that, unlike the FDVHRI-\RWLWKHUHZDVQRDZH LQVSLULQJPRPHQWRIDQDWLRQ FRPLQJWRJHWKHUWRGHPDQGDFWLRQ DJDLQVWUDPSDQWVH[XDOYLROHQFH Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 17 Public response What remains significant about the response to Anene's death is that, unlike the case of Jyoti, there was no awe-inspiring moment of a nation coming together to demand action against rampant sexual violence.
    Page 20
    $VKRUULFDV$QHQHVGHDWKZDV LWGLGQRWJDOYDQLVHDFRPPXQLW\ outcry that would cut across the deep racial and class divides in %UHGDVGRUS&RPPXQLW\PHPEHUV PHQWLRQHGWKHXQGHUO\LQJUDFLDO WHQVLRQVWKDWHPHUJHGDIWHU Anene’s murder. WLVDOVRZRUWKQRWLQJWKDWPRVWRI the social mobilisation initiatives that took place came from feminist RUZRPHQVRUJDQLVDWLRQVVHHNLQJ WREULQJDWWHQWLRQWRWKHKLJKOHYHOV of sexual violence in the country. $OWKRXJKVWUHWFKHGE\WKHODFNRI IXQGLQJWKHVHRUJDQLVDWLRQVGLG the best they could to drive protest DQGDZDUHQHVVUDLVLQJLQLWLDWLYHV 18 Racial issues is reality in our country. Initially not a race thing, but a brutal thing. But part of it was when the name "Zwai" came out. And people in the community did not want to believe that this known person could do it and so came out the story that there was another guy called Zwai and he is a black guy so maybe he did it. People were looking for another culprit and it was convenient to blame someone you don't know - not close to you. (Interview 4 & 5, 23 August 2013) There was also racial tensions rising because after Anene there was this coloured guy that stabbed a black guy from Zwelitsha. (Interview 3, 23 September 2013) The ODA (Overberg Development Association) called women together after Anene's murder - a broad group of women. We tried to get it going and elect a steering committee and then nothing happened - it fell apart. No one wanted to step forward to make it happen. Maybe it was about courage or it was about time. Women were all involved LQWKHLUVWXIDPLOLHVZRUNDQG other organisations. (Interview 4 & 5, 23 August 2013) (Top) Protestors outside Bredasdorp Magistrate’s Court. Credit: Mail & Guardian (Bottom) Silent protest led by Annie Lennox at St. George’s Cathedrazl in Cape Town. Photographer: Zubair Sayed
    Page 21
    Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 19
    Page 22
    The media, like the politicians, HPHUJHGDVDGRPLQDQWYRLFH IROORZLQJ$QHQHVPXUGHU0DLQ VWUHDPPDVVPHGLDKDYHORQJ IDFHGFULWLTXHIRUKDYLQJORVW WKHLUNH\SXUSRVHUHSRUWLQJLQ a fair, unbiased and balanced way on stories of public inter HVWDQGDFFXVDWLRQVRIKDYLQJ EHFRPHSURWGULYHQPXOWL national corporations. Far too often, it seems that stories are featured on the principle of “if it EOHHGVLWOHDGVHPSOR\LQJWKH tactics of shock and sensational LVPWRGULYHXSUDWLQJVDWWUDFW DGYHUWLVHUVDQGERRVWSURWV $VWXG\FRQGXFWHGE\WKH 7VKZDUDQDQJ/HJDO$GYRFDF\ Centre found that court proceed LQJVUHODWHGWRVH[XDOYLROHQFH attracted media attention if the UDSHVPHWWKHFULWHULDRIEHLQJ EUXWDODQGVKRFNLQJ 35 The study also found that while the brutality of these acts was reported on, this was often devoid of a contextual DQDO\VLVRIJHQGHUEDVHGYLROHQFH 7KHUHSRUWLQJRQ$QHQHVPXUGHU followed these trends. Those inter YLHZHGLQ%UHGDVGRUSVHHPHGWR think that the media frenzy was di UHFWO\UHODWHGWRWKHJUXHVRPHDQG brutal way in which Anene died. 20 Media response I think it is how it happened and how she was assaulted. It was not strangers who did this to her. (Interview 1, 24 September 2013) I think it is how they murdered KHUFXWWLQJKHUVWRPDFKRSHQ (Interview 2, 24 September 2013) The way Anene died it was terrible. What did they use to kill Anene? You can't slaughter someone like a sheep. What was happening in their minds? You would not even slaughter an animal while it is still alive. They cut her while she was still alive. (Interview 3, 23 September 2013) The story centred largely around the gruesomeness of it. There are many other gruesome attacks on women, and in Bredasdorp. There were two baby dumpings in that same period and quite a number of murders. It just happened to be Anene and it just happened to be Bredasdorp. (Interview 4 & 5, 23 September 2013)
    Page 23
    *UDWLRQDZDOOLQFHQWUDO&DSH7RZQ promoting the Black Friday campaign. Photographer: Ashleigh Furlong
    Page 24
    0RVWRIWKHPHGLDGHEDWHUHJDUG LQJ$QHQHVUDSHDQGPXUGHU IRFXVHGRQYLROHQFHDJDLQVW ZRPHQLQLVRODWLRQIDLOLQJWRORRN at the broader social context for women in South Africa and for UXUDO\RXQJZRPHQLQSDUWLFXODU 7KHUHZDVYHU\OLWWOHTXHVWLRQ LQJRIWKHVWUXFWXUDOURRWVRIWKLV violence. The “women as victims GLVFRXUVHOLPLWHGWKHHPHUJHQFH of a public discussion on how to keep women safe, how to eradicate JHQGHUEDVHGYLROHQFHDQGKRZ to deal with the constructions of masculinity that makes such violence possible. At a sympo sium earlier this year held at &ROXPELD8QLYHUVLW\LQ1HZ +HOHQ%HQHGLFWREVHUYHGWKDW “[j]ust about any discussion of ZRPHQVULJKWVLVVWLOOVHHQLQWKH mainstream press as radical, opinionated and biased, not as OHJLWLPDWHQHZV 36 7KHFNOHQDWXUHRIQHZVUHSRUW LQJZDVDJDLQGHPRQVWUDWHGZKHQ $QHQH%RR\VHQVPXUGHUZDV displaced in the media by the PXUGHURI5HHYD6WHHQNDPSE\ Oscar Pistorius, her boyfriend and JOREDOVSRUWVLFRQRQ9DOHQWLQHV 'D\7KHPHGLDVREVHV VLRQZLWK5HHYDVVWRU\LVSDUWLDOO\ explained by his celebrity status. Yet it is clear from the manner in which these two cases were reported that class and race dynamics say much about whose OLIHLVGHHPHGRIJUHDWHUYDOXH %HDXWLIXODQGJODPRURXV5HHYD OHGWKHOLIHRIDQXSDQGFRPLQJ socialite, model and television personality. The media devoted a JUHDWGHDORIDWWHQWLRQWRKHUDVD SHUVRQLQKHURZQULJKWZLWKGH tailed stories about the life she led, her friends and family, her WKRXJKWVDQGYLHZVRQDVVRUWHG subjects, what she did on the day before she died, what she ate, and so on. For the media, it seems that $QHQH%RR\VHQZDVLQWHUHVW LQJRQO\LQVRIDUDVKHUERG\ZDV a site for brutality and for the courtroom dramas that ensued DIWHUKHUGHDWK+HUWKRXJKWV and views, what she did and said, ZHUHGHHPHGLQFRQVHTXHQWLDODQG certainly not newsworthy. 22
    Page 25
    Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 23 WKHQLQIRUPVWUDWHJLFDGYRFDF\ LQWHUPVRIFKDOOHQJLQJWKHVWDWH to prioritise sexual violence in its SROLF\DQGEXGJHWDU\DJHQGDVI WKHUHLVWREHDQ\KRSHRIWXUQLQJ DURXQGWKHFRXQWU\VKLJKOHYHOV RIYLROHQFHDQGSUHYHQWLQJIXUWKHU cases like Anene’s, there is a need WRFDSDFLWDWHDQGVWUHQJWKHQ feminist endeavours to subvert the patriarchal social norms within ZKLFKJHQGHUEDVHGYLROHQFHFDQ thrive. This will also entail the SROLWLFVRIVHQVLWLVLQJRXUVRFLHW\ to the horror of sexual violence DQGHOLFLWLQJPRUHDUGHQWVRFLDO mobilisation. While the physical VXHULQJRIYLFWLPVPD\IDGHDZD\ WKHSV\FKRORJLFDOZRXQGVFDXVHG by rape rarely heal completely. Anene’s rape and murder and the HQVXLQJSROLWLFDOFLYLODQGPHGLD UHVSRQVHVKDYHQRWEURXJKW DQ\UHDOFKDQJHWR%UHGDVGRUS DFFRUGLQJWRWKHFRPPXQLW\ members interviewed. It has not FKDQJHGKRZSHRSOHWKLQNDERXW JHQGHUQRUKDVLWFKDQJHGKRZ women experience violence. It is fair to say that South Africa is at a point of crisis in terms of YLROHQFHDJDLQVWZRPHQ$WD URXQGWDEOHKRVWHGE\WKH+HLQULFK %OO)RXQGDWLRQZKHUHDGUDIW of this paper was presented, 37 a number of important lessons HPHUJHGIURPUHHFWLQJRQWKH JRYHUQPHQWPHGLDDQGSXEOLF responses to Anene’s death. Importantly, there is a need to UHFRJQLVHWKDWDGGUHVVLQJVH[XDO violence is a political issue. Current UHVSRQVHVGRQRWVXFLHQWO\ address the structural nature of women’s oppression and the role that sexual violence plays within LW(YRNLQJWKLVJHQGHUHGSROLWLFDO framework, sexual violence is clearly both a symptom and also an instrument for women’s oppression. 7KHVWDUWLQJSRLQWLVWKHUHIRUHWR build a political analysis into our XQGHUVWDQGLQJRIVH[XDOYLROHQFH and to create feminist spaces to drive this work. This analysis must concluding comments
    Page 26
    If Anene’s death teaches us DQ\WKLQJDWDOOLWLVWKDWQRWLRQVRI PDVFXOLQLW\WKHXQGHUO\LQJJHQGHU social order, and the sexual entitlement of men are issues that UHTXLUHXUJHQWSROLWLFDODQGVRFLDO attention. While a comprehensive SROLF\UHVSRQVHLVUHTXLUHGWR provide support services to victims of sexual violence, this alone will not stem the rampant tide of sexual violence. There are no TXLFN[VROXWLRQVDQGDFRQFHUWHG ORQJWHUPSROLF\UHVSRQVHLV UHTXLUHG %H\RQGDGGLWLRQDOUHVRXUFHV VWUDWHJLFWKRXJKWQHHGVWREH invested in the prevention of sexual violence. Otherwise, both private and public spaces will continue to be sites of potential GDQJHUIRUZRPHQDQGJLUOVLQ South Africa. All they (politicians) did was the Construction Seta. But in terms of the psychosocial side - how people viewed the case, where women could openly debate and voice how they feel - that did not happen (in Bredasdorp). People (in Bredasdorp) did not face things head on. After apartheid there was a TRC. The community here did not go through a phase to heal and bandage the raw wound. Many people were in shock but they did not know how to process it. The community was DHFWHGEXWSHRSOHMXVWJRRQ with their lives. (Interview 2, 24 September 2013) There is nothing really that is transforming the community. (Interview 2, 24 September 2013) 24 If Anene's death teaches us anything at all, it is that notions of masculinity, the underlying gender social order, and the sexual entitlement of men are issues that require urgent political and social attention.
    Page 27
    A photo of Anene Booysen. Credit: Daily Maverick
    Page 28
    26 endnotes & photography references 1. The law on rape in India prohibits WKHSXEOLFXVHRIDYLFWLPVXUYLYRUV )ROORZLQJKHUGHDWK-\RWLVIDWKHUUH TXHVWHGWKDWWKHPHGLDXVHKHUQDPH WRJLYHRWKHUYLFWLPVRIUDSHFRXUDJH South African laws on sexual offences GRQRWH[SOLFLWO\IRUELGSXEOLVKLQJD victim’s name however the Criminal Procedures Act as well as the South African Press Code note that a victim may not be named unless the victim RUWKHYLFWLPVSDUHQWVRUJXDUGLDQVLQ WKHFDVHRIPLQRUVJUDQWSHUPLVVLRQ to do so. 2. %UHGDVGRUSLVDVPDOOFRPPXQLW\LQ WKH2YHUEHUJUHJLRQRIWKH:HVWHUQ Cape province of South Africa. The FHQVXVUHSRUWHGDSRSXODWLRQRI SHRSOH 3. -\RWL6LQJKKDGEHHQPRYHGWR6LQ JDSRUHIRUPHGLFDOFDUHEXWGLHGHQ route. 4. 5HWULHYHGIURPKWWSHQZLNLSHGLD RUJZLNLB'HOKLBJDQJBUDSHFLWHB QRWH 5. The authors conducted separate inter views with five community members IURP%UHGDVGRUSWRJDLQWKHLULQVLJKW LQWRYLROHQFHDJDLQVWZRPHQLQWKH community as well as their opinion re JDUGLQJWKHUDSHDQGPXUGHURI$QHQH %RR\VHQ 6. %RXUNH-5DSH$+LVWRU\IURP WRWKH3UHVHQW9LUDJR*UHDW%ULW ain. 7. 1RWHWKDWWKH*OREDODQG5HJLRQDO(V WLPDWHVRI9LROHQFH$JDLQVW:RPHQ 3UHYDOHQFHDQG+HDOWK(IIHFWVRIQWL PDWH3DUWQHU9LROHQFHDQG1RQ3DUW QHU6H[XDO9LROHQFH8QLWHG1DWLRQV :RUOG+HDOWK2UJDQLVDWLRQ UHSRUWVWKDWWKHUHJLRQZLWKWKHORZ HVWSUHYDOHQFHRIQRQSDUWQHUVH[XDO YLROHQFHLV6RXWK(DVW$VLDZLWKD SUHYDOHQFHOHYHORI+RZHYHUWKLV needs to be interpreted with caution as the lower levels of sexual violence indicated could also partly be attrib XWHGWRXQGHUUHSRUWLQJ 8. Ibid. 9. 6RXWK$IULFDQ3ROLFH6HUYLFHV &ULPH6WDWLVWLFV2YHUYLHZ 5HWULHYHGIURPKWWSZZZVDSVJRY ]DUHVRXUFHBFHQWUHSXEOLFDWLRQVVWD WLVWLFVFULPHVWDWVGRZQORDGV FULPHBVWDWLVWLFVBSUHVHQWDWLRQSGI 10. 6$36&ULPH6WDWLVWLFV 11. Ibid. 12. -HZNHV56LNZH\L\D60RUUHOO5DQG 'XQNOH.8QGHUVWDQGLQJPHQV health and use of violence: Interface of UDSHDQG+9LQ6RXWK$IULFD0HGLFDO 5HVHDUFK&RXQFLO 13. 0DFKLVD0-HZNHV5/RZH0RUQD& DQG5DPD.7KH:DUDW+RPH *HQGHU%DVHG9LROHQFHQGLFDWRUV3URM HFW*DXWHQJ5HVHDUFK5HSRUW0HGLFDO 5HVHDUFK&RXQFLODQG*HQGHUOLQNV-R KDQQHVEXUJ 14. :KLOH6RXWK$IULFDKDVKLJKOHYHOVRI YLROHQFHDJDLQVWZRPHQLWLVLPSRU WDQWWRQRWHWKDWDQHVWLPDWHGRI women worldwide have experienced SK\VLFDODQGRUVH[XDOLQWLPDWHSDUW QHUYLROHQFHRUQRQSDUWQHUVH[XDOYLR lence. Some national violence studies
    Page 29
    Rupturing the Norms: The Social and Political Responses to the Rape of Anene Booysen 27 VKRZWKDWXSWRRIZRPHQKDYH H[SHULHQFHGSK\VLFDODQGRUVH[XDOYL olence in their lifetime from a partner. 6HH*OREDODQG5HJLRQDO(VWLPDWHVRI 9LROHQFH$JDLQVW:RPHQ3UHYDOHQFH DQG+HDOWK(IIHFWVRIQWLPDWH3DUWQHU 9LROHQFHDQG1RQ3DUWQHU6H[XDO9LR OHQFH8QLWHG1DWLRQV:RUOG+HDOWK2U JDQLVDWLRQ 15. $QGUHZ+DUGLQJ:LOO6RXWK$IULFDQV HYHUEHVKRFNHGE\UDSH"5HWULHYHG IURPKWWSZZZEEFFRPQHZV ZRUOGDIULFD$FFHVVHG 6HSWHPEHU 16. 6WDWLVWLFV6RXWK$IULFD*HQGHU 6WDWLVWLFVLQ6RXWK$IULFD5HWULHYHG IURPKWWSZZZVWDWVVDJRY]D SXEOLFDWLRQV5HSRUW5H SRUWSGI 17. 3HUVRQVRIQGLDQGHVFHQWOLYLQJLQ South Africa. 18. 6WDWLVWLFV6RXWK$IULFD*HQGHU Statistics in South Africa. 19. 0RUHZRPHQVWUXJJOLQJ6WDWV6$ -XO\5HWULHYHGIURPKWWSZZZ QHZVFRP6RXWK$IULFD1HZV0RUH ZRPHQVWUXJJOLQJ6WDWV6$ 20. 7KHQDWLRQDOJHQGHUPDFKLQHU\ ZDVHVWDEOLVKHGIROORZLQJWKHDER lition of apartheid. It comprises of VWDWHLQVWLWXWLRQVFKDUJHGZLWKJLY LQJHIIHFWWRSURPRWLQJJHQGHUHTXLW\ such as the Commission for Gender (TXDOLW\7KHVWUXFWXUHKDVXQ GHUJRQHYDULRXVUHFRQILJXUDWLRQV VLQFHLQFHSWHGDQGFKDOOHQJHVZLWK RYHUODSSLQJPDQGDWHVDQGFRQIOLFWEH WZHHQLQVWLWXWLRQVDPRQJVWRWKHUKLQ drances, has impeded the realisation of its full potential. 21. 7KH7UDGLWLRQDO&RXUWV%LOOZDVILUVWLQ WURGXFHGLQE\WKH'HSDUWPHQW RI-XVWLFHDQG&RQVWLWXWLRQDO'HYHORS PHQWWZDVLQWHQGHGWRJLYHWUDGL tional leaders power to exercise judi FLDOODZZLWKLQWKHUHJLRQVWKH\JRYHUQ 7KHGUDIW%LOOZDVPHWZLWKJUHDWRS SRVLWLRQE\DUDQJHRIFLYLOVRFLHW\RU JDQLVDWLRQVDFDGHPLFVSROLWLFLDQVDQG community members who declared it unconstitutional, undemocratic and UHIOHFWLYHRIWKHDSDUWKHLGUHJLPH2QH RIWKHNH\FULWLFLVPVRIWKH%LOOSUH dominantly from feminist activists and UXUDOZRPHQZDVWKDWDOWKRXJKLWDS SHDUHGWREHJHQGHUQHXWUDOZRPHQ DUHQRWDIIRUGHGHTXDOULJKWVDQGDUH often subject to harmful cultural prac tices under most traditional customs. 7KH%LOOZDVZLWKGUDZQLQUHLQ WURGXFHGWKHIROORZLQJ\HDUDQGZLWK GUDZQDJDLQLQHDUO\$ZHHNIRO ORZLQJQHZVRIWKH%LOOVZLWKGUDZDO WKH'HSDUWPHQWRI-XVWLFHDQG&RQVWL WXWLRQDO'HYHORSPHQWLVVXHGDSXEOLF VWDWHPHQWUHIXWLQJUXPRXUVWKDWWKH %LOOKDGEHHQVTXDVKHG7KH7UDGL WLRQDO&RXUWV%LOOZLOOEHUHLQWURGXFHG to the parliamentary schedule follow LQJ6RXWK$IULFDVJHQHUDOHOHFWLRQV LQ0D\5HWULHYHGIURPKWWS DOODIULFDFRPVWRULHV KWPODQGKWWSZZZMXVWLFHJRY]DPB VWDWHPHQWVWUDG courts.html. 22. +XVWYHGW6/LYLQJ7KLQNLQJ /RRNLQJ6FHSWUH*UHDW%ULWDLQ 23. 5PLOOLRQSURMHFWWREHQHILW%UH GDVGRUSFRPPXQLW\$SULO 5HWULHYHGIURPKWWSZZZVDQHZV JRY]DVRXWKDIULFDUPLOOLRQSURM HFWEHQHILWEUHGDVGRUSFRPPXQLW\ 24. 5DSH&ULVLVLVDQRQSURILWRUJDQLVD WLRQ IRXQGHGLQWKHHDUO\VLQ the Western Cape province of South Africa. It was the first of its kind and FRQWLQXHVWREHDOHDGLQJRUJDQLVD WLRQRIIHULQJVSHFLDOLVWVHUYLFHVWR YLF WLPVRIVH[XDORIIHQFHV7KHRUJDQLVD tion is actively involved at Thuthuzela Care Centres and the Sexual Offences Courts. 25. %KDQD./RSHV&DQG0DVVDZH' 6KHOWHUV+RXVLQJ:RPHQ:KR +DYH([SHULHQFHG$EXVH3ROLF\)XQG LQJDQG3UDFWLFH3URILOLQJ7KUHH6KHO WHUVLQWKH:HVWHUQ&DSH+HLQULFK%OO 6WLIWXQJ&DSH7RZQ 26. 7KH1DWLRQDO&RXQFLO$JDLQVW*HQGHU
    Page 30
    28 %DVHG9LROHQFHLVORFDWHGZLWKLQWKH 'HSDUWPHQWRI:RPHQ&KLOGUHQDQG 3HRSOHZLWK'LVDELOLWLHVDQGWDVNHG ZLWKPDQDJLQJJRYHUQPHQWVUHVSRQVH WRDGGUHVVLQJJHQGHUEDVHGYLROHQFH It includes line officials from across GLIIHUHQWJRYHUQPHQWGHSDUWPHQWVDV ZHOODVFLYLOVRFLHW\RUJDQLVDWLRQVZRUN LQJWRFRPEDWJHQGHUEDVHGYLROHQFH 27. 5HSRUWRQWKH5H(VWDEOLVKPHQWRIWKH 6H[XDO2IIHQFHV&RXUWV0LQLVWHULDO$G visory Task Team on the Adjudication RI6H[XDO2IIHQFHV0DWWHUV'HSDUW PHQWRI-XVWLFHDQG&RQVWLWXWLRQDO'H YHORSPHQW$XJXVW 28. The Victims Charter, formally known as The Service Charter for Victims of &ULPHLQ6RXWK$IULFDLVDOHJDOIUDPH ZRUNHVWDEOLVKHGLQWRSURWHFW WKHULJKWVRIYLFWLPVRIFULPHV7KHVH UHODWHWRWKHULJKWWREHWUHDWHGZLWK IDLUQHVVDQGUHVSHFWWKHULJKWWRRIIHU DQGUHFHLYHLQIRUPDWLRQWKHULJKWWR SURWHFWLRQWKHULJKWWRDVVLVWDQFHWKH ULJKWWRFRPSHQVDWLRQDQGWKHULJKWWR restitution. 29. 5HSRUWRQWKH5HHVWDEOLVKPHQWRI 6H[XDO2IIHQFHV&RXUWV0LQLVWHULDODG visory Task Team on the Adjudication RI6H[XDO2IIHQFHV0DWWHUV$XJXVW 30. Ibid. 31. 5HSRUWE\WKH'HSDUWPHQWRI-XVWLFH DQG&RQVWLWXWLRQDO'HYHORSPHQWWR the Select Committee on Women, Chil GUHQDQG3HUVRQVZLWK'LVDELOLWLHV $XJXVW 32. Thuthuzela Care Centres are special ist facilities for victims of sexual of fences. The Centres are located in a number of public hospitals and work closely with the police, courts and other victim support services WRIDFLOLWDWHWKHSURFHVVRIUHSRUWLQJ DQGSURVHFXWLQJFDVHVRIVH[XDORI fences and to prevent the secondary traumatisation of victims. 33. .DWH6WHJHPDQ%ULEHVDQGEXQJOHG rape, murder cases: Khayelitsha police XQGHUILUH)HEUXDU\5HWULHYHG IURPKWWSZZZGDLO\PDYHULFNFR]D DUWLFOHEULEHVDQGEXQ JOHGUDSHPXUGHUFDVHVNKD\HOLWVKD SROLFHXQGHUILUH8]RQEZN 34. 1HGLQH0RRQVDP\1RPRUHJHQ GHUEDVHGDFWLYLVP)HEUXDU\ KWWSPJFR]DDUWLFOH QRPRUHJHQGHUEDVHGDF tivism. 35. 3UHVVUHOHDVHLVVXHGE\7VKZDUDQDQJ /HJDO$GYRFDF\&HQWUH'HFHPEHU 36. Lauren Wolfe, The media and vio OHQFHDJDLQVWZRPHQ$FRQYHUVD WLRQZLWK0DULD+LQRMRVD)HEUX DU\5HWULHYHGIURPKWWSZZZ ZRPHQXQGHUVLHJHSURMHFWRUJEORJ HQWU\WKHPHGLDDQGYLROHQFHDJDLQVW ZRPHQDFRQYHUVDWLRQZLWKPDULD hinojosa 37. 5RXQGWDEOHRQ6H[XDOLVHG9LROHQFH LQWKH1DWLRQDO'HEDWHKRVWHGE\WKH +HLQULFK%OO)RXQGDWLRQ&DSH7RZQ 1RYHPEHU Photography $VKOHLJK)XUORQJKWWSDVKOHLJKIXU ORQJZRUGSUHVVFRPJRQHLQ VHFRQGV %UHQGRQ%RVZRUWKKWWSEUHQGRQ ERVZRUWKZRUGSUHVVFRP UDSHSURWHVW &DSH7LPHVZZZLROFR]DFDSH WLPHVIUDQVPDQDWWDFNVGDDWDQHQHV PHPRULDO8K+KN%EZN 'DLO\0DYHULFNKWWSZZZGDLO\PDY HULFNFR]DDUWLFOHYLROHQFH DJDLQVWZRPHQFDQRXWUDJHWUDQVODWHLQWR DFWLRQ 0DLO*XDUGLDQKWWSPJFR]D DUWLFOHDQHQHERR\VHQWULDO GDYLGVGHQLHGEDLO =XEDLU6D\HGKWWSV]XEDLUVD\HG MX[FRP
    Page 31
    Q'HFHPEHUDQG)HEUXDU\WKHZRUOGFDPHWR NQRZRIWZR\RXQJZRPHQ\HDUROG-\RWL6LQJK3DQGH\ IURP1HZ'HKOLQGLDDQG\HDUROG$QHQH%RR\VHQIURP %UHGDVGRUS6RXWK$IULFD%RWK\RXQJZRPHQZHUHJDQJ UDSHGEUXWDOO\DWWDFNHGDQGGLHGJKWLQJIRUWKHLUOLYHV%RWK FDVHVUHFHLYHGDJUHDWGHDORISXEOLFLW\DQGSXEOLFRXWFU\ KRZHYHUFRQVLGHULQJWKDWOHYHOVRIYLROHQFHDJDLQVWZRPHQ DUHKLJKLQERWKFRXQWULHVEXWHLWKHUZLGHO\LJQRUHGRU UHJUHWWDEO\WDNHQDVQRUPDOF\LQPDLQVWUHDPSROLWLFVZKDW ZHUHWKHG\QDPLFVDQGVSHFLFIDFWRUVDQGFLUFXPVWDQFHV that propelled them into national and international SURPLQHQFHDQGFDQXQSDFNLQJWKLVLQXHQFHWKH GHYHORSPHQWRIHQKDQFHGVWUDWHJLHVWRWDFNOLQJHQGHPLF YLROHQFHDJDLQVWZRPHQ" 7KHQGLDDQGWKH6RXWK$IULFDRFHVRIWKH+HLQULFK%OO )RXQGDWLRQKDYHHPEDUNHGRQDOHDUQLQJH[FKDQJHSURMHFWRQ VH[XDOYLROHQFHSURGXFLQJWZRFRPSDUDWLYHVWXGLHV 5XSWXULQJ WKHQRUPVWKHVRFLDODQGSROLWLFDOUHVSRQVHWRWKHUDSHRI $QHQH%RR\VHQ is the South African study on sexual violence. This publication analyses media, political and social responses to the rape of Anene and explores whether these responses UHVXOWHGLQDQ\WDQJLEOHVRFLDOWUDQVIRUPDWLRQ
Download this pdf

Rupturing the norms The social and political response PDF document - DocSlides

Click below link (As may be) to download this pdf.

Download Note - The PPT/PDF document "Rupturing the norms The social and polit..." is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.

Report this Document.

Advertisement
  • ISIS:  The History of the Most Dangerous Terrorist Group

    ISIS: The History of the Most Dangerous Terrorist Group

    609-views
  • Trumpcare vs obamacare

    Trumpcare vs obamacare

    576-views
  • ISRO future planning

    ISRO future planning

    1843-views
  • Procurement and Supply Management

    Procurement and Supply Management

    2280-views
  • Valuing and counting womenâs work

    Valuing and counting women’s work

    2328-views
  • Echocardiogram in the Evaluation and Management of Pulmonar

    Echocardiogram in the Evaluation and Management of Pulmonar

    2137-views
  • A Little About Trump

    A Little About Trump

    6423-views
  • Future plan of Hillary Clinton

    Future plan of Hillary Clinton

    1618-views
  • Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S.  Response

    Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response

    4395-views
  • SYRIA IN CRISIS

    SYRIA IN CRISIS

    1278-views