TheÂ Quit India Movemen or theÂ IndiaÂ August MovementÂ (August Kranti), was a civil disobedience movementÂ launched at the Bombay session of the All-IndiaÂ Congress Committee or more simply by Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) on 8 August 1942, during World War II.
QUIT INDIA MOVEMENTSlide2
Quit India Movement
Â was aÂ civil disobedienceÂ movement launched at the Bombay session of theÂ All-India Congress CommitteeÂ or more simply byÂ GandhiÂ (Mahatma Gandhi) on 8 August 1942, duringÂ World War II, demanding an end toÂ British Rule of India.
Â TheÂ Cripps MissionÂ had failed, and on 8 August 1942, Gandhi made a call toÂ Do or DieÂ in hisÂ Quit India speechÂ delivered in Bombay at theÂ
. TheÂ All-India Congress CommitteeÂ launched a mass protest demanding what Gandhi called "An Orderly British Withdrawal" from India. Even though it was wartime, the British were prepared to act. Almost the entire leadership of theÂ INC was imprisoned without trial within hours ofÂ Gandhi's speech. Most spent the rest of the war in prison and out of contact with the masses. The British had the support of theÂ Viceroy's CouncilÂ (which had a majority of Indians), of theÂ All India Muslim League , the princely states, theÂ Indian Imperial Police, theÂ British Indian ArmyÂ and theÂ
Service. Many Indian businessmen profiting from heavy wartime spending did not support Quit India Movement. Many students paid more attention toÂ
Chandra Bose, who was in exile and supporting theÂ Axis Powers. The only outside support came from the Americans, as PresidentÂ Franklin D. Roosevelt pressured Prime MinisterÂ Winston Churchill to give in to some of the Indian demands
OPPOSITION TO THE QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT
Several groups supporting Indian independence were opposed to the Quit India Movement. These included theÂ Muslim League, theÂ Hindu
, theÂ Communist Party of India and theÂ princely statesSlide4
TheÂ Muslim LeagueÂ opposed the Quit India Movement as it was of the view that if the British left India in its current state, Muslims as a minority would be oppressed by the Hindu majority.Â Muhammad Ali Jinnah's opposition to Gandhi's call led to large numbers of Muslims cooperating with the British, and enlisting in the army.Â TheÂ Muslim League gained large numbers of new members. Congress members heeding Gandhi's call resigned from provincial legislatures, enabling the Muslim League, in alliance with the Hindu
, to take control in
, Bengal and Northwest Frontier.Slide5
Hindu nationalist parties like theÂ Hindu
Â openly opposed the call for the Quit India Movement and boycotted it officially.
, the president of the Hindu
at that time, even went to the extent of writing a letter titled "
Stick to your Posts
", in which he instructed Hindu
who happened to be "members of municipalities, local bodies, legislatures or those serving in the army...to stick to their posts" across the country, and not to join the Quit India Movement at any cost.Slide6
COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDIA
Communist Party of India
Â was banned at that time by the British government. In order to get the ban lifted, as well as to assist the Soviet Union in its war againstÂ
, it supported the British war effort, despite support for Quit India by many industrial workers. In response the British lifted the ban on the party.Slide7
The movement had less support in the princely states, as the princes were strongly opposed and funded the opposition.
The Indian nationalists had very little international support. They knew that the United States strongly supported Indian independence, in principle, and believed the U.S. was an ally. However, after Churchill threatened to resign if pushed too hard, the U.S. quietly supported him while bombarding Indians with propaganda designed to strengthen public support of the war effort. The poorly run American operation annoyed both the British and the Indians.Slide8
NO SUPPORT TO THE QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT
(RSS) kept aloof from the Congress-led anti-BritishÂ
Indian independence movement
Â since its founding byÂ
Â in 1925. In 1942, the RSS, underÂ
Â refused to join in the Quit India Movement. The Bombay government (British) appreciated the RSS position by noting that,
has scrupulously kept itself within the law, and in particular, has refrained from taking part in the disturbances that broke out in August 1942".".
The British Government stated that the RSS was not in support of civil disobedience, and as such their other political activities (even if objectionable) can be overlooked.Â The British Government also asserted that at
meetings organized during the times of anti-British movements started and fought by theÂ
Indian National Congress
"speakers urged the
members to keep aloof from the congress movement and these instructions were generally observed".