Early Civilizations in India and China PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

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Early Civilizations in India and China PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides - India. Geography: The Indian Subcontinent. Indus valley is located in the region India. Subcontinent- large landmass that juts out from a continent. India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Mountain ranges, Hindu Kush and Himalayas are at the Northern border.

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Early Civilizations in India and China PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

    Slide1

    Early Civilizations in India and China

    Slide2

    India

    Geography: The Indian SubcontinentIndus valley is located in the region IndiaSubcontinent- large landmass that juts out from a continentIndia, Pakistan, and BangladeshMountain ranges, Hindu Kush and Himalayas are at the Northern borderLimited contact with India and other lands- Cultural Diversity

    Slide3

    Three Regions

    Northern Plain

    Well watered, just south of the mountains

    Many rivers- Indus, Ganges, Brahma

    putra

    Carried melting snow down the mountains

    Deccan Plateau

    Dry and triangular shaped, juts into ocean

    Lacks snow that come from the mountains, land is dry

    Coastal Plains

    Separated from Deccan by low lying mountain ranges-Eastern and Western Ghats

    Rivers and seasonal rains provide water

    Slide4

    Slide5

    Monsoons- Seasonal winds and rainIn Oct. winds flow hot dry airIn June, moisture flows over and drenches cropsCultural Diversity India’s big size & diverse landscapes made it hard to unite

    Slide6

    Indus Valley CivilizationEmerged in what is present day Pakistan (2500BC)Flourished for 1000 yearsArcheologists discovered the once prosperous citiesHave not uncovered allIndus Valley covered largest area of any civilization until the rise of the Persian Empire

    Slide7

    Well Planned CitiesHarappa and Mohenjo-Daro, twin capitals Both large, 3 miles in circumferenceMassive hilltop structure (fortress or temple)Had warehouses to store food surplus All houses built of uniform oven-fried clay bricksModern plumbing systems, with baths, drains, water chutes that lead to sewer beneath streets

    Slide8

    Farming and Trade

    Grew wheat, barley, melons and dates

    First people to cultivate cotton and weave fibers into cloth

    Merchants and traders

    Ships carried cargos of cotton, grain, copper, pearls and ivory

    Religion

    Finding of many statues shows they were polytheistic

    Mother goddess wildly honored

    Worshipped sacred animals, (bull), -Indian beliefs

    Slide9

    Decline and Disappearance 1750 BC, quality of life was declining, order became unstable Causes- Ecological disasters- Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, deforestationAryans, migrated and overtook land with horse drawn carriages

    Slide10

    Kingdom of the Ganges

    The Vedic AgeAryans migrated across Europe and Asia seeking water and pasture for horses and cattleEarly Aryans didn’t build citiesMost of what we know comes from the Vedas- Collection of prayers, hymns, and other religious teachings

    Slide11

    Aryan priests recited and memorized the Vedas 1000 years before they were written down1500BC-500BC known as Vedic Age

    Slide12

    Aryan Society-Divided people by occupation

    Brahmins- Priests, claimed they alone could conduct ceremonies needed to win favor of the gods

    Kshatriyas

    - Warriors, first enjoyed highest prestige, priests eventually gained most respect

    Vaisyas

    - Herders, farmers, artisans and merchants

    Slide13

    Aryans felt superior to the Dravidians, people they conquered

    Dravidians descended from original inhabitants of Indus Valley

    Non-Aryans, separated into fourth group, the

    Sudras

    - farm workers, servants, laborers

    Class divisions came to reflect social and economic roles more than racial differences

    Became castes, social groups into which people are born and from which they cannot change

    Slide14

    Varna (Social Hierarchy)

    Shudras

    Vaishyas

    Kshatriyas

    Pariahs [

    Harijan

    ]

    

    U

    ntouchables

    Brahmins

    Slide15

    Aryan Religious Beliefs

    Polytheistic

    Worshipped Gods and Goddesses that embodied natural forces

    Honored animals

    Brahmins offered sacrifices of food and drink

    Eventually religious leaders wanted one spiritual power

    Brahman-resided in all things

    Mystics- People who devote their lives to seeking spiritual wealth

    Meditation and Yoga- Mystics looked for direct communication with divine forces

    Slide16

    Expansion and Change Aryans travelled over mountain passages into Northwest IndiaAryan tribes were lead by chiefs called rajahs, most skilled war leader

    Slide17

    Colonization of GangesMade tools out of IronMade cities in the jungle, rajahs ruled themDeveloped written language, SanskritPriests began writing sacred texts

    Slide18

    Heroic Deeds and MoralsMahabharata Ramayana

    Slide19

    Early Civilization in China

    Geography: The Middle Kingdom

    Ancient Chinese called their land the

    Zhongguo

    , the Middle Kingdom

    Very isolated

    Long distances and physical barriers kept it from Egypt, the Middle East and India

    Isolation contributed to belief that China was the center of the Earth

    Sole source of civilization

    Slide20

    Geographic BarriersTo the West and Southwest of China, high mountains, Tien Shan and HimalayasSoutheast, full of thick jungles divided China from Southeast ChinaNorth, Gobi DesertEast, Pacific Ocean

    Slide21

    The barriers didn’t stop the Chinese from trading with other people, the Middle EastNomads and invaders entered China and accepted Chinese superiority

    Slide22

    Main RegionsChinese heartland lay along the east coast and the valleys of Huang He (Yellow River) and the YangtzeFertile farming region supported large populations

    Slide23

    Other Regions:Xinjiang, Mongolia, ManchuriaChina also extended influence on Himalayan region Tibet and Xizang

    Slide24

    River of SorrowsHuang He got its name from the loess, fine windblown yellow soilEarned nickname, “River of Sorrows”, as loess settles to the river bottom, it raises water level Overflowing river killed many

    Slide25

    Shang Dynasty1650BC, people called the Shang gained control of Northern China, near Huang HeDominated region until 1027BC, during this time Chinese civilization took shape

    Slide26

    Government Archaeologists uncovered large palaces and rich tombs of Shang rulersNoble women had considerable statusKing controlled small area, princes and nobles loyal to King governed most of the landHeads of important clans, groups of families that claimed a common ancestor

    Slide27

    Social Classes

    Royal Family

    Shang warriors- used leather armor, bronze weapons, and horse drawn chariots

    Artists and Merchants- Produced goods for nobles, organized trade

    Peasants- Clustered together in farming villages, all families worked in the fields, had to prepare damns for the flooding rivers

    Slide28

    Religious BeliefsIn Shang Dynasty the Chinese developed complex religious beliefsPrayed to many Gods and nature spiritsShang Di- Mother GoddessVeneration of AncestorsShang Di would not respond to mere mortals, only to spirits of greatest mortals Prayed to Ancestors to pray to God

    Slide29

    Yin and YangDelicate balance between two forcesYin- Linked to Earth, darkness and female forcesYang- Stood for Heaven, light and male forcesForces were not in opposition, depended on harmony

    Slide30

    System of WritingIdeographs- Signs that expressed thoughts or ideasConsulted ancestors with Chinese writing written on oracle bones, used by priests to predict the future

    Slide31

    Written Chinese took shape almost 4,000 years agoOver time, evolved to include tens of thousands of characters Most difficult language to learnChinese scholars turn to calligraphy, fine handwriting, into an art form

    Slide32

    The Zhou Dynasty

    Around 1027BC, the Zhou people overthrew the Shang dynastyZhou dynasty lasted until 256BC

    Slide33

    Mandate of HeavenThe Zhou justified their takeover of the Shang by declaring they had a divine right to rule Declared cruelty of last Shang ruler outraged the godsGods passed mandate of heaven (Devine right to rule)to the Zhou, who then treated the people well

    Slide34

    Dynastic CycleThe rise and fall of dynastiesAs long as a dynasty provided good government it would enjoy the mandate of heavenIf rulers became corrupt, Chinese believed Heaven would withdraw support

    Slide35

    Feudal State

    Rewarded supporters by granting them control over different regions

    China became a feudal state

    Feudalism- a system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other forms of support to the ruler

    Zhou kings ruled China and enjoyed great power and prestige for 250 years

    After 771 BC, feudal lords exercised the real power and profited from the lands worked by peasants, within in their domains (rule)

    Slide36

    Slide37

    Economic GrowthChina’s economy grew under the Zhou periodLearned ironworking in 500BCIron axes, ox-drawn iron plows, replaces wooden and stone toolsPeasants grew new crops, such as soybeansFeudal lords organized large-scale irrigation worksChinese began to use money for the first time Copper coins had holes in the center to be strung on cords Merchants benefited from new roads and canals

    Slide38

    Economic expansion lead to an increase in populationPeople from the Huang He heartland overflowed into central China and began to farm the immense Yangzi basinFeudal nobles expanded their territories and encouraged peasants to settle thereChina increased in size, population and prosperity

    Slide39

    Chinese AchievementsAstronomers studied the movements of planets and recorded eclipses of the sunDeveloped an accurate 365 ¼ calendarChinese discovered how to make silk around 1000BCBecame China’s most valuable export, trade route between China and Middle East was the Silk RoadChinese made the first books Bound thin strips of wood or bamboo

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