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dshistory | 09-05-17 | History Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of the Congress; the first session was held from 28–31 December 1885, and was attended by 72 delegates.

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Slide1

INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

Slide2

DISCRIPTION ABOUT INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

The 

Indian National Congress

 

pronunciation

(

INC

, often called 

Congress

) is a broad-based 

political party in India

. Founded in 1885, the Congress led India to independence from 

Great Britain

, and powerfully influenced other 

anti-colonial nationalist movements

 in the 

British Empire

. After India's independence in 1947, the Congress formed most 

federal governments

in India, and many regional state governments. The Congress is a 

secular

, left-of-centre, party. Although it did not fare well in the last general elections in India in 2014, it remains one of two major, nation-wide,

politial

parties in India, along with the right-wing, 

Hindu nationalist

, 

Bhartiya

Janata

Party

 (BJP).

The Congress was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. It was founded in

Bombay

 in late December 1885, during the 

British Raj

 in India. Its principal founders were, 

Allan Octavian Hume

 (a former administrator of 

Etawah

district

, 

North-Western Provinces

, and pioneering 

ornithologist

 of India), as well as 

William

Wedderburn

,

Pherozeshah

Mehta

, 

Dadabhai

Naoroji

, 

Dinshaw

Wacha

, and others. From the late 19th-century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of 

Mahatma Gandhi

, Congress became the principal leader of the 

Indian independence movement

, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants.

 

Slide3

FIRST SESSION OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS BOMBAY 28-31 DECEMBER 1885

Slide4

A O HUME ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

Slide5

FOUNDATION

The Congress was founded in December 1885 in Bombay. Its founding members included Allan Octavian Hume, who had chalked out the idea in an open letter to graduates of the University of Calcutta in 1883,

 as well as William

Wedderburn

, 

Pherozeshah

Mehta, and others. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 the first notice convening the first Indian National Union to meet in Poona the following December was issued.

Its objective was to obtain a greater share in government for educated Indians and to create a platform for civic and political dialogue between educated Indians and the British Raj. The Congress met each December. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Poona, but due to a cholera outbreak there it was shifted to Bombay. Hume

organised

the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord

Dufferin

. 

Womesh

Chandra

Bonnerjee

 was the first president of the Congress; the first session was held from 28–31 December 1885, and was attended by 72 delegates. Representing each province of India, the Party's delegates comprised 54 Hindus and 2 Muslims; the rest were of 

Parsi

 and Jain backgrounds.

Slide6

SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE SERVED AS PRESIDENT OF THE CONGRESS DURING 1938-39

Slide7

CONGRESS AS A MASS MOVEMENT

Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915. With the help of the moderate group led by

Ghokhale

, Gandhi became president of the

Congress.After

the First World War , the party became associated with Mahatma Gandhi, who remained its unofficial spiritual leader and icon.

He formed an alliance with the 

Khilafat

Movement in 1920 to fight for preservation of Ottoman Caliphate and rights for Indians using

using

civil disobedience or Satyagraha as the tool for agitation. In 1923 following the deaths of policemen at Chakra

Chaura

, Gandhi suspended the agitation. In protest, a number of

leaders,Chittaranjan

Das, Annie Besant, and 

Motilal

Nehru, resigned to set up

theSwaraj

Party The

Khilafat

movement collapsed and the Congress was split.

 

Slide8

POST INDEPENDENCE

After Indian independence in 1947, the Indian National Congress became the dominant political party in the country. In 1952, in the

first general election

 held after Independence, the party swept to power in the national parliament and most state legislatures. The party held power nationally until 1977 when it was defeated by the

Janata

coalition. It returned to power in 1980 and ruled until 1989, when it was once again defeated. It formed the government in 1991 at the head of a coalition, as well as in 2004 and 2009, when it led the 

United Progressive Alliance

. During this period the Congress remained centre-left in its social policies while steadily shifting from a socialist to a 

neoliberal

 economic outlook. The Party's rivals at state level has been national parties the 

Bharatiya

Janata

Party

(BJP), the 

Communist Party of India (Marxist)

(CPM), and various regional parties such as the 

Telugu

Desam

Party.

Slide9

NEHRU(1947-66)

1962. During his tenure, Nehru implemented policies based on 

import substitution

industrialisation

 and advocated a 

mixed economy

, where the government-controlled 

public sector

 co-existed with the 

private sector

. He believed the establishment of basic and heavy industries was fundamental to the development and

modernisation

of the Indian economy.

 The Nehru government directed investment primarily into key public sector industries – steel, iron, coal, and power – promoting their development with subsidies and protectionist policies.

 Nehru embraced

secularism socialistic

economic practices based on state-driven

industrialisation

, and a non-aligned and non-confrontational foreign policy that became typical of the modern Congress Party.

The policy of non-alignment during the 

Cold War

meant Nehru received financial and technical support from both the 

Eastern Bloc

 and the 

Western Bloc

 to build India's industrial base from nothing.

Slide10

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU THE FIRST CONGRESS PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA

Slide11

INDIRA GANDHI (1966-84)

After

Shastri's

death, the Congress elected

Indira

Gandhi as leader over 

Morarji

Desai

. Once again, politician K.

Kamaraj

was instrumental in achieving this result. In 1967, following a poor performance in the general election,

Indira

Gandhi started moving towards the political left. In 1969, she was in dispute with senior party leaders on a number of issues; the party president 

S.

Nijalingappa

 expelled her from the Congress.

Gandhi launched her own faction of the IRC, retaining the support of most of the Congress MPs, 65 of which supported 

the original party.

In the mid-term parliamentary elections held in 1971, the Gandhi-led Congress (R) Party won a landslide victory on a platform of progressive policies such as the elimination of poverty (

Garibi

Hatao

,

 The policies of the Congress (R) Party under Gandhi before the 1971 elections included proposals to abolish the 

Privy Purse

to former rulers of

the

Princely

states

and the 1969

nationalisation

of the 14 largest banks in India.

 

Slide12

SECOND LONGEST SERVING PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA AND THE ONLY WOMEN TO HOLD THE OFFICE

Slide13

RAJIV GANDHI (1984-1989)

In 1984,

Indira

Gandhi's son Rajiv Gandhi became nominal head of the Congress and became prime minister upon her assassination.

 In December, he led the Congress to a landslide victory, in which it secured 401 seats in the legislature.

His administration took measures to reform the government bureaucracy and

liberalise

the country's economy.

Rajiv Gandhi's attempts to discourage separatist movements in Punjab and Kashmir backfired. After his government became embroiled in several financial scandals, his leadership became increasingly ineffectual.

 Gandhi was regarded as a non-abrasive person who consulted other party members and refrained from hasty decisions.

The 

Bofors

scandal  damaged his image as an honest politician but he was posthumously cleared of bribery allegations in 2004.

 On 21 May 1991, Gandhi was killed by a bomb concealed in a basket of flowers carried by a woman associated with the Tamil Tigers  He was campaigning in Tamil Nadu for upcoming parliamentary elections. In 1998, an Indian court convicted 26 people in the conspiracy to assassinate Gandhi.

 The conspirators, who consisted of Tamil militants from Sri Lanka and their Indian allies, had sought revenge against Gandhi because the Indian troops he sent to Sri Lanka in 1987 to help enforce a peace accord  there had fought with Tamil separatist guerrillas.

Slide14

RAJIV GANDHI PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA AND PRESIDENT OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

Slide15

PV NARASIMHA RAO

Rajiv Gandhi was succeeded as party leader by P. V. Narasimha Rao, who was elected prime minister in June 1991. His rise to the prime ministership was politically significant because he was the first holder of this office from South India. His administration oversaw a major economic change and several home incidents that affected India's national security. Rao, who held the Industries portfolio, was personally responsible for the dismantling of the Licence Raj , which came under the purview of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. He is often referred to as the "father of Indian economic reforms".

Slide16

UPA CHAIRPERSON SONIA GANDHI THE LEADER OF INC SINCE 1998

Slide17

SONIA GANDHI

 

Sonia Gandhi's appointment initially failed to have an impact; in the snap polls called by the 

National Democratic Alliance

 (NDA) government in 1999, the Congress won 114 seats – its lowest tally ever. The leadership structure was unaltered and the party campaigned strongly in the assembly elections that followed. At these elections the party was successful; at one point, the Congress ruled 15 states.

In the 2004 general election, the Congress forged an alliance with several regional parties, including the NCP and the

Dravida

Munnetra

Kazhagam

. The party's campaign

emphasised

social inclusion and the welfare of common people, contrasting with the NDA's "

India Shining

" campaign that sought to highlight the successes of the NDA government in making India into a "modern

nation".The

Congress-led 

United Progressive Alliance

 (UPA) won 222 seats in the new parliament, defeating the NDA by a substantial margin. With the support of the communist front, the Congress won a majority and formed the new government. Despite massive support from within the Party, Gandhi declined the post of prime minister, choosing to appoint

Manmohan

Singh instead. She remained as party president and headed the 

National Advisory Council(NAC)

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