The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.Â
RUSSIAN CIVIL WARSlide2
October 1917 â October 1922
Former Russian Empire, Mongolia,
Establishment of the Soviet Union; Independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland
Victory for the Red Army in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, South Caucasus, Central Asia,
, and Mongolia;,ÂSlide3
DISCRIPTION ABOUT CIVIL WAR
Russian Civil War
Â :November 1917 â October 1922)
was a multi-party war in the formerÂ Russian Empire immediately after theÂ Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were theÂ Red Army , fighting for theÂ BolshevikÂ form ofÂ socialism Â led byÂ Vladimir Lenin , and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favoringÂ monarchism,Â capitalism Â and alternative forms of socialism, each
Â andÂ antidemocratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and
Â Green armies f ought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably theÂ Allied Forces Â and the pro-German armies.
The Red Army defeated the WhiteÂ Armed Forces of South Russia Â in Ukraine and the army led by AdmiralÂ
Kolchak Â in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded byÂ
were beaten inÂ CrimeaÂ and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in theÂ Far EastÂ continued well into 1923. Armed national resistance inÂ Central Asia Â was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000â12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians. The Russian Civil War has been described by some as the greatest national catastrophe that Europe had yet seen.Slide4
Main article:Â February Revolution
After the abdication ofÂ TsarÂ Nicholas II of Russia, theÂ Russian Provisional GovernmentÂ was established during the February Revolution of 1917.Slide5
CREATION OF RED ARMY
In the wake of theÂ October Revolution, the old Russian Imperial Army had been demobilized; the volunteer-based Red Guard was the Bolsheviks' main military force, augmented by an armed military component of theÂ
, the Bolshevik state security apparatus. In January, after significant reverses in combat, War CommissarÂ Leon TrotskyÂ headed the reorganization of the Red Guard into aÂ
Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,
Â in order to create a more professional fighting force. In June 1918, when it became apparent that a revolutionary army composed solely of workers would be far too small, Trotsky instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red
of rural Russians to Red Army conscription units was overcome by taking hostages and shooting them when necessary in order to force compliance,Â exactly the same practices used by the White Army officers.Â Former Tsarist officers were utilized as "military specialists" (
),Â sometimes their families were taken hostage in order to ensure their loyalty.Â At the start of the war three-quarters of the Red Army officer corps was composed of former Tsarist officers.
By its end, 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers.
RUSSIAN SOLDIERS OF THE ANTI BOIHEVIK SIBERIAN ARMY IN 1919Slide7
ANTI-BOISHEVIK VOLUNTEER ARMY IN SOUTH RUSSIAN, JANUVARY 1918Slide8
ANTI- BOLSHEVIK MOVEMENT
Main articles:Â White movement,Â Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine,Â Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War,Â Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War, andÂ Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks
While resistance to the Red Guard began on the very day after the Bolshevik uprising, theÂ Treaty of Brest-LitovskÂ and the political banÂ Â became a catalystÂ for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new regime.Slide9
Soldiers of theÂ Don ArmyÂ in 1919; a WhiteÂ infantryÂ division in March 1920; soldiers of theÂ 1st Cavalry Army;Â Leon TrotskyÂ in 1918; hanging of workers in YekaterinoslavÂ by theÂ Austro-Hungarian Army, April 1918.