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dshistory | 09-05-17 | History Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad in British India. His father, Motilal Nehru (1861–1931), a wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, served twice as President of the Indian National Congress during theIndependence Struggle. His mother, Swaruprani Thussu (1868–1938), who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled inLahore, was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth.

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NENRU ON A 1989 USSR COMMEMORATIVE STAMP

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Slide1

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU

Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence. 

Slide2

Jawaharlal Nehru

 : 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the 

firstPrime

Minister of India

 and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence. He emerged as the paramount leader of the 

Indian independence movement

 under the tutelage of 

Mahatma Gandhi

 and ruled India from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964. He is considered to be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state: a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. He was also known as 

Pandit

Nehru

 due to his roots with the 

Kashmiri

Pandit

 community while many Indian children knew him as 

Chacha

Nehru

 .The son of 

Motilal

Nehru

, a prominent lawyer and nationalist statesman and

Swaroop

Rani

, Nehru was a graduate of 

Trinity College,

Cambridge

and

the 

Inner Temple

, where he trained to be a 

barrister

. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the 

Allahabad High Court

, and took an interest in national politics, which eventually replaced his legal practice. A committed nationalist since his teenage years, he became a rising figure in Indian politics during the upheavals of the 1910s. He became the prominent leader of the left-wing factions of the 

Indian National Congress

 during the 1920s, and eventually of the entire Congress, with the tacit approval of his mentor, Gandhi. As 

Congress President

 in 1929, Nehru called for 

complete independence

 from the 

British Raj

 and instigated the Congress's decisive shift towards the left.

 

Slide3

EARLY LIFE AND CAREER

Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad in British India. His father, Motilal Nehru (1861–1931), a wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, served twice as President of the Indian National Congress during theIndependence Struggle. His mother, Swaruprani Thussu (1868–1938), who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled inLahore, was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. Jawaharlal was the eldest of three children, two of whom were girls. The elder sister, Vijaya Lakshmi, later became the first female president of the United Nations General Assembly.The youngest sister, Krishna Hutheesing, became a noted writer and authored several books on her brother.

Slide4

NEHRU IN 1918 WITH WIFE KAMALA AND DAUGHTER INDIRA

Slide5

STRUGGLE FOR INDAIN INDEPENDENCE

Nehru had developed an interest in Indian politics during his time in Britain. Within months of his return to India in 1912 he had attended an annual session of the Indian National Congress in 

Patna

. He was disconcerted with what he saw as a "very much an English-knowing upper class affair". The Congress in 1912 had been the party of moderates and elites. Nehru

harboured

doubts regarding the ineffectualness of the Congress but agreed to work for the party in support of the Indian civil rights movement in South Africa. He collected funds for the civil rights campaigners led by 

Mohandas Gandhi

 in 1913. Later, he campaigned against the indentured

labour

and other such discriminations faced by Indians in the British colonies.

When the 

First World War

 broke out in August 1914, sympathy in India was divided. Although educated Indians "by and large took a vicarious pleasure" in seeing the British rulers humbled, the ruling upper classes sided with the 

Allies

. Nehru confessed that he viewed the war with mixed feelings. 

Frank

Moraes

 wrote: "If [Nehru's] sympathy was with any country it was with France, whose culture he greatly admired." During the war, Nehru volunteered for the 

St John Ambulance

 and worked as one of the provincial secretaries of the

organisation

in Allahabad. He also spoke out against the censorship acts passed by the British government in India.

Slide6

HOME RULE MOVEMENT

Several nationalist leaders banded together in 1916 under the leadership of Annie Besant to voice a demand for 

self-government

, and to obtain the status of a 

Dominion

 within the

British Empire

 as enjoyed by Australia, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and Newfoundland at the time. Nehru joined the movement and rose to become secretary of Besant's

All India Home Rule League

. In June 1917 Besant was arrested and interned by the British government. The Congress and various other Indian

organisation

threatened to launch protests if she were not set free. The British government was subsequently forced to release Besant and make 

significant concessions

after a period of intense protest.

Slide7

NON COOPERATION

The first big national involvement of Nehru came at the onset of the 

non-co-operation movement

 in 1920. He led the movement in the United Provinces (now 

Uttar Pradesh

). Nehru was arrested on charges of anti-governmental activities in 1921, and was released a few months later. In the rift that formed within the Congress following the sudden closure of the non-co-operation movement after the 

Chauri

Chaura

incident

, Nehru remained loyal to Gandhi and did not join the 

Swaraj

Party

 formed by his father 

Motilal

Nehru

 and 

CR Das

.

Slide8

REPUBLICANISAM

Nehru was one of the first nationalist leaders to

realise

the sufferings of the people in the states ruled by Indian Princes. He suffered imprisonment in 

Nabha

, a 

princely state

, when he went there to see the struggle that was being waged by the Sikhs against the corrupt

Mahants

. The nationalist movement had been confined to the territories under direct British rule. He helped to make the struggle of the people in the princely states a part of the nationalist movement for independence. The All India states people's conference was formed in 1927. Nehru who had been supporting the cause of the people of the princely states for many years was made the President of the conference in 1935. He opened up its ranks to membership from across the political spectrum. The body would play an important role during the political integration of India, helping Indian leaders 

Vallabhbhai

Patel

and 

V.P.

Menon

 (to whom Nehru had delegated the task of integrating the princely states into India) negotiate with hundreds of princes.

Slide9

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

Nehru was one of the first leaders to demand that the Congress Party should resolve to make a complete and explicit break from all ties with the British Empire. He introduced a resolution demanding "complete national independence" in 1927, which was rejected because of Gandhi's opposition.

In 1928, Gandhi agreed to Nehru's demands and proposed a resolution that called for the British to grant dominion status to India within two years. If the British failed to meet the deadline, the Congress would call upon all Indians to fight for complete independence. Nehru was one of the leaders who objected to the time given to the British – he pressed Gandhi to demand immediate actions from the British. Gandhi brokered a further compromise by reducing the time given from two years to one. Nehru agreed to vote for the new resolution

Slide10

ARCHITECT OF INDIA

Nehru elaborated the policies of the Congress and a future Indian nation under his leadership in 1929. He declared that the aims of the congress were freedom of religion, right to form associations, freedom of expression of thought, equality before law for every individual without distinction of caste,

colour

, creed or religion, protection to regional languages and cultures, safeguarding the interests of the peasants and

labour

, abolition of

untouchability

, introduction of adult franchise, imposition of prohibition,

nationalisation

of industries, socialism, and establishment of a secular India. All these aims formed the core of the "Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy" resolution drafted by Nehru in 1929–31 and were ratified by the All India Congress Committee under Gandhi's leadership. However, some Congress leaders objected to the resolution and decided to oppose Nehru.

Slide11

ELECTORAL POLITICS

Nehru visit to Europe in 1936 proved to be the watershed in his political and economic thinking. Nehru's real interest in Marxism and his socialist pattern of thought stem from that tour. His subsequent sojourns in prison enabled him to study Marxism in more depth. Interested in its ideas but repelled by some of its methods, he could never bring himself to accept Karl Marx's writings as revealed scripture. Yet from then on, the yardstick of his economic thinking remained Marxist, adjusted, where necessary, to Indian conditions.

 

Slide12

WORLD WAR II AND QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT

When World war II started, Viceroy

Linlithgow

had unilaterally declared India a belligerent on the side of the Britain, without consulting the elected Indian representatives. Nehru hurried back from a visit to China, announcing that, in a conflict between democracy and Fascism, "our sympathies must inevitably be on the side of democracy.... I should like India to play its full part and throw all her resources into the struggle for a new order."

After much deliberation the Congress under Nehru informed the government that it would co-operate with the British but on certain conditions. First, Britain must give an assurance of full independence for India after the war and allow the election of a constituent assembly to frame a new constitution; second, although the Indian armed forces would remain under the British Commander-in-Chief, Indians must be included immediately in the central government and given a chance to share power and responsibility. When Nehru presented Lord

Linlithgow

with the demands, he chose to reject them. A deadlock was reached. "The same old game is played again", Nehru wrote bitterly to Gandhi, "the background is the same, the various epithets are the same and the actors are the same and the results must be the same".

Slide13

PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA

Nehru and his colleagues had been released as the 

British Cabinet Mission

arrived to propose plans for transfer of power.

Once elected, Nehru headed an interim government, which was impaired by outbreaks of communal violence and political disorder, and the opposition of the 

Muslim League

 led by 

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

, who were demanding a separate Muslim state of 

Pakistan

. After failed bids to form coalitions, Nehru reluctantly supported the 

partition of India

, according to a plan released by the British on 3 June 1947. He took office as the 

Prime Minister of India

 on 15 August, and delivered his inaugural address titled "

Tryst with

Destiny

".On

30 January 1948, Gandhi was shot while he was walking to a platform from which he was to address a prayer meeting. The

assassin,

Nathuram

Godse

, was a Hindu nationalist with links to the extremist Hindu

Mahasabha

, who held Gandhi responsible for weakening India by insisting upon a payment to Pakistan. Nehru addressed the nation through radio:

 

Slide14

ASSASSINATION ATTEMPTS AND SECURITY

There were four known assassination attempts on Nehru. The first attempt on his life was during partition in 1947 while he was visiting 

North-West Frontier Province

 (now in Pakistan) in a

car.The

second one was by a knife-wielding rickshaw-puller in Maharashtra in 1955. The third one happened in 

Bombay

(now 

Maharashtra

) in 1956.

 The fourth one was a failed bombing attempt on train tracks in Maharashtra in 1961.

 Despite threats to his life, Nehru despised having too much security around him and did not like to disrupt traffic due to his movement. 

 

Slide15

DEATH

Nehru, the man and politician made such a powerful imprint on India that his death on 27 May 1964, left India with no clear political heir to his leadership (later 

Lal

Bahadur

Shastri

succeeded him as the Prime Minister). The death was announced to the Indian parliament in words similar to Nehru's own at the time of Gandhi's assassination: "The light is out."

Slide16

PERSONAL LIFE

Nehru married 

Kamala

Kaul

 in 1916. Their only daughter 

Indira

 was born a year later in 1917. Kamala gave birth to a boy in November 1924, but he lived only for a week. 

Indira

married 

Feroze

Gandhi

 in 1942. They had two sons – 

Rajiv

 (b. 1944) and 

Sanjay

 (b. 1946).

Nehru was alleged to have had relationships with

Shraddha

Mata, 

Padmaja

Naidu

 and 

Edwina

Mountbatten

.Edwina's

daughter 

Pamela

 acknowledged Nehru's platonic relationship with Edwina.

 

Slide17

STATUE OF NEHRU AT PARK STREET KOLKATA

Slide18

NENRU ON A 1989 USSR COMMEMORATIVE STAMP

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