Karl Marx 5 May 1818 â 14 March 1883) was a
,Â journalist, andÂ revolutionary socialist. Born inÂ TrierÂ to a middle-class family, he later studiedÂ political economyÂ and Hegelian philosophy. As an adult, Marx becameÂ statelessÂ and spent much of his life inÂ London, England, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinkerÂ Friedrich EngelsÂ and published various works, the most well-known being the 1848Â pamphletÂ The Communist Manifesto. His work has since influenced subsequent intellectual, economic, and political history.Slide3
Karl Marx was born on 5 May 1818 toÂ Heinrich MarxÂ and Henrietta
(1788â1863). He was born at
664 in Trier, a town then part of theÂ Kingdom of Prussia'sÂ Province of the Lower
was ancestrally Jewish; his maternal grandfather was a DutchÂ rabbi, while his paternal line had supplied Trier's rabbis since 1723, a role taken by his grandfather Meier
father, as a child known as Herschel, was the first in the line to receive a secular education; he became a lawyer and lived a relatively wealthy and middle-class existence, with his family owning a number ofÂ
Â vineyards. Prior to his son's birth, and to escape the constraints ofÂ anti-
Â legislation, Herschel converted fromÂ JudaismÂ toÂ Lutheranism, the mainÂ Protestant denominationÂ in Germany and Prussia at the time, taking on the German forename of Heinrich over theÂ YiddishÂ Herschel.Â Marx was also a third cousin once removed of German Romantic poetÂ Heinrich Heine, also born to a German Jewish family in theÂ Rhineland, with whom he became a frequent correspondent in later life.Slide4
Little is known of Karl Marx's childhood.
Â The third of nine children, he became the oldest son when his brother Moritz died in 1819.
Young Karl wasÂ
Â into the Lutheran Church in August 1824 along with his surviving siblings, Sophie, Hermann,
, Louise, Emilie and Caroline as was their mother the following year.
Young Karl was privately educated, by Heinrich Marx, until 1830, when he entered Trier High School, whose headmaster, Hugo
, was a friend of his father. By employing manyÂ liberal humanistsÂ as teachers,
incurred the anger of the local conservative government. Subsequently, police raided the school in 1832, and discovered that literature espousing political liberalism was being distributed among the students. Considering the distribution of such material a seditious act, the authorities instituted reforms and replaced several staff during Marx's attendance.Slide5
In October 1835 at the age of 17, Marx travelled to theÂ University of BonnÂ wishing to study philosophy and literature; however, his father insisted on law as a more practical field.
Due to a condition referred to as a "weak chest",Â Karl was excused from military duty when he turned 18. While at the University at Bonn, Marx joined the Poets' Club, a group containing political radicals that were monitored by the police.Â Marx also joined the Trier Tavern Club drinking society (
), at one point serving as club co-president.
Â Additionally, Marx was involved in certain disputes, some of which became serious: in August 1836 he took part in a duel with a member of the university's
.Â Although his grades in the first term were good, they soon deteriorated, leading his father to force a transfer to the more serious and academicÂ University of Berlin.Slide6
In 1843, Marx became co-editor of a new, radical leftist Parisian newspaper, theÂ Deutsch-
Â (German-French Annals), then being set up by the German socialistÂ Arnold
to bring together German and French radicals,
and thus Marx and his wife moved to Paris in October 1843. Initially living with
and his wife communally at 23Â Rue
, they found the living conditions difficult, so moved out following the birth of their daughter Jenny in 1844.
Â Although intended to attract writers from both France and the German states, theÂ
Â was dominated by the latter; the only non-German writer was the exiled RussianÂ anarchist collectivistÂ Mikhail
contributed two essays to the paper, "Introduction to a Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right"Â and "On the Jewish
latter introducing his belief that theÂ proletariat were a revolutionary force and marking his embrace of communism.
Only one issue was published, but it was relatively successful, largely owing to the inclusion ofÂ Heinrich Heine's satirical odes on KingÂ Ludwig of Bavaria, leading the German states to ban it and seize imported copies;
nevertheless refused to fund the publication of further issues, and his friendship with Marx broke down.Slide7
Unable either to stay in France or to move to Germany, Marx decided to emigrate to Brussels in Belgium in February 1845. However, to stay in Belgium, Marx had to pledge not to publish anything on the subject of contemporary politics.Â In Brussels, he associated with other exiled socialists from across Europe, includingÂ Moses Hess,Â Karl
, andÂ Joseph
, and soon, in April 1845, Engels moved from Barmen in Germany to Brussels to join Marx and the growing cadre of members of the League of the Just now seeking home in Brussels.Â Later, Mary Burns, Engels' long-time companion, left Manchester, England, to join Engels in Brussels.Slide8
Temporarily settling down in Paris, Marx transferred theÂ Communist LeagueÂ executive headquarters to the city and also set up aÂ German Workers' ClubÂ with various German socialists living there.Â Hoping to see the revolution spread to Germany, in 1848 Marx moved back to Cologne where he began issuing a handbill entitled theÂ Demands of the Communist Party in Germany,Â in which he argued for only four of the ten points of theÂ Communist Manifesto, believing that in Germany at that time, the bourgeoisie must overthrow theÂ feudalÂ monarchy and aristocracy before the proletariat could overthrow the bourgeoisie.Â On 1 June, Marx started publication of a daily newspaper, theÂ
, which he helped to finance through his recent inheritance from his father. Designed to put forward news from across Europe with his own Marxist interpretation of events, the newspaper featured Marx as a primary writer and the dominant editorial influence. Despite contributions by fellow members of the Communist League, it remained, according toÂ Friedrich Engels, "a simple dictatorship by Marx".Slide9
MEMORIAL TO KARAL MARX EAST HIGH GATE CEMETEY LONDON