Natural Resources & The Environment PowerPoint Presentation, PPT - DocSlides

Download pasty-toler | 2018-03-14 | General EN18.00 Demonstrate an understanding of formation, contents, classification, and use of soils. . Terms to Know . Soil Content. Four Major parts. Minerals. Water. Air. Organic Matter (OM). Living Organisms in Soil . ID: 651057

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Slide1

Natural Resources & The Environment

EN18.00 Demonstrate an understanding of formation, contents, classification, and use of soils.

Slide2

Terms to Know

Slide3

Soil Content

Four Major parts

Minerals

Water

Air

Organic Matter (OM)

Slide4

Living Organisms in Soil

Bacteria

Insects

Earthworms

Fungi

Slide5

Soil Contents and Formation

North American soils are called mineral soils

High in minerals

Soils higher in organic matter are called organic matter.

Slide6

Mineral Materials

Three different sized materials

Sand, Silt, and Clay

Size and proportion of each affect the soils’ ability to hold water and provide nutrients.

Slide7

Soil Textures - Sand

Sand

Largest particle

High sand content soils drain too quickly

Dry out

Low fertility due to the inability of the soil to hold nutrients

Slide8

Soil Texture – Silt

Medium particle

Often found by streams

Has “doughy” or “powdery” feel

Higher nutrient holding ability

Slide9

Soil Texture – Clay

Smallest size particle

Gives soil a “sticky” feel

Able to mold or ribbon soils with high clay content

Slower drainage

Hold nutrients.

Slide10

Water

Particles hold water between and around them.

Ability differs depending on soil type

Soils that drain moderately, but hold water for roots to use are ideal.

Soils too wet will damage plant roots.

Science of soils is called

Pedology

.

Slide11

Forms of Water in Soil

Gravitational Water

Water that drains downward in the soil

Capillary Water

Water held between soil particles

Hygroscopic Water

Water that sticks to each soil particle

Slide12

Air

Found between soil particles

Share space with water

Ideal situation – Water drains through and is replaced by air

Excess water damages roots, Slows plant growth, and promotes disease

Slide13

Organic Matter (OM)

Made of decaying and decayed plant and animals

After decaying, nutrients are released into the soil

Proper amount of OM in soils is good for plants

Well-decomposed OM is called HUMUS

Soils that are high in humus have higher fertility rates

Soils that have dark colors have high humus.

Slide14

Soil Formation

Slide15

Soil Formation

A slow and continuous process

Five factors

Parent Material

Climate

Living organisms

Topography

Time

Slide16

Factors of Soil Formation

Parent Material

Mass of mineral and OM from which soil is formed

Climate

Precipitation, temperature, and wind that break large pieces of rock into smaller pieces.

Also a factor in moving soil particles

Living Organisms

Both plants and animals help to create nutrients, break down parent material, and transport soil particles and nutrients in the soil.

Slide17

Factors of Soil Formation

Topography

The form or outline of the Earth’s surface

Affects soil formation because steeper terrain creates faster moving water

Steeper terrains do not build up soils as quickly as flatter terrains

Time

Requires times, especially for weathering.

Slide18

Weathering

Process of precipitation, temperature, wind, and other climate factors in forming soil

Slide19

Soil Profiles

Forms in layers or HORIZONS

All layers together form a soil profile. Vertical cross section of soil is called a soil profile

Five layers or horizons.

Slide20

Soil Profile

O Horizon

Top layer of OM that is not yet soil

A Horizon (topsoil)

Greater concentration of OM

B Horizon (Subsoil)

Little OM and more minerals than A

C Horizon

Parent material

R Horizon

Bedrock, forms the

C Horizon

Slide21

Classification of Soil

18.02 – Demonstrate the ability to properly evaluate soil properties and classify soils.

Slide22

Soil Texture

Proportion of sand, silt, and clay in the soil

Use a soil textural triangle

Determines how soil can be used and cultural practices that need to be followed to conserve soil

Three classifications

Sand

Loam

Clay

Slide23

Sandy Classification

Contains sand and loamy sand

Cannot be pressed between the fingers to form a sand ribbon

Tends to feel gritty and rough

Will not stick to finger

Has drainage that is too fast and has little nutrient holding ability.

Slide24

Loamy Classification

More cohesive than sandy soils

Sandy Loam

Cannot be “leafed out” between the fingers, but if it can be done, the ribbon will be less than ¼” in length

Silt loam

Smooth, floury, feel

Can be pressed into thin, flat ribbons of about 1/8” thickness

Ribbons tend to break off at a length of ½” to 1.5”

Slide25

Loamy Classification

Usually granular, blocky, or massive in structure

Friable or firm consistency

Most favorable for root growth

Hold the most available water for crops

Retain fertilizer nutrients

Slide26

Clayey Classification

When wet, soils form ribbons 1/8” thick at lengths of 1-2 inches

Very cohesive and can be molded into almost any form

Distinct thumb impressions can be made

May be blocky, platy, or massive in structure

Firm or very firm in consistence

Slide27

Soil Structure

Arrangement of particles in shapes and pieces

Five different structures

Single grain – each individual soil particulate stands alone

Granular – aggregates are rounded in form, very desirable

Blocky – particles cling together to form an angular shaped soil

ped

Platy – Found where soil has periodically flooded; forms plates and sheets

Massive – has no structure, caused by mismanagement (wet tillage)

Slide28

Soil Structure

Influences soil properties

Water moves faster through a granular soil than through a blocky structure

Important in water movement and root development in soils

Slide29

Consistency

Slide30

Consistency

Ease of working with soil

Resistance a moist volume of soil offers to rupture

Determined by pressing the soil

ped

between the thumb and extended forefinger

Three classes

Loose

Friable

Firm

High clay content results in hard when dry, and sticky when wet

Slide31

Consistency

Loose

Soil offers no resistance to crushing

Associated with sandy textures that have single grain structure

Friable

Soil crumbles with slight pressure

Associated with loamy textures, but some clay textures are friable

Firm

Soil crumbles only when moderate pressure is exerted

Slide32

Consistency in Subsurface

Very firm

Soil strongly resists crushing

Most red clays

Non-sticky (evaluated when wet)

Little or no adherence to the fingers

Sticky (evaluated when wet)

Soil clings to one finger

Loamy or clayey textured soils may be sticky

Very Sticky

Tends to hold the fingers together when soil is pressed; causes major problems

Slide33

Erosion

Slide34

Erosion

By wind and water lowers the productivity of soils

Examine the top 6 inches of the surface layer to determine the degree of erosion

Three erosion classes

None to slight

Moderate

Severe

Slide35

Erosion classes

None to slight (>6”)

All of the top six inches is similar in physical characteristics

Moderate (2”-6”)

From 25-75 percent of the top 6 inches is soil from subsurface horizon (mixed)

Severe (<2”)

When 75% or more of the original topsoil has been removed by erosion.

Slide36

Permeability

Slide37

Permeability

Movement of water IN the soil

Internal drainage

Depends on texture and structure

Infiltration

Moving of surface water into the soil

Percolation

Moving of water down and through the soil

Slide38

Permeability

Four categories

Rapid

Sandy textured soils

Moderate

Loamy texture and blocky or granular structure

Slow

Clayey

subsurfaces

with blocky structure, firm moist consistence, and very firm wet consistence

Very Slow

Clayey

subsurfaces

having massive or platy structure, sometimes blocky.

Slide39

Soil Depth

Varies with thickness of horizons

Slide40

Soil Depth

Deeper A Horizon or topsoil equals greater fertility

Depth is considered as:

Very shallow = less than 10 feet

Shallow = 10-20 feet

Medium = 20-40 feet

Deep = greater than 40 feet

Slide41

Depth to Limiting Layer

Limiting layer in soil is a subsurface zone that seriously restricts root and water movement through it

Four classes

Very shallow = less than 12 inches

Shallow = 12-24 inches

Moderately deep = 24-36 inches

Deep = greater than 36”

Slide42

Slope

Slide43

Slope

Expressed in percentage

Shows the difference in elevation in feet over the horizontal distance in feet between two points

Example

A 4% slope means that the land surface is going up or down at the rate of four feet for every 100 feet of distance.

Slide44

Slope classes

Nearly level – 0-2%

Gently sloping – 2-6%

Sloping – 6-10%

Strongly sloping – 10-15%

Steep – 15-25%

Very Steep – 25+%

Slide45

Drainage

Slide46

Drainage

Internal drainage effects the development of soil and its use and management

Related to the level of “ground water” or “water table”

Gray colors within 36 inches of the surface are the primary clues to poor drainage in the soil.

Most crops need a moderate to well drained soil.

Slide47

Drainage classes

Well

Shades of red, yellow, or brown in the top 36”

Moderately Well

Gray

mottlings

in the 24”-36” range

Somewhat Poorly

Upper 12” is bright colored; gray

mottlings

found in the 12-24” range

Poorly

Complete profile is gray or dark gray.

If surface horizon is black, it must be less than 6 inches thick

Very poorly

Black surface horizons greater than 6 inches thick

Slide48

Soil Color

Tends to vary widely

Depends on

Parent material

Organic Material

Drainage

Texture – at times

Slide49

Land Capability Class

Slide50

Land

The soil and environment surrounding the soil

Location on the surface of the Earth

Capability Classes

System for classifying land based on its highest potential use

Based on soil, slope, and flooding potential.

Roman Numerals are used from I to VII

Slide51

Capability Classes

I – best agriculture land with few limitations

II – good agricultural land with some limitations

III – fair agricultural land

IV – poor agricultural land – can be used for pastures, etc.

V – unfit for field crops – generally poor drainage, rocks,

etc

VI – used for pastures, woodland, etc.

VII – very limited use, more severe than VI

VIII – steep mountains, beaches, and river washes,

generally not acceptable for productive use.

Slide52

Chemical Characteristics

Slide53

pH

Acidity or alkalinity of the soil

Determines availability of nutrients

Most plants prefer pH of 6-8

Can be altered or changed using amendments (additives) to the soil

Soils that are too acid – use limestone

Soils that are too basic – use aluminum sulfate or other materials.

Slide54

Nutrient Analysis

Plants need nutrients to grow

Testing the soil to learn the kind and amount of selected nutrients that are present

Too little means poor plant growth

Too much can cause damage to plants and the environment

Must be properly sampled by NCDA&CS guidelines

Tested

Use a soil nutrient test kit available at agriculture or science supply stores

Using a kit supplied by NCDA&CS

Slide55

Essential Nutrients – CHOPKNS CaFé

Plants need 17 nutrients

10 are macronutrients, needed in large amounts

7 are micronutrients, needed in small amounts

Iron (Fe) is sometimes considered a macro, sometimes a micro

C, H, O are provided by air and water

N, P, K are needed in large amounts for the soil and are often found in

fertililzers

Slide56

Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)

A measure of the soil to hold exchange cations (positively charged ions)

Important and related to soil fertility

Calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, and

ammounium

are related nutrients.

Slide57

Soil Degradation

Slide58

Degradation

Lowering the quality of the soil

Can be avoided through proper management

Slide59

Degradation - Construction

Altering the land by building roads, houses and buildings

Major problem is removing vegetation and leaving soil exposed to erosion

Slide60

Degradation – Contamination

Comes from chemicals, oils, and other substances in the soil

Often comes from dumps, mines and factories

Can result from agricultural practices such as excess fertilizers or chemicals.

Slide61

Degradation - Erosion

Natural process by which soil is moved and lost from the land.

Slide62

Two Content Layout with Table

First bullet point here

Second bullet point here

Third bullet point here

Group 1

Group 2

Class 1

82

95

Class

2

76

88

Class 3

84

90

Slide63

Two Content Layout with SmartArt

Add your first bullet point here

Add your second bullet point here

Add your third bullet point here

Slide64

Picture with Caption Layout

Caption

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