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1Introduction6


CONTENTSAbstract52Gathering background data721Nest attendance722Egg temperature and turning723Rate of water loss from eggs73Methods831Pilot study8311Collecting eggs8312Incubation8313Kiwi chick rearing

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Document on Subject : "1Introduction6"— Transcript:

1 CONTENTS Abstract5 1.Introduction6 2.Gat
CONTENTS Abstract5 1.Introduction6 2.Gathering background data72.1Nest attendance72.2Egg temperature and turning72.3Rate of water loss from eggs7 3.Methods83.1Pilot study83.1.1Collecting eggs83.1.2Incubation83.1.3Kiwi chick rearing93.1.4Release of subadult kiwi93.2Main dev

2 elopment programme93.2.1Study areas10 4.
elopment programme93.2.1Study areas10 4.Results134.1Pilot study134.2Main development programme134.2.1Age of eggs at time of collection144.2.2Egg collection154.2.3Egg transport154.2.4Incubation conditions164.2.5Hatching164.2.6Chick management164.2.7Release of kiwi chicks to

3 crèche islands174.2.8Release of subadul
crèche islands174.2.8Release of subadult kiwi on the mainland184.2.9Assessment of success of the Operation Nest Eggprogramme20 5.Discussion21 6.Acknowledgements23 7.References24 and Hugh RobertsonRD&I, Department of Conservation, PO Box 10-420, Wellington,11-222, Palmers

4 ton North, NewZealandmaladapted subadult
ton North, NewZealandmaladapted subadults has been reduced by raising young kiwi on predator-free spp., threatened species, incubation, translocation,Colbourne, R.; Bassett, S.; Billing, T.; McCormick, H.; McLennan, J.; Nelson, A.; Robertson, H.2005: The development of Ope

5 ration Nest Egg as a tool in the conserv
ration Nest Egg as a tool in the conservation management ofkiwi. 7Science for Conservation 259 2.Gathering background data The first step towards developing the Operation Nest Egg programme was a2.1NEST ATTENDANCEor from timed video footage of movements of adult birds in

6 and out of nests. In2.2EGG TEMPERATURE A
and out of nests. In2.2EGG TEMPERATURE AND TURNINGthe wax were five temperature-sensitive transmitters, four placed at differentsites 1mm under the shell, and one placed at the core of the egg (Colbourne2.3RATE OF WATER LOSS FROM EGGSthe nearest 0.1g on a portable Mettler

7 balance, to measure the rate of weight(w
balance, to measure the rate of weight(water) loss in the wild. These eggs lost 0.5–0.75g/day at a steady rate 3.1.3Kiwi chick rearing3.1.4Release of subadult kiwiTo test whether these captive-reared chicks could make the transition from3.2MAIN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEstudy,

8 except that they have been gradually ref
except that they have been gradually refined through experimentationincubating freshly-laid eggs, and to raise subadults in predator-freea crèche site for young rowi, and since 1998, Motuora Island (85ha) in theHauraki Gulf has been used for brown kiwi chicks from Northlan

9 d (Fig.1).from transmitter entanglement,
d (Fig.1).from transmitter entanglement, all subsequent chicks, on both islands, have collect eggs or young chicks in parts of the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasonsat protecting kiwi chicks. All eggs and chicks have been taken to Napier CityPeninsula, mainly when they weighed

10 about 800g. One chick, raised in 2002,K
about 800g. One chick, raised in 2002,Kaweka Range/Boundary Streaminland from Lake Tutira, through intensive pest control by trapping and/or1992). Birds in the Kaweka Range, 35 km to the southwest, have been captured 4.2.1Age of eggs at time of collectiondays old at the t

11 ime of collection. In 1997, seven freshl
ime of collection. In 1997, seven freshly-laid eggs (10daysturning regimes in the first month, but none of the eggs hatched. During the NORTH-WAI-TONGA-KAWEKAWAIKARE-OKARITOTOTALLAND MARINORIROMOANA Eggs collected1742264283633357Failed in wild/dead on arrival2482478071Arti

12 ficially incubated eggs1501440212833286E
ficially incubated eggs1501440212833286Eggs hatched981229151827199% hatched65.385.772.571.464.381.869.6Wild chicks collected20022105084Artificially incubated eggs + chicks1701442233883370Chicks1181231172877283Deaths in captivity190746440Still in captivity3004007Released961

13 22492273236Released direct to island8000
22492273236Released direct to island8000008Released direct to mainland31122492218116Released to crèche island57000055112Deaths on crèche358Missing on crèche28634Released from crèche to mainland264470Total to mainland57122492262186Deaths2239231756Missing/Dispersed/Tx acc*72

14 519327Returned to captivity0000022Alive
519327Returned to captivity0000022Alive in wild2871061040101 No. that have since bred70202516TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF OPERATION NEST EGG (1994–2002). 4.2.4Incubation conditionsdaily weight loss of 0.7–1.2g (a higher rate the larger the egg).4.2.5Hatchingfracturing was 2.3±1.5

15 (0.5–7, =24) days, and between external
(0.5–7, =24) days, and between external pipping,=24) days.Most eggs hatched unassisted, but help was provided in some instances whenduring the hatching process, and so we can assume that some help is given, or4.2.6Chick managementfrom the nest at 5–7 days old. In the wild,

16 Northland chicks hatch at about 305g,an
Northland chicks hatch at about 305g,and their weight drops until about 10–20 days old when they are about 20–30%=39), by which stage they were 83±20.9g (42–142, =39) or25.6±5.7% (12–38%, =39) below their hatching weight. Individuals regainedtheir hatching weight by 20.5±

17 5.3 (14–37, =37) days old. as little as
5.3 (14–37, =37) days old. as little as 6 days old in the 1999/00 and 2000/01 seasons (Table 2). The 6-day-11months later. Most brown kiwi juveniles were taken to crèche islandsestimated to be only 6 days old at release, but he was recaptured 14 months4.2.8Release of subad

18 ult kiwi on the mainlandoff predators. F
ult kiwi on the mainlandoff predators. From about 6 months old, when subadult kiwi weigh 800–1200g,Most Operation Nest Egg subadults were transferred from captivity or crècheold and weighed over 1200g, although some Tongariro and Karioi Rahuisubadults in the first month af

19 ter release; some birds used inappropria
ter release; some birds used inappropriate daytime SITEMOVEMENT MEANSDMINMAX NorthlandCaptivity to crèche3323612257Crèche to wild437207233105726Captivity to wild29111416452531WaimarinoCaptivity to wild1603211421512TongariroCaptivity to wild27110712552624KawekaCaptivity to

20 wild10912961257WaikaremoanaCaptivity to
wild10912961257WaikaremoanaCaptivity to wild95352313822OkaritoCaptivity to crèche7751616755Crèche to wild3996526050744 Captivity to wild36110618258718TABLE 2. AGE (DAYS) OF JUVENILE KIWI ON RELEASE. 4.2.9Assessment of success of that in unmanaged nests (52%), even allowi

21 ng for eggs lost to predators or nestaba
ng for eggs lost to predators or nestabandonment before the eggs were due to be collected, and the four egg 1996). Although there was a high initial post-release mortality,the annual survival of Operation Nest Egg subadults to mean age of firstindividuals may still be aliv

22 e. This was far better recruitment than
e. This was far better recruitment than that observed in raised within the parental territory is not known.(10000 ha), but there is little potential to expand this effort successfully overhundreds of thousands of hectares. On the other hand, trapping and/orpopulations in a

23 reas where kiwi have died out (e.g. Boun
reas where kiwi have died out (e.g. Boundary Stream), or forrapidly increasing localised populations that have declined to just a few(e.g. Tongariro Forest). At Lake Waikaremoana, Operation Nest Egg wasMuch has been learnt about the breeding ecology and behaviour of kiwi d

24 uringhas been the way the programme has
uringhas been the way the programme has captured the imagination of the public ofexcellent media opportunities, and also provided opportunities for iwi to be or special 24Colbourne et al.—Development of Operation Nest Egg 7.References spp.) in natural spp., in New Zealand