INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESSSlide2
DISCRIPTION ABOUT INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
Indian National Congress
, often calledÂ
) is a broad-basedÂ
political party in India
. Founded in 1885, the Congress led India to independence fromÂ
, and powerfully influenced otherÂ
anti-colonial nationalist movements
Â in theÂ
. After India's independence in 1947, the Congress formed mostÂ
in India, and many regional state governments. The Congress is aÂ
, left-of-centre, party. Although it did not fare well in the last general elections in India in 2014, it remains one of two major, nation-wide,
parties in India, along with the right-wing,Â
The Congress was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. It was founded in
Â in late December 1885, during theÂ
Â in India. Its principal founders were,Â
Allan Octavian Hume
Â (a former administrator ofÂ
, and pioneeringÂ
Â of India), as well asÂ
, and others. From the late 19th-century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership ofÂ
, Congress became the principal leader of theÂ
Indian independence movement
, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants.
FIRST SESSION OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS BOMBAY 28-31 DECEMBER 1885Slide4
A O HUME ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESSSlide5
The Congress was founded in December 1885 inÂ Bombay. Its founding members includedÂ Allan Octavian Hume, who had chalked out the idea in an open letter to graduates of theÂ University of Calcutta in 1883,
Â as well asÂ William
Mehta, and others. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 the first notice convening the first Indian National Union to meet inÂ Poona the following December was issued.
Its objective was to obtain a greater share in government for educated Indians and to create a platform for civic and political dialogue between educated Indians and the British Raj. The Congress met each December. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Poona, but due to aÂ cholera outbreak there it was shifted toÂ Bombay. Hume
the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of theÂ ViceroyÂ Lord
Â was the first president of the Congress; the first session was held from 28â31 December 1885, and was attended by 72 delegates. Representing each province of India, the Party's delegates comprised 54 Hindus and 2 Muslims; the rest were ofÂ
Â andÂ JainÂ backgrounds.Slide6
SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE SERVED AS PRESIDENT OF THE CONGRESS DURING 1938-39Slide7
CONGRESS AS A MASS MOVEMENT
Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915. With the help of the moderate group led by
, Gandhi became president of the
theÂ First World War , the party became associated with Mahatma Gandhi, who remained its unofficial spiritual leader and icon.
He formed an alliance with theÂ
MovementÂ in 1920 to fight for preservation ofÂ Ottoman CaliphateÂ and rights for Indians using
civil disobedience or Satyagraha as the tool for agitation. In 1923 following the deaths of policemen atÂ Chakra
, Gandhi suspended the agitation. In protest, a number of
Das,Â Annie Besant, andÂ
Nehru, resigned to set up
movement collapsed and the Congress was split.
After Indian independence in 1947, the Indian National Congress became the dominant political party in the country. In 1952, in the
first general election
Â held after Independence, the party swept to power in the national parliament and most state legislatures. The party held power nationally until 1977 when it was defeated by the
coalition. It returned to power in 1980 and ruled until 1989, when it was once again defeated. It formed the government in 1991 at the head of a coalition, as well as in 2004 and 2009, when it led theÂ
United Progressive Alliance
. During this period the Congress remained centre-left in its social policies while steadily shifting from a socialist to aÂ
Â economic outlook. The Party's rivals at state level has been national parties theÂ
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(CPM), and various regional parties such as theÂ
1962.Â During his tenure, Nehru implemented policies based onÂ
Â and advocated aÂ
, where the government-controlledÂ
Â co-existed with theÂ
.Â He believed the establishment of basic and heavy industries was fundamental to the development and
of the Indian economy.
Â The Nehru government directed investment primarily into key public sector industriesÂ â steel, iron, coal, and powerÂ â promoting their development with subsidies and protectionist policies.
Â Nehru embraced
economic practices based on state-driven
, and a non-aligned and non-confrontational foreign policy that became typical of the modern Congress Party.
The policy of non-alignment during theÂ
meant Nehru received financial and technical support from both theÂ
Â and theÂ
Â to build India's industrial base from nothing.Slide10
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU THE FIRST CONGRESS PRIME MINISTER OF INDIASlide11
INDIRA GANDHI (1966-84)
death, the Congress elected
Gandhi as leader overÂ
. Once again, politician K.
was instrumental in achieving this result. In 1967, following a poor performance in the general election,
Gandhi started moving towards the political left. In 1969, she was in dispute with senior party leaders on a number of issues; the party presidentÂ
Â expelled her from the Congress.
Gandhi launched her own faction of the IRC, retaining the support of most of the Congress MPs, 65 of which supportedÂ
the original party.
In the mid-term parliamentary elections held in 1971, the Gandhi-led CongressÂ (R) Party won a landslide victory on a platform of progressive policies such as the elimination of poverty (
Â The policies of the CongressÂ (R) Party under Gandhi before the 1971 elections included proposals to abolish theÂ
to former rulers of
and the 1969
of the 14 largest banks in India.
SECOND LONGEST SERVING PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA AND THE ONLY WOMEN TO HOLD THE OFFICESlide13
RAJIV GANDHI (1984-1989)
Gandhi's son Rajiv Gandhi became nominal head of the Congress and became prime minister upon her assassination.
Â In December, he led the Congress to a landslide victory, in which it secured 401 seats in the legislature.
His administration took measures to reform the government bureaucracy and
the country's economy.
Rajiv Gandhi's attempts to discourage separatist movements in Punjab and Kashmir backfired. After his government became embroiled in several financial scandals, his leadership became increasingly ineffectual.
Â Gandhi was regarded as a non-abrasive person who consulted other party members and refrained from hasty decisions.
scandal Â damaged his image as an honest politician but he was posthumously cleared of bribery allegations in 2004.
Â On 21 May 1991, Gandhi was killed by a bomb concealed in a basket of flowers carried by a woman associated with theÂ Tamil Tigers Â He was campaigning in Tamil Nadu for upcoming parliamentary elections. In 1998, an Indian court convicted 26 people in the conspiracy to assassinate Gandhi.
Â The conspirators, who consisted of Tamil militants from Sri Lanka and their Indian allies, had sought revenge against Gandhi because the Indian troops he sent to Sri Lanka in 1987 to help enforceÂ a peace accord Â there had fought with Tamil separatist guerrillas.
RAJIV GANDHI PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA AND PRESIDENT OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESSSlide15
PV NARASIMHA RAO
Rajiv Gandhi was succeeded as party leader byÂ P. V. Narasimha Rao, who was elected prime minister in June 1991.Â His rise to the prime ministership was politically significant because he was the first holder of this office from South India. His administration oversaw a majorÂ economic changeÂ and several home incidents that affected India's national security.Â Rao, who held theÂ Industries portfolio, was personally responsible for the dismantling of theÂ Licence Raj , which came under the purview of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.Â He is often referred to as the "father of Indian economic reforms".Slide16
UPA CHAIRPERSON SONIA GANDHI THE LEADER OF INC SINCE 1998Slide17
Sonia Gandhi's appointment initially failed to have an impact; in the snap polls called by theÂ
National Democratic Alliance
Â (NDA) government in 1999, the Congress won 114 seatsÂ â its lowest tally ever. The leadership structure was unaltered and the party campaigned strongly in the assembly elections that followed. At these elections the party was successful; at one point, the Congress ruled 15 states.
In the 2004 general election, the Congress forged an alliance with several regional parties, including the NCP and the
. The party's campaign
social inclusion and the welfare of common people, contrasting with the NDA's "
" campaign that sought to highlight the successes of the NDA government in making India into a "modern
United Progressive Alliance
Â (UPA) won 222 seats in the new parliament, defeating the NDA by a substantial margin. With the support of the communist front, the Congress won a majority and formed the new government. Despite massive support from within the Party, Gandhi declined the post of prime minister, choosing to appoint
Singh instead. She remained as party president and headed theÂ
National Advisory Council(NAC)