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0 12 402 LOLIPOP IN AUCKLAND Bevan K5 Y5 Chuang and Ka


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Document on Subject : "0 12 402 LOLIPOP IN AUCKLAND Bevan K5 Y5 Chuang and Ka"— Transcript:

1 .: / 0. · 12   + · +))$… 4
.: / 0. · 12   + · +))$… 40.2 …LOLI‰POP IN AUCKLAND:            Bevan K5 Y5 Chuang and Kathryn A5 Hardy Bernal'  brought to you by CORE View metadata, citation and similar papers at core.ac.uk provided by AUT Scholarly Commons Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal professional development of sta^ with specialist interests in Asian cultural studies, and enhance public understanding of and relations with Asian cul-tures5'#e racial demographics of New Zealand have changed dramatically over the last decade5 Aotearoa New Zealand, considered to be a bicultural nation, needs to re-examine its cultural makeup and determine how it may &t into a more multicultural model, particularly in relation to policies and social services5Museums in New Zealand and globally are under pressure to be more cultur-ally relevant to multicultural populations 7Ang +)): )(85 ey face strategic issues of both engagement with diverse cultural communities and increasing audience numbers5According to the +))( Census 7Statistics New Zealand +))(8, $5* percent of Aucklanders are of Asian descent,X compared with (5 percent of European background, _5_ percent Paci&c Peoples, and 5 percent Maori5 Over _)5_ percent were born overseas5 e +))( Census identi&ed that  percent of Asian Aucklanders were of the &9een to twenty-nine years age bracket and, according to the Asia New Zealand Foundation 7+))$8, the Asian population in New Zealand will continue to be young5 is is in6uenced by the high pro-portion of Asian international students 7$! percent8, which is regulated by age through selective immigration criteria 7Friesen +))$: (85It is projected that by +)+( New Zealands Asian population will continue to rise by 5_ percent per year5 is will be the highest growth rate amongst all ethnic groups 7Statistics New Zealand +))$85           Museums matter only t

2 o the extent that they are perceived to
o the extent that they are perceived to provide the communities they serve with something of value beyond their own mere ex-istence 7Weil +))+: _…85 Museums have an important role in the creation and reinforcement of identity 7Nishime +))_Q+)): __85 ey also have the ability to teach the wider world about national identities and how to facilitate positive cultural and interfaith understanding5 Awareness of cultural identities facilitates individuals to be in tune with the background and attributes of audi-ences, thus increasing an audiences participation and experience 7Yoshitomi +))+: 85 SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; An understanding of the signi&cance of cultural diversity within the museum industry is not always very high 7Wajid +))$[ Steel +))(85 Some museum administrators do not believe this to be an important factor and some do not involve their communities in initiatives 7Denniston +)): (85 If museums and galleries desire to re6ect current national identities, they require policies to embrace diversity by shi9ing their terrain 7Nishime +))_Q+)): _+85Internationally, there has been a recent emphasis on ensuring the inclusion of ethnic minorities 7or non-Europeans, in Western countries8 in the employ-ment of museological professions 7Steel +))(85 With the assistance of sta^ from ethnic minority groups, organisations are committed to ensure their relevance and engagement with their constituent populations, particularly in terms of strategic planning and programming 7Stephens +))(: 85 Ethnic mi-nority sta@ng allows institutions to learn about stories hidden behind objects, and creates a positive impact on the interpretation of collections, ensuring appropriate representation and display 7Porter +))_: +85An ethnically diverse workforce will guarantee that institutions are able to plan for long-term strategic goals that focus on the attraction of multiple audiences in a way that is culturally appropriate 7Heywood +))(: ([ Lavin

3 e and Karp **: …*[ Steel +))(: [ St
e and Karp **: …*[ Steel +))(: [ Stephens +))(: [ Wajid +))$: ([ and Shaw +))_: +85 Museum and gallery sta^ still struggle to invent ways to accommodate alterna-tive ethnic viewpoints, as curators continue to impose their own perspectives onto interpretation 7Lavine and Karp **: _85By employing an ethnically diverse workforce, museums are able to create an appropriate, engaging, immersive and unforgettable experience for their audiences 7Stephens +))([ Steel +))(85 e initial experience of museum audi-ences impacts on whether they decide to return 7Yoshitomi +))+: +85 Museum visitors, through word-of-mouth, also greatly in6uence the reputation of an institution 7Porter +))_: …_85Museums are o9en visited for social reasons5 Visitors may attend with their families, friends, and guests 7Weil +))+: (!85 e inclusion of ethnic minority sta^ can enhance the diversity of audiences and increase visitation where sta^ members will take in their own communities, via friends and family5 Such visitors might independently return if their experiences at the museum were immersive and intensive, and had made a positive contribution to their lives 7Weil +))+: !…!_85 Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal According to the legislation, the four main metropolitan museums in New Zealand are obliged to connect and engage with their communities5] Most museums in New Zealand do this by developing public programmes and ex-hibitions that communicate with their local populations5As an example, in +))!, the Canterbury Museum, in conjunction with the Of-&ce of Ethnic A^airs, hosted the Around the World in  Lounges exhibition, by working with and exploring the culture of thirty di^erent ethnic groups in the Canterbury region5 e Auckland War Memorial Museum, in a similar fashion, and in conjunction with the Asia New Zealand Foundation, hosted the building of Ravanna for the Diwali festival5ese types of programmes, however, are usually carried out by a tick-the-box

4  manner where one ethnic community is 
 manner where one ethnic community is engaged and consulted every year5 #      Auckland War Memorial Museum is situated at the Auckland Domain 7Puke-kawa8, Auckland, New Zealand5 e current building has occupied the site since *+*, with subscriptions raised by Auckland people in remembrance of its war dead5 e Museum was built by and for Aucklanders5 e Museum site is stunning, but not easily accessible5 Visitors to the Auckland Museum need to make a conscious decision to attend5 is impacts on the types of audiences, as the majority of visitors will attend for a set purpose5 is emphasises the need to bring in a more diverse audience that includes minority groups in Auckland, such as the Asian population5            In August +))!, the Museum had only twelve sta^ members plus twenty-one volunteers of Asian descent in employment5 None of these employees repre-sented the Museum at middle or senior management levels5 In this situation, Asian employees do not o9en have opportunities to become involved in deci-sion-making, and may only concentrate on shorter-term projects[ in turn, the institution usually relies on these sta^ members to support smaller schemes to attract audiences outside the usual demographic 7Wajid +))$: (85Indeed, around the Western world, ethnic minority museum sta^ members are more generally employed in low-status or administrative occupations 7Denniston +)): *…)85` e following examines a case study where Bevan Chuang, an Asian sta^ member in a lower-ranking administration position SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; at Auckland Museum, was allowed the opportunity to manage a temporary exhibition, in collaboration with Kathryn Hardy Bernal, a guest curator from  University5  -"" …   A word is enough to the wiseIn September +))! Auckland War Memorial Museum opened two relocated, renewed and improved, permanent galleries, Ancient Civilisatio

5 n Arts of Asia5 ese galleries feature
n Arts of Asia5 ese galleries feature an outstanding selection of objects that span the diverse cultures, histories and civilisations of Asia5 ey also signify and validate the importance of Asian communities to the Museum and Auckland5It was perceived that these galleries would appeal to a more mature audience, and given the young population of Asian Aucklanders, it might be di@cult to attract a large Asian audience to the Museum, or indeed a young adult inter-est altogether, via these draw-cards5 It was also felt that young Asians should be targeted as a general audience because it was observed that the older gen-erations of Asian communities are more likely to visit museums through the younger members5An answer as to how a young Asian audience might be enticed into the Auck-land Museum came with the Loli-Pop exhibition, designed to coincide with and complement the opening of the new permanent gallery spaces5  -"" … “ ' Nothing ventured, nothing gainedAuckland Museums Loli-Pop exhibition was an exploration into the phenom-enon known as the Japanese Gothic and Lolita subculture, its relationship with popular culture 7thus Lolita } Pop8, and in6uence on Auckland youth, speci&cally from the point of view of Lolita fashion design5 e so-called Lolita,| the most prominent members of the movement, are signi&ed by their doll-like appearances, inspired by Rococo and frilly Victorian fashions 7Figure 85 Some Lolita styles lean more towards the Gothic, while others are sweeter5 However, there is an overarching emphasis on childlike dress5Although the Lolita craze has only recently begun to gain ground outside Japan, the phenomenon is not new to the Japanese5 Ideas that have contributed to the Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal style have been around since the seventies, and have evolved from movements such as Glam, Post-Punk, Neo-Romanticism and Goth 7Hardy Bernal +))!85 e subculture began to take hold in the **)s, a time w

6 hen Japan began to Figure : Megumi and
hen Japan began to Figure : Megumi and Momoko outside Laforet shopping mall, Harajuku, Tokyo, ! July +))!5 Photograph Bevan Chuang SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; face a future fraught with economic instability 7Hardy Bernal +))!85 is condition played into the impulse for young women to dress as very young girls, a practice demonstrating a fear of moving into the uncertain realm of adult responsibility, re6ecting a subconscious desire to hang onto childhood security 7Hardy Bernal +))!85 Ti^any Godoy con&rms this reading: what came out of all of „her† interviews „of Lolita in Japan† was that the „Gothic and Lolita† scene was a reaction to the economy „and that† the idea of growing up wasƒ kind of scary and „so this† was a way to not deal with that 7Mudie +))$: !85 Godoy explains that there was no longer guaranteed employment, no longer lifetime jobs, soƒ kids were all of a sudden in a society where noth-ing was certain anymore 7Mudie +))$: !85Despite these concerns the Lolita movement is o9en regarded as super&cial by critics who dismiss it as infantile behaviour and merely another example of Japans obsession with all things cute, or kawaii 7Kageyama +))(85 Indeed, the desire to become a member of the Lolita cult is driven by many followers who admire the cuter aspects of the style5While there can be a sexual connotation associated with the term Lolita, it is the opposing element of childhood innocence, represented by the cute, that attracts many participants of the Gothic and Lolita subculture5 As Ella Mudie 7+))$: !8 notes, looks resembling Western styles dont necessarily carry the same association in Japan5 Godoy further explains that if a Japanese girl wears one of those „Goth-Loli† out&ts it doesnt look sexy but if a Western girl wears one it can be considered†ƒ erotic 7Mudie +))$: !85 Godoy argues that the look is perhaps only thought to be sexy from a Western perspective, due to &xed images that we as

7 sociate with certain types of „dress, su
sociate with certain types of „dress, such as†ƒ a dolls out&t, but once you recontextualise it then it takes on a di^erent meaning 7Mudie +))$: !85 is opinion has been supported by Makoto Sekikawa, the founding editor of Japans CUTiE magazine, who has maintained that the ka-waii clothing trend, as the antithesis of traditional fashion, „†ƒ not pleas-ing to the eye of most men 7Mudie +))$: !85 However, it is precisely this aspectƒ that „†ƒ so appealing to young women 7Mudie +))$: !, citing Sekikawa8, and especially to members of the Lolita movement5 ere „rebelliousness in it 7Mudie +))$: !, citing Sekikawa8 and a rejection of the sexual stereotype5Western fans profess similar motivations for their attraction towards the Japa-nese Lolita style5 During a research trip to Tokyo in +))!, the curators of Loli-Pop met Japanese-Californian student Lauren 7Figure +8, aged sixteen, who in an interview on the streets of Harajuku, said that what she liked best about the Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal fashion was that she could dress in a rebellious way while still being cute and pretty5 She felt feminine, like a girl, modest, and not too scantily clad5 Like her colleague Erika 7Figure +8, seventeen, from Boston, her interest initially came from the music5 e genre that many followers of the Gothic and Lolita move-ment support, called Visual-Kei 7visual style8, is represented by Japanese Rock 7J-Rock8 groups whose members are known for their heavily made-up and theatrical appearances5 A favourite is the now-defunct Malice Mizer 7marisu miseru**+…+))8, a band that through its legendary guitarist Mana, was instrumental in inspiring the look of the Lolita, as well as promoting this style of music5€ However, Erikas attraction to Gothic and Lolita di^ered from her Figure +: Erika Rogers, Maggie orpe, Lauren Ashizawa, and Carlos, on the Jingu-bashi, Harajuku Station Bridge, at the entrance to the Meiji-Jingu Shrine, Tokyo, $ July +))!

8 5 Photograph Bevan Chuang SITES: New Ser
5 Photograph Bevan Chuang SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; friends, as she also appreciated the mix between the Victorian in6uence and contemporary Goth5Although reasons for taking on the Lolita style vary, Lolita participants, Japa-nese or otherwise, usually dismiss the Nabokovian undertones that may seem apparent in the subcultures terminology5 Members o9en profess an intention of modesty in their choice to adopt the childlike dress, behaviour and play of the Japanese Lolita, which o9en includes the collection of dolls5Loli-Pop exhibition looked particularly at the strong relationships between the Japanese Lolita and the doll5 It highlighted this connection by bringing together a collection of twelve Japanese Lolita-style dolls[” &ve full-sized Lolita-inspired garments, designed and constructed by  University Fash-ion Department sta^ members, Angie Finn, Lize Niemczyk, Yvonne Stew-art, Gabriella Trussardi, Carmel Donnelly and Kathryn Hardy Bernal[ and a backdrop of photographs that illustrated the impact of these out&ts when worn, modelled by  Bachelor of Design 7Fashion8 students, Emily Huang, Emily Wang, Shangshang Cookie Wang, Shiahug-Wen Sean Kuo and Yanling Wang5X– e context was provided by a visual framework of a further pho-tographic series, comprising shots taken on the streets of Tokyo during the curators research trip to document current incarnations of the Lolita style 7Figure 8[ a  of footage taken by Bevan Chuang in Harajuku[ as well as images of Auckland Lolita 7Figure _8, which contributed to the New Zealand perspective5 is content was further supported by wall text panels that gave extensive information on the topic, including the origins and history of the Gothic and Lolita movement, its relationship with popular culture, and in6u-ences in Auckland5 It was considered that this subject matter would resonate not only with a young Asian audience but also with youth in general5is exhibition also elicited anothe

9 r perspective regarding Japanese subject
r perspective regarding Japanese subject matter5Within the context of museum display, cultural objects from Asia are o9en valued more for their signi&cance to their civilisations, than for artistic excellence 7Ang +)): 85 While the story surrounding the exhibition was anthropological, and intended to enhance education in terms of contemporary Japanese culture and speci&cally Lolita design, the exhibition was presented as a boutique gallery show in the hanging of the photographic series, but with the dolls and dresses encased in museum cabinets, elevating their preciousness and status, which allowed visitors to view the objects, the exquisite garments, Japanese dolls and photographs, as both valuable and artistic display5XX Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal     ‚"  ""    One picture is worth ten thousand wordse Lolita subculture, which is strongly linked with Japanese popular culture, was chosen as a topic because of the growing in6uence of Japanese culture on contemporary youth worldwide, and a fascination with so-called Harajuku girls 7a term made familiar by American singer Gwen Stefani85 A number of young New Zealanders on their travels to Japan have encountered the Lolita in Harajuku and have become enamoured with the movement5 Figure : Anna Boissier and Chloe, on the Jingu-bashi, Harajuku Station Bridge, at the entrance to the Meiji-Jingu Shrine, Tokyo, $ July +))!5Photograph Bevan Chuang SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; From Hello Kitty to Pokémon, Japanese popular culture is increasingly occupy-ing a high pro&le worldwide 7Allen and Sakamoto +))(: +85 Mudie 7+))$: $8 writes: the culture of Japan continues to make its way into global conscious-ness and Roland Kelts, in a new book titled Japanamerica, has touted the cur-rent fascination with Japanese culture „†ƒ a third wave of JapanophiliaŽ 5X] Phillip Brophy, during a guest lecture at the Auckland War Memorial Museum 7+ September +))!8, comme

10 nted that in the  this post-war Japan
nted that in the  this post-war Japanese inva-sion of kawaii-ness can be viewed as symbolic revenge for the atomic bomb, as millions of Americans spend a fortune on cute Japanese merchandise Figure _: Bomi Park and Ashleigh Œuayle, at the Wintergarden, Auckland Domain, +))!5 Photograph Bevan Chuang Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal In New Zealand, this cultural saturation can be demonstrated by the popular-ity of the Armageddon Pulp Expo, an annual event, held in Auckland, Wel-lington and Christchurch, that seeks to attract fans of science &ction, pulp &ction, comics, animation, computer games and gaming consoles, of which much of the content of all categories is Japanese5 A prominent sight at Arma-geddon is the cosplayer5 Related also to the Japanese Lolita movement is the notion of cosplay 7kosupure ~ costume playQdisplay8, the practice of dress-ing and parading as a favourite manga 7Japanese still cartoon, illustration8 or anime 7Japanese moving-image illustration, animation8 character 7Figure 8,X` Figure : Kaina Kisaragi 7Lolita8 and Kanade Asakiri 7Cosplayer8, on the Jingu-bashi, Harajuku Station Bridge, at the entrance to the Meiji-Jingu Shrine, Tokyo, $ July +))!5 Photograph Bevan Chuang SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; which is rapidly gaining ground as an interest for young New Zealanders5 At the Auckland venue in +))!, the Cosplay Awards was one of the most popular events, with cosplayers and spectators spilling out of the ' Auditorium stalls at the Aotea Centre5 Although &gures from Western sci-& &lms and comics were represented, the emphasis was on characters from Japanese animation5 Mixed amongst the cosplayers, in both Wellington and Auckland, were also New Zealand Lolita5As the acts of dressing up and street display are strong elements driving the Gothic and Lolita subculture, it is not surprising that the motivation towards cosplay o9en includes an attraction to the Japanese Lolita style5X{ Mudie 7+))$: !8 comme

11 nts: the evolution of new trends in Jap
nts: the evolution of new trends in Japan „has† always been closely linked to whats going on in the streetsƒ5 is means popular culture, like manga and anime, long in6uenced the way people dressƒ5 You see it most literally „with† cosplay5 e relationships between mangaanime, cosplay, street fashion and Gothic and Lolita are increased by the representation of the Lolita-type character in versions of sh!jo 7young girls8 manga &ction 7graphic novels8 and anime, such as the Rozen Maiden series, Princess AiKamikaze Girls, and Petite Cossette, all of which are available in New Zealand as printed literature or on  through major bookstore chains and online shops5 Manga gothic novels, these distinctly Japanese forms of comics, „are†ƒ 6ying o^ New Zealand† shelves 7Mudie +))$: _85ere has been research into the popularity of manga in Auckland, particu-larly for Asian immigrants and international students, and the possible added meanings and values this suggests5 It has been said that, for young Asian new-comers, this interest in manga is a continuation of previous habits and a pro-vision of familiarity and security 7Sunaoshi +))(: **85X| erefore, with the number of young Asians that form the majority of international students in New Zealand[ the fascination of local youth with elements of Japanese popular culture[ and connections between popular culture, such as manga and animewith cosplay and the Gothic and Lolita subculture, the environment here is conducive to young people beginning to consume the Lolita style5  -"" … ‚ One half of the world does not know how the other half livesGodoy suggests: you could say the girls in the Goth-Loli scene are the female version of  7Mudie +))$: !85 According to Joseph Dela Peńa 7+))(: 8, are members of a subculture born from the popular culture of post-war Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal Japan5 Although the term  carries with it many di^erent layers of mean-ing, both literally 7ling

12 uistically8 and culturally most seem to
uistically8 and culturally most seem to agree that are exclusively male, usually teenagers or young men, and fanatic enthusiasts of mangaanime-based Japanese culture and everything related to it 7Dela Peńa +))(: 8, such as graphic novels, television shows, movies, videosQs, computer games, personal accessories, and even &gurines or dolls5 e otaku deals very much with obsession, a maniaƒ for elements that belong to a &cti-tious worldŽ  7Dela Peńa +))(: , citing Hirano +)): ()85X e same applies to Lolita, who like the guys who hang out and read mangaƒ are really immersed in a speci&c culture 7Mudie +))$: $, citing Godoy85 eir interest in childish things, including similar media, toys and dolls, can also be observed in terms of an escape from the real world5XSometimes, this rejection of reality can include the literal refusal by youth to conform to societys expectations and accept adult responsibilities5 Dela Peńa 7+))(: 8, in an investigation into this situation with the , has highlighted stress as a cause, stating that young Japanese men, in their late teens and early twenties, face a bevy of social pressures5 e tension created by an overwhelm-ing necessity to be academically and professionally successful has been exacer-bated since the **)s when Japan witnessed a multiple breakdown of political, economic and socio-political ordersƒ „which† induced a visible shi9 in the mood of society, re6ecting an end to the glorious age of Japanese economic success on the global stage 7Dela Peńa +))(: …(, citing Iida +))): _+_85ese conditions have contributed to a growing number of Japanese youth categorised as  7Not in Employment, Education or Training8 7Kelts +))!: +85 e  in Japan are commonly between &9een and thirty four years old, among whom more than () percent are aged above twenty-&ve 7Nakamura +))_8, with smaller numbers, either consciously refusing to work, seek work, or gain education that would inc

13 rease their chances of obtaining work 7a
rease their chances of obtaining work 7as opposed to those in similar situations, where this condition may be largely circumstantial or imposed85 Added to this problem, as Yuniya Kawa-mura has written, fathers are losing their jobs for the &rst time in their lives,X€ and mothers who used to be full-time homemakers now have to look for part-time jobs to supplement their household income 7Kawamura +))!: _85 A feeling of helplessness, disillusionment, alienation, uncertainty and anger has permeated throughout society, from adults to children and children &nd no hope in future Japan 7Kawamura +))!: _85 ese so-called post-bubble kids, who may also no longer want to work as salary men 7Nakamura +))_8, of-&ce workers or OLs 7o@ce ladies8,X” &nd it hard to achieve the extremely high standards of academic benchmarks 7Dela Peńa +))(: 8 or are unable SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; to procure suitable employment in the current economic environment5 eir values are also di^erent to those of their parents, in that traditional Japanese beliefs, such as sel6ess devotion to employers, respect for seniors and persever-ance, are collapsing 7Kawamura +))!: _, citing Kazuo Ijiri **)85 All of this combines to contribute to a generation of young people that is increasingly removed, intentionally or not, from what is perceived as a normal progres-sion into adult life5As part of the exhibition development, the curators of Loli-Pop visited Japan, assisted by the Asia New Zealand Foundation, Museums Aotearoa, and  University5 e trip was essential for primary research, which included docu-menting the latest fashion trends in this shi9ing subculture5 During their visit to the Shibuya, Harajuku, and Shinjuku districts, the heart of cutting-edge fashion, high-end retail, and the most common place to encounter Lolita, the curators talked with many Japanese 7and some Western8 members of the Gothic and Lolita movement 7Figure (85]– is enable

14 d them to locate the Lolita subculture w
d them to locate the Lolita subculture within a current context and to analyse the movement in Figure (: Bevan Chuang and Yuri, on the Jingu-bashi, Harajuku Station Bridge, at the entrance to the Meiji-Jingu Shrine, Tokyo, $ July +))!5 Photograph Kathryn Hardy Bernal Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal association with contemporary socio-cultural understandings of Japanese youth and society5 is Tokyo region is also where the curators witnessed an aspect of the  phenomenon5 ey observed many Lolita who appeared to have nothing much else to do but to meet up with friends and visit their favourite shops5]Xe Lolita style originally shocked spectators, as it sat outside the normative of what was considered appropriate5]] Lolita was considered speci&cally as an act of rebellion against the family[ dressing as a child was determined to be unac-ceptable behaviour because it symbolically, and sometimes literally, represent-ed an apparent refusal to grow up, act ones age, and take responsibility5]` e curators were surprised, then, to observe a shi9ing attitude, represented by the large number of girls, many in school uniforms, and young women that were shopping for Lolita clothing with their mothers who were more than happy to treat their children to the most expensive higher-end brands, such as Baby the Stars Shine Bright "##"Metamorphose, and Angelic Pretty5]{ is may be due to a changing status[ once an underground movement, Lolita fashion has made the journey from the streets of Harajuku to designer recognition, with labels such as h5Naoto, by Naoto Hirooka, being shown at Tokyo Fashion Week +))$, and stores such as Manas Moi-même-Moitié opening in Paris5Many tourists 6ock to the Jingu-bashithe bridge over Harajuku station at the entrance to the Meiji-Jingu Shrine, as this is o9en where Lolita meet up5 It was mostly here that the curators photographed, &lmed, and chatted with members of the Gothic and Lolita subculture for Loli-Pop5 Participant

15 s in the Gothic and Lolita movement choo
s in the Gothic and Lolita movement choose to wear fashions that are attention seek-ing, and gravitate towards areas, such as this Harajuku site, where they know they will be likely to be photographed by tourists5 Most willingly pose for pho-tographs for and with tourists5 However, there lay a paradox in the behaviour of the Harajuku girls and boys5 When approached by the curators to be pho-tographed for Auckland Museum, they were o9en either shy or rejected the proposition5 It seemed that most did not mind that the tourists photos could end up anywhere but, for some, giving signed permission for their images to be used was more daunting5  -"" …  If you want peace, you must prepare for warDespite the status of the Lolita subculture in Japan and a current Western fascination with all things Japanese,]| there were some ongoing di@culties in SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; convincing all parties of the validity of the Loli-Pop exhibition at the Auck-land Museum5 From the earliest stages of the proposal, Loli-Pop encountered hurdles5A key issue concerned the exhibitions title, as both Lolita and Gothic were considered controversial5 Lolita is loaded with sexually suggestive conno-tations, mainly due to a reputation that stems from a reading of Vladimir Nabokovs &ctional character5 Lolita was deemed to be an inappropriate term by senior Museum sta^5 Email correspondence between the two curators containing Lolita in the subject &eld and or message body was continually blocked as the system recognised the word as o^ensive language5 Gothic, too, invited its own stigma, in association with a certain interpretation of Gothic as related to Goth, and was frowned upon as unsuitable to represent Auckland Museum5 Senior Museum sta^ decided that neither terms could be used in the exhibitions title, although they could be reproduced within the exhibition space5e curators faced the dilemma of presenting an exhibition on t

16 he Japanese Gothic and Lolita movement w
he Japanese Gothic and Lolita movement when these words could not be used5 ey asked how this omission would attract a potential audience knowledgeable about this topic5 Would a mere hint at the exhibitions subject matter be enough for people to realise that this was what the show was about? Would it even attract a new audience? e curators had sought to encourage an Asian and young audience5 ese are groups that are generally more aware of the cultural dif-ferences in the term Lolita5 ey are also sectors of the community that would likely be enticed by the words Gothic and Lolita5At the &rst stages of development the curators proposed Lolita Style as the exhibition lead title, with a working subtitle of West meets East5 A usual trajec-tory of this relationship is the discovery of Japan in the nineteenth century, reproduced under the banner of East meets West, which implies an emphasis on Western invasion5 e curators considered that this current episode of Japanophilia should be described as an inversion of the usual sensibility: West meets East implies that Western society is introduced to the East[ it reverts the notion of comparative power between East and West, and gives the Eastthe conquering position where, in this case, Lolita style is the victor5 Museum sta^ bypassed this inference5 e title was rejected because it was believed that audiences might expect an exhibition of traditional Japanese wares5e challenge for the curators was how to refer to Gothic and Lolita without mentioning the discourse5 It was thought that perhaps the Japanese phonetic Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal form, gosurori 7gothic-loli, goth-loli8, might be a solution[ the popular 7if less correct8 contraction, Loli-goth, eventually used continually throughout the exhibition text, would not su@ce for the actual title, due to its emphasis on the goth aspect5 rough this process, however, Loli-goth became Loli-Pop, a pun that signi&es the sweet st

17 yle of the Lolita and wittily joins the
yle of the Lolita and wittily joins the term with the notion of popular culture5]is was not the end to the troubles5 Museum sta^ appeared to experience di@culties in understanding the exhibition topic and suitability for Auckland Museum5 e show was marketed to become increasingly less about Japan and more about the movements existence in Auckland5 As discussed, the subject matter was pertinent to the local audiences that the curators hoped to attract5 A general ignorance about Gothic and Lolita, and a lack of compre-hension about its worldwide currency and relevancy on the part of some sta^ members, caused a situation where a lack of faith, or mistrust, perhaps even panic, meant that the subcultures in6uence on the Auckland fashion industry became highly exaggerated by the marketing department5e title that was agreed upon as a compromise between the curators and the supporting exhibition team was Loli-Pop: New Zealand perspectives on Japanese youth/street fashion5 is gave less emphasis on a Japanese cultural invasion of the Western world and brought the topic closer to home5 It was changed, without consulting the curators, to Loli-Pop: A downtown Auckland view on Japanese street fashionis change of title questions whether some museum sta^ are in touch with their audiences5 e term downtown is out-dated, reminiscent of the baby-boomer Petula Clark generation, and seems hardly likely to bring fresher, younger audiences into places like museums, which are o9en viewed by young adults as mausoleums for obsolete things5 Furthermore, the media alert, pub-lished on Auckland Museums website and subsequently picked up on internet sites, stated that Asian popular culture and fashion has forever changed the look of downtown Auckland5Auckland Museum „sic† latest exhibition, Loli-Pop, explores one of the extreme edges of this culture: the Japanese Gothic Lolita phenomenon5] During their research, the curators had identi&ed three shops selling

18 Gothic and Lolita items in Auckland: Smo
Gothic and Lolita items in Auckland: Smoove and Page in Lit-tle High Street, and Spacesuit on K Road5 Only one designer, Kath Bridges, was selling her Loli-in6uenced fashion under her label Kitty Bridges through Laundery5 is was hardly an explosion that could change the face of anywhere, forever5 SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; is misleading information became more exaggerated when picked up by other media5 It also became an emphasis for questioning when the curators were interviewed, creating some embarrassing moments5]€ is twisting of the exhibitions purpose, however, appeared to appease those detractors at the Museum who refused or were unable to understand the merits and relevance of the original proposal5ere was a sense, because some senior sta^ did not know much about this topic or were unaware of the Japanese Gothic and Lolita movement, that some believed it lacked credibility5 Instead Loli-Pop was a current, cutting-edge ex-hibition, backed up by motivations to improve relationships between the Mu-seum and local communities, with the ability to educate new audiences5]”  -"" …  e opera isnt over until the fat lady singsDespite misgivings in terms of the senior management and handling of the marketing side of the show, the Museums publicity team was very supportive and, with its assistance, Loli-Pop generated much excitement and attracted unprecedented media attention for a small-scale temporary show at the insti-tution5 is resulted in many national and international articles and reviews, commercially published and online, in sources such as China Daily 7one of the largest readerships in the world8, China Economic Netand e New Zealand Herald, as well as several television and radio segments5 e curators were interviewed for World TVAsia Downundere Asian Report with Suzanne Schockmann for Radio New Zealand, and by Nick D for Special Features, _ 5 is was the &rst time that a non-touring Auckland Museum exhibiti

19 on had received worldwide attention5  
on had received worldwide attention5  -"" …  '#Every cloud has a silver liningLoli-Pop is reported to have attracted an audience of more than )) per day for the two months it operated5 Feedback from Front of House sta^ was very positive, with comments that visitors had asked speci&cally for the exhibition, highlighting they had known about Loli-Pop before arrival and had visited Auckland Museum for that purpose5 One Front of House o@cial commented that a young woman had returned to the till and paid an extra &ve-dollar Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal donation[ she apparently felt that the Museum deserved more as Loli-Pop made her visit worthwhile5According to sta^, the exhibition attracted new types of visitors, such as Goth, Punk, and Emo 7i5e5 emotional contemporary GothQPunk8 teenagers, and larger numbers of young Asians5 Some wore Lolita fashions, including one girl who was carrying a doll dressed identically to herself5 e exhibition was eye-opening and educational for sta^, as well as audiences5`–  -"" … '     It is easier to pull down than to build upe exhibition gained support from the Asia New Zealand Foundation, Mu-seums Aotearoa, the Human Rights Commission, and  University, for the ability to promote understanding and engage with Asian and international student communities, and to forge relationships between these groups,  University and the Auckland Museum5 Ironically, less faith was demonstrated by the Museum5e project received praise and support mainly from non-technical sta^, most-ly with non-museological backgrounds5 Some sta^ members with museologi-cal backgrounds were pessimistic about whether this would be a worthwhile exhibition5 Many questions were raised about the justi&cation for the curators research travel to Japan5 e exhibition itself, let alone the trip, was not consid-ered relevant to the Museum or potentially the Collection5 Unfortunately, the success of the exhibition did

20 not change the view of some Museum sta^5
not change the view of some Museum sta^5Many sta^ did not believe that Loli-Pop would become an attractive exhibition, or that it showed any evidence of academic substance5 It was viewed merely as an experiment or &ller5 e show was touted as serving the purpose of &lling a hole in the Exhibitions schedule5  -"" … "    Aer a storm comes a calmLoli-Pop exhibition enhanced not only the pro&les of the curators and designers but also that of Auckland War Memorial Museum, especially for several of  Universitys Fashion students5 Some, particularly those from overseas, visited the institution for the &rst time due to their involvement with SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; or interest in the show5 In some cases, Loli-Pop also positively a^ected some of the students everyday lives, including their experiences at  , as well as, for international students, their memories of New Zealand5It has been said that international students are less likely to engage with do-mestic students and members of host communities, tending to develop friend-ships with other co-national or international students 7McGrath, Stock and Butcher +))!: …+85 In several instances, Asian students who participated Loli-Pop came out of their shells and blossomed a9er being included as models, TV stars and hosts5 ey began to mix with students outside their own cultural groups, to make new friends, and excel in their own creative endeavours[ they became visibleA Taiwanese domestic student, chosen as both a model and host, recalled the opening function: I had a lot of fun on the night and started to realise that my  life before „the exhibition† had gone totally wrong5 I very much shut myself away from others and was worried „about not speaking† perfect English5 I do feel „like I† opened „† a9er this experience, and I perceive the whole identity issue a bit di^erently5 is student was very excited to be selected and said that Loli-Pop had raised

21 an awareness and created an interest in
an awareness and created an interest in the Gothic and Lolita movement, which had inspired that persons own design practice5 One of the local Loli-girls, a secondary school student already in6uenced by the style, found that the exhibition helped her to decide to study a Bachelor of Design 7Fashion8 degree at  5e young people who contributed to Loli-Pop, or participated in its open-ing night, became celebrities of and ambassadors for the exhibition5 Several were interviewed and or photographed by the media, helping to spread the word about the show to the New Zealand public5 Many of the  students who attended the function designed and made Gothic or Lolita out&ts for the evening and, together with Auckland Loli-girls, acted as exhibition guides and conversed with the crowd about their own creations5Since the Loli-Pop exhibition, there is an increased awareness and acceptance of Japanese Gothic, Lolita and Punk culture in Auckland5 ese styles are be-coming less alien to Aucklanders as more retailers stock genuine Asian brands of Gothic and Lolita clothing and a number of Lolita are being spotted around town5 One boutique imported an increased shipment of the label  " 7Gothic Lolita } Punk8 to coincide with the Loli-Pop opening, and was so successful that they continue to hold this level of merchandise at their inner-city store5 Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal )+  ere is no royal road to learningIn keeping with the criteria for the Asia New Zealand Museums Award, the Loli-Pop exhibition assisted the professional development of sta^ in areas of Asian expertise and developed e^ective links with Asian communities in New Zealand5 It allowed the curators to acquire and improve their exhibition de-velopment skills and strategic planning techniques5 It also provided an op-portunity to empower sta^ in areas of Asian expertise to develop something tailored for the Asian communities in Auckland5If museums and galleries around the

22 world are serious about connecting with
world are serious about connecting with their local communities, they need to ensure that their sta^ members can represent the interests of racial minority groups in terms of management responsibilities, in order to provide long-term strategic goals that support a multicultural vision5 e empowerment of ethnic minority sta^ can allow institutions to be better connected with their communities, and provide a more diverse insight into the decision making and programming process, as these employees are o9en more in touch with the best and most appropriate methods to communicate with their own cultural groups5Although museums and galleries in New Zealand may have adopted the bi-cultural structure and implemented policies to improve and encourage the employment of Maori sta^, and strategies to properly represent Maori com-munities, the time has come to look at the future for New Zealand as an in-creasingly culturally diverse nation and begin to adopt equitable schemes for advancing the situation for other ethnic groups5 In dealing with this issue earnestly, institutions will be able to expand their engagement with all sectors of their local populations, and thus increase visitor numbers5A programme that is well designed and created for the interests of the com-munity will not only attract new visitors but will create a lasting impact5 In-stitutions need to steer away from instructing their visitors about what they desire or need to see in order to facilitate a positive learning experience for audiences5 Museums and galleries will only be truly productive and successful if they can achieve relevance to multiple audiences5 SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; )#    e authors would like to acknowledge Auckland War Memorial Museum,  Uni-versity, Museums Aotearoa, the Asia New Zealand Foundation, and the Human Rights Commission, for their support in the development of the Loli-Pop exhibition5 ey would also like to thank Angie Finn, Lize

23 Niemczyk, Yvonne Stewart, Gabriella Tru
Niemczyk, Yvonne Stewart, Gabriella Trus-sardi, and Carmel Donnelly for their contributions to the exhibition content[ and to make a special mention of all the girls and boys they met in Tokyo[ the &ve  Bachelor of Design 7Fashion8 student models, Emily Huang, Emily Wang, Shangshang Cookie Wang, Shiahug-wen 7Sean8 Kuo, and Yanling Wang[ the Auckland Loli-girls Ashleigh Œuayle, Bomi Park, Zannii Anderson and Yuriko[ and all the young people who dressed up to host the opening function, in support of our exhibition5 Asian is de&ned by Statistics New Zealand as East Asian, South Asian, and South East Asian5 is de&nition is used in this paper5+ See Auckland War Memorial Act **(, Section [ e Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Act **+, Section $[ Otago Museum Trust Board Act **(, Section [ and Canterbury Museum Trust Board Act **, Section 5 is is also the case with many arts and cultural organisations in Auckland5 At the +))$ New Zealand Diversity Forum 7+…+( August8, Helen Bartle spoke of Creative New Zealands concern that, according to their +))( survey, most Asians in this &eld are employed in low-status, administration, or volunteer oc-cupations5_ Proverbs are from Speake 7+))_85 Lolita is used as both the singular and plural form5 Kawaii ~ cute[ kawaisa ~ cuteness5 According to Christine Locher, kawaiiderived from the Japanese word, kawayushi, meaning shy and embarrassed, and associated with being pathetic and vulnerable, but also lovable and small 7Locher +))+[ Kinsella **85 e characteristics of kawaii are now seen as any-thing childlike, adorable, and innocent 7Locher +))+[ Kinsella **85 Kinsella has claimed that in Japan cuteness reached a height of saccharine intensity through its dissemination via mass media in the *$)s 7Locher +))+85 Kawaiiness has since permeated many aspects of Japanese culture, from food, toys, entertainment media 7games, illustrated books, animation, etc58

24 , fashion and Article · Chuang & Hardy
, fashion and Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal )_personal grooming, to mannerisms 7Garger +))!85 It is also strongly associated with the cute appearance and behaviour of the Japanese Lolita5 However, both the Goth-Loli movement and the concept of kawaii are much more complex phenomena, as are their relationships with each other, and can only be touched on in the context of this paper5 For the psychology behind cuteness in Japan see Kinsella **, Locher +))+, and Garger +))!5! Vladimir Nabokov released his novel, Lolita, in *5 e name Lolita has been coloured by the protagonist of this story ever since, and has come to mean a promiscuous or sexually provocative young girl, or nymphet5$ Mana, currently with the group Moi Dix Mois, o9en takes on the persona of the Gothic Lolita both onstage and o^5 He is also a leading fashion designer of the Japanese Gothic and Lolita movement5 With his two ranges, Elegant Gothic Lolita 7 8 and Elegant Gothic Aristocrat 7 8, for his label Moi-même-Moitié7with boutiques across Japan, and more recently Paris8, he may have been one of the &rst, if not the &rst, to use the words Gothic and Lolita conjointly5* e dolls were from Kathryn Hardy Bernals collection5 Named Pullip 7female8, Namu 7male8 and Taeyang 7male8, these dolls are a collaboration between the Japanese toy company Jun Planning and Cheonsang Cheonha 7Korea8, and have been produced since +))5 Along with Blythe, a doll &rst manufactured in *!+ by Kenner 78, and now Takara 7Japan8, Pullip 7the collective name8 is highly prized by Lolita5) All  University sta^ and students involved in Loli-Pop voluntarily gave their time and creative energies to the exhibition and Auckland War Memorial Mu-seum5 It may be asked why the curators did not display authentic Japanese designed and produced Lolita garments and fashion accessories with the  lecturers creations5 is would have been preferable, and was the original intention and par

25 t of the reason for proposing the resear
t of the reason for proposing the research trip to Tokyo5 However, neither a budget was provided nor any funding obtained for this purpose5+ e &rst wave was in the nineteenth century and is identi&ed as the in6uence of Japanese art and design, particularly that of woodcut prints by artists includ-ing Hokusai and And˜ Hiroshige, on Western artists such as Whistler, Manet, Monet, and Beardsley5 is movement, known as Japonisme, was related to the Aesthetic Movement5 is wave emerged during the $()s, a9er Colonel Perry had sailed his American 6eet into Edo Bay in the $)s, and coerced Ja- SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; pan into negotiating trade agreements with the West, resulting in the so-called discovery of Japanese artefacts, which penetrated the European market5 e second wave, according to Kelts, was the poetry of the beatnik generation of the *)s, inspired by haiku and zen philosophies, and the writings of Jack Kerouac 7Mudie +))$: $85 e third wave of so-called Japanophilia that Kelts refers to is especially apparent in East and Southeast Asian countries 7Iwabuchi +))+: +[ +))(: (85 is cultural inundation of parts of Asia can be likened to the Ameri-canisation of Japan since , but is also representative of a symbopower from the  to Japan 7Iwabuchi +))(: +)85 Young people from places like Taiwan and Hong Kong perceive Japanese culture, rather than American, to be closer to their own and therefore more desirable5 In Japan and worldwide, cosplayers o9en copy the images of their favourite J-Rock 7Japanese Rock8 or Visual-Kei musicians, such as Malice Mizers Mana5 is has helped to fuel the popularity of the Gothic Lolita image as, since the **)s, many followers of Mana have adopted his Lolita style5_ According to Dela Peńa 7+))(: +!8, it is common to see a large number of Lolita at anime conventions in the 5 His thesis discusses the connections between mangaanime, and cosplay5 is suggests that Japans aggr

26 essive colonial past has not prevented t
essive colonial past has not prevented the accept-ance of Japanese popular culture in East and Southeast Asia by younger gen-erations 7Iwabuchi +))(: +85 Historically, East and Southeast Asians, including those raised in New Zealand, have o9en been strongly opposed to anything Japanese5Otaku are o9en interested in cosplay 7Dela Peńa +))(: +85Otaku are sometimes considered to be socially withdrawn or disconnected from reality, because their obsession with watching TV and videosQs, reading, and computer games o9en sees them isolated at home, inside their bedrooms5 In extreme cases they only venture out to attend special meet ups or conventions 7most material that interests them is available through the internet and online shopping85 is is usually a temporary phase5 Otaku should not be confused with hikikomori, whose behaviour has been de&ned as acute social withdrawal 7Dela Peńa +))(: !…+85 Hikikomori have been identi&ed as seriously discon-nected from reality[ their self-imposed con&nement has led, in many instances, to psychotic and violent episodes, including the committal of rape, assault, and murder, as a way of lashing out against the society from which „they ndrefuge 7Dela Peńa +))(: !…+85 Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal $ Kawamura 7+))!: _, n5 +8 emphasised the seriousness of this: Japanese men have a strong belief in lifetime employment and it used to be against their cul-tural norm to change jobs5* Sometimes due to a fear of early death from overwork 7karoshi8, a common experience for previous generations5+) Chuang speaks conversational Japanese5 Hardy Bernal chatted to English speak-ers5+ e curators were informed that Lolita would congregate in large numbers, do-ing little else except hanging out with friends and shopping, only on weekends, as otherwise they were at school or work5 Instead the curators encountered many Lolita on weekdays5 e curators assumed these girls were past school age and not employed in

27 full-time work5++ Parker 7+))_8 claimed
full-time work5++ Parker 7+))_8 claimed that despite the nations reputation as a culture with a love of all things cute, many in mainstream Japan are contemptuous of the Lolita lookƒ5 „Fans† talk about being called stupid by strangers, getting mean looks, and having chewing gum stuck to their dresses5+ Like , Lolita can totally immerse themselves in their lifestyle, which means that social responsibilities are sometimes ignored5 However, the curators wit-nessed Lolita in retail employment, albeit at Lolita boutiques5+_ A full ensemble by a leading designer, including shoes and headwear, would currently cost a minimum of approximately —$)5))5+ See Ella Mudie 7+))$8 for more on the contemporary Western interest in the Japanesque5+( e term loli-pop is unfortunately tainted with a whole other set of problems, particularly related to pornography in Japan5 To a Western audience this word-ing ironically suggests a notion of innocence5+! is published media release also used, misused, and misquoted statements, notions, theories and previous research material belonging to Hardy Bernal5 Failure to properly acknowledge this information means that other writers have continually used these ideas without knowing their original source, or attribut-ing misleading comments to the wrong author5 is compromised the originality SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; )!of a thesis that was in process since +))+5 When Museum sta^ were alerted of this, no compensation, substantive amendments or apologies were made5+$ Interviewers badgered the curators regarding where Lolita were congregating in Auckland5 is also demonstrates no real understanding that Lolita-inspired clothing is a fashion style and not fancy dress5+* If the curators had been given more support and a budget by the Museum, they would have been able to demonstrate their full vision for this event, and shown authentic Lolita objects from Japan, making this exercise groundbreaking and cuttin

28 g edge5 Fortunately the photographs of J
g edge5 Fortunately the photographs of Japanese Lolita in Japan proved to create great interest5) e exhibition closure coincided with the promotion of the Darwin blockbuster exhibition, so there was no o@cial opportunity to undertake summative re-search on whether Loli-Pop had achieved the objectives in the original proposal5 A visitors book was not available at the show either[ thus there was no ability to carry out a conclusive review5    Allen, M5 and R5 Sakamoto +))( Popular Culture, Globalization and Japan, New York: Routledge5Ang, I5 +)) e Predicament of Diversity: Multiculturalism in Practice at the Art Museum, Ethnicities,  78: )…+)5Brophy, P5 +))! Sexual Robots and Plastic Humans in Anime, paper presented at Auckland War Memorial Museum, Auckland, + September5Dela Peńa, J5 L5 +))( Otaku: Images and Identity in Flux, East Asian Language and Civilization Honors esis, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, $: College Undergraduate Research Electronic JournalScholarlyCommons™Penn, http:QQrepository5upenn5eduQcurejQ*Denniston, H5 +)) Holding up the Mirror: Addressing Cultural Diversity in Lon-dons Museums, London: Association for London Museums Agency5Friesen, W5 +))$   … Diverse Auckland: e Face of New Zealand in the  Century?, Wellington: Asia New Zealand Foundation5 Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal Garger, I5 +))! Hello Kitty: One Nation Under Cute, Psychology Today, MarchQApril, _) 7+8: +…, http:QQwww5psychologytoday5comQarticlesQpto-+))!)*…)))))_5htmlHardy Bernal, K5 +))! Lolita in Japan: An Innocent Goth, MQ Museum Quar-terly: e Quarterly Magazine of Auckland War Memorial Museum, Spring 7+8: 5Heywood, F5 +))( Museum Directors Report Outlines Targets for Improving Sta^ Diversity, Museums Journal, )( 7(8: (5Hirano, K5 +)) Ani-mania: e In6uence of Anime Artists is Not Just a Passing Fad Say Experts, and e Reason Lies at the heart of Japans Artistic Culture

29 , Womens Wear Daily8,  March: ()5Hira
, Womens Wear Daily8,  March: ()5Hirano, K5 +))_ Loli Goth Pop, Womens Wear Daily8, Fashion, + Octo-ber: (+S5 +))( Code of Ethics for Museums, Paris: International Council of Muse-ums5Iida, Y5 +))) Between the Technique of Living an Endless Routine and the Mad-ness of Absolute Degree Zero, Positions 7$8: _+…_(_5Ijiri K5 **) e Breakdown of the Japanese Work Ethic, Japan Echo, “ 7_8: …Iwabuchi, K5 +))( Japanese Popular Culture and Postcolonial Desire for AsiaŽ , in M5 Allen and R5 Sakamoto 7eds8 Popular Culture, Globalization and JapanNew York: Routledge: …5Iwabuchi, K5 +))+ Recentering Globalization: Popular Culture and Japanese Trans-nationalism, Durham: Duke University Press5Kageyama, Y5 +))( Cute is King for the Youth of Japan, but its Only Skin Deep, e New Zealand Herald, ( June: '5Kawamura, Y5 +))! Japanese Street Fashion: e Urge to be Seen and to be Heard, in L5 Welters and A5 Lillethun 7eds8 e Fashion Reader, Oxford and New York: Berg: _…_5 SITES: New Series · Vol ; No&#x==00; Kelts, R5 +))! Future Tense, Metropolis, ( July: +…5Kinsella S5 ** Cuties in Japan, in L5 Skov and B5 Moeran 7eds8 Women, Media and Consumption in JapanLondon: Curzon Press: ++)…+_5Lavine, S5 D5 and I5 Karp ** Introduction: Museums and Multiculturalism, in S5 D5 Lavine and I5 Karp 7eds8 Exhibiting Cultures, Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press: …*5Locher, C5 +))+ e Cult of Cuteness in Japanese Youth Culture, Scholarly Pa-per, Kyushu-University, Fukuoka, Grin Publishing http:QQwww5grin5comQe-bookQ_$Qthe-cult-of-cuteness-in-japanese-youth-cultureMcGrath, T5, P5 Stock and A5 Butcher +))! Outlook … Friends and Allies: e Impacts of Returning Asian Students on New Zealand-Asia RelationshipsWellington: Asia New Zealand Foundation5Mudie, E5 +))$ Turning Japanese: Manga Makeover, Pulp, Winter 7$8: +…*5Nakamura, A5 +))_ No Education, No Employment, No Training: Being NEET Not so Neat for Nations

30 Youth, Japan Times, * June, e Japan T
Youth, Japan Times, * June, e Japan Times Onlinehttp:QQsearch5japantimes5co5jpQprintQnewsQnn)(…+))_Qnn+))_)(*f+5htmNishime, L5 +))_Q+)) Communities on Display: Museums and the Creation of the 7Asian8 American Citizen, Amerasia Journal, ) 78: _)…()5Parker, G5 +))_ Parasols and Pink Lace: Japans Lolita Girls[ Id Like to go Back in Time, Like to the Era of Marie AntoinetteŽ, says +_-year-old Nurse, Globe Style, e Globe and Mail, + September, in Factiva,  Library Data-bases5Porter, G5 +))_ Diversify+ e Impact of Positive Action Traineeship, London:   7Museums, Libraries and Archives Council85Shaw, L5 +))_ Changing the Culture of Museums and Galleries: Creating a More Diverse Workforce, London: Museums Association5Speake5 J5 7ed58 +))_ e Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs, Oxford: Oxford Univer-sity Press, Oxford Reference Online,  University Electronic Resources5 Article · Chuang & Hardy Bernal Statistics New Zealand +))$ National Ethnic Population Projections   (base) …   Update Information Release Wellington: Statistics New Zealand5Statistics New Zealand +))(   Census of Population and Dwellings, Welling-ton: Statistics New ZealandSteel, P5 +))( MA Poll Finds Regional Museums Lack Diversity, Museums Jour-, )( 7!8: 5Stephens, S5 +))( Diversity Work Placement Scheme Could be Rolled Out, Mu-seums Journal, Sunaoshi, Y5 +))( Who Reads Comics? Manga Readership Among First Genera-tion Asian Immigrants in New Zealand, in M5 Allen and R5 Sakamoto 7eds8 Popular Culture, Globalization and Japan, New York: Routledge: *_…_5Wajid, S5 +))$ Becoming a Museum Trustee Seems Like a Good Way for Minori-ties to Shape Policies, So Why are the Opportunities Available Not Put to Better Use?, Museums Journal, )$ 7+8: (Weil, S5E5 +))+ Making Museums Matter, Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press5Yoshitomi, G5D5J5 +))+ Engage Now+ An Arts Workers Guide to Deepening Ex-perience and Strengthening Participation in the ArtsPenns