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1JugoAGenericArchitectureforCompositeCloudasaServiceMahmudHossainRasib


Fig1JugoArchitectureOverviewacquiremoreconsumers18Suchformofserviceshaveproveneffectiveinvariousmarketnichesenhancingupto33ofthecoreprovidersrevenue1915021OurcomplimentaryworktheLitigomodelhasalreadyi

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Document on Subject : "1JugoAGenericArchitectureforCompositeCloudasaServiceMahmudHossainRasib"— Transcript:

1 1Jugo:AGenericArchitectureforCompositeCl
1Jugo:AGenericArchitectureforCompositeCloudasaServiceMahmudHossain,RasibKhan,ShahidAlNoor,andRagibHasanSECRETLab,DepartmentofComputerandInformationSciencesUniversityofAlabamaatBirmingham,AL,USAfmahmud,rasib,shaahid,ragibg@cis.uab.eduAbstract—Cloudcomputinghasbecometheindustrystandardforrapidapplicationdeployment,scalableserversupport,mobileanddistributedservices,anditprovidesaccessto(theoretically)inniteresources.Unfortunately,researchersarestilltryingtoconvergetowardscross-providercloudcomputingframeworkstoenablecompatibilityandseamlessresourcetransitionbetweencloudproviders.Moreover,usersarerestrictedtousingtheprovider-specicpre-conguredoptionsofresourcesandservices,irrespectiveoftheircurrentneeds.Atthesametime,cloudservicesareprovidedasadirectservicefromtheproviderstotheclients.Thiscreatesasegregatedcloudmarketclientele,andnon-negotiablepricingstrategiesforthecloudservices.Inthispaper,weproposeJugo,agenericarchitectureforcloudcompositionandnegotiatedservicedeliveryforcloudusers.Jugoactsasamatch-makerforservicespecicationsfromtheuserswiththecurrentlyavailableassetsfromthecloudproviders.Theengagementofamiddle-manasanopaquecloudserviceproviderwillcreateabetteropportunityforclouduserstondcheaperdeals,price-matching,andexibleresourcespecications,withincreasedrevenueandhigherresourceutilizationforthecloudserviceproviders.Keywords-CloudasaService,CompositeCloud,Multi-ProviderCloud,OpaqueCloudServiceI.INTRODUCTIONTheincreasingpopularityofcloudcomputingisintroducingmoreplayersintothecloudmarket.Cloudserviceprovidersdeliverservicestotheirclientsdirectly,withthepre-conguredsetofservicedescriptions,irrespectiveoftheclients'require-mentsformuchgranularspecicationexibility.Thesegregatedmarketforclouduserscreatesarestrictedbusinessmodelfortheusers,aswellasfornewcloudprovidersintendingtoenterthemarket[1].Hence,thecloudusersarecoercedtowardsfull-pricedserviceswithouttheeffectofdemand-supplyequilibriuminthecloudmarket[1,2].Furthermore,resourcefragmentationisamajorconcernforcloudproviderstoimprovetheoverallresourceutilization[3–7].Resourcemigrationandefcientresourceallocationstrategiesmightbeabletoreducethefragmentedresources[8,9].However,resourcefragmentationproblembecomespersistentbecauseofimplementingcomplex,non-scalable,andunprovensolutionsforfragmentationremoval.Additionally,novelcloudcomputingframeworksbasedonmobile,ad-hoc,andlocalizeddevices[10–12]areproposedasdisassociatedplatforms,withoutservicecompositionapproachestomergetheserviceavailabilityviaagenericservicegateway.Therearevariousnicheconsumermarketsoperatingwithmultipleproviders[13–15].Insteadofonlyadirectservicedelivery,suchserviceshavedevelopedanopaqueservicemodel(e.g.,Priceline1,Airbnb2,Uber3).Anopaqueserviceprovideractsasanegotiatorbetweentheenduserandtheserviceproviderintermsofpricesandservices[16,17].Opaqueservicemodelsinvolveanenhancedmarketingstrategyto1www.priceline.com2www.airbnb.com3www.uber.com Fig.1:JugoArchitectureOverviewacquiremoreconsumers[18].Suchformofserviceshaveproveneffectiveinvariousmarketniches,enhancingupto33%ofthecoreproviders'revenue[19–21].Ourcomplimentarywork,theLitigomodel,hasalreadyillustratedthebenetsofanopaqueplayerinthecloudmarket[19].Inthispaper,wepresentJugo4,agenericarchitecturefordeliveringcompositecloudservices.Jugoprovidesaservicenegotiationapproachforcloudusersbasedontheirindividualresourcerequirements.Jugoaggregatestheassetavailabilityfrommultiplecloudserviceproviderstoallocatetherequestedresourcesfortheusers.WepositthattheJugoopaqueservicemodelcreatesroomfornovelcloudservices,suchasresourceaggregationfrommultipleproviders,price-matching,ashdeals,ne-grainedservicenegotiations,andopportunitiesforfragmentedresourceutilizationforcloudproviders.Therestofthepaperisorganizedasfollows.ThearchitectureandoperationalmodelforJugoarepresentedinSectionIIandSectionIIIrespectively.SectionIVpresentstherelatedwork.Finally,weprovidetheconclusioninSectionV.II.THEJUGOARCHITECTUREInthissection,wepresentthedetailedarchitectureofJugoandthecorrespondingcomponents,asillustratedinFigure2.A.OverviewACSPprovidesInfrastructure-as-a-Service(IaaS),Platform-as-a-Service(PaaS),andSoftware-as-a-Service(SaaS).TheJugocompositecloudisformedbycombiningallthecloudservicesforvariouscloudtypes,suchaspubliccloudproviders,privatecloudswillingtorentoutunusedresources,andothercloudframeworks,asshowninFigure1.Researchershaveproposedad-hoccloudsconsideringthemobileandstationarycomputingdevicesinthenearbyphysicalenvironment,andmayalsobeincludedwithintheJugoarchitecture[10–12].Asshownintheoverview(Fig1),usersutilizeJugotorequestforcloudresources.Theusersprovidethespecicationsandthepriceforthecloudresources.Next,JugonegotiatestheservicerequirementswiththepoolofCSPstondthebestpriceandresourcematchingservicecontract.Finally,theuserisdeliveredtheserviceandredirectedtothecorrespondingCSP.TheCSPveriestheredirectedrequestfromJugoandgrantsaccessfortherequestedresourcestotheuser.4JugoisaLatinsynonymfor`toaggregate'. 2 Fig.2:DetailedArchitectureofJugoB.JugoCloudServiceProviders1)ReusableAssets:Reusableassetsarethesmallfrag-mentedidleresourcesofaCSPanddifculttoalloc

2 atetotheusers[9]becauseofsatisfyingtheir
atetotheusers[9]becauseofsatisfyingtheirservicelevelagreements(SLA)requirements.ACSPkeepstrackofsuchreusableassetsinanassetdatabase(seeAlgorithm1)whereJugocaninquireandreceiveapricelowerthantheregularprice.Consequently,theCSPincreasestheresourceutilizationandmakesadditionalprot.CSPscanalsosellresourcesinbulktoJugoatadiscountedpriceinordertoincreasetheirresourceutilization.2)AssetSubscriptionService(ASB):CSPsadvertisetheirreusableassetsthroughASBs.JugoneedstosubscribetotheASBofaCSPtoreceivetheadvertisements.JugoreceivestheperiodicadvertisementsandregisterstheavailableassetsfromvariousCSPs(seeAlgorithm2). Algorithm1:RetrieveReusableAssets 1:fordatacenterinDataCenterListdo2:forserviceindc:getServiceList()do3:ifservice==IaaSthen4:varresList=service.getFragmentedResocues()5:insertrestListintoDB:IaaS:ResourceTable6:elseifservice==PaaSthen7:varsvcList=service.getIdlePlatforms()8:insertsvcListintoDB:PaaS:ServiceTable9:elseifservice==SaaSthen10:varsvcList=service.getIdleServices()11:insertsvcListintoDB:SaaS:ServiceTable12:endif13:endfor14:endfor 3)AssetDiscoveryService(ADS):TheJugoprovidermayalsocontactaCSPtoretrievefurtherdescriptionoftheassetsviatheADSinterface.UnlikeASB,ADSdoesnotrequireanysubscriptionandallowsJugotoobtainon-demandassetinformationfromtheCSPs.C.JugoCloudControllerTheJugoCloudControlleriscomposedofthefollowingservicecomponentsforcloudusersandCSPs.1)ServiceCatalog(SVC):TheSVCrequeststheADStocompilereusableassetsfrommultipleCSPs.ADSretrievesassets'specicationsfromtheCSPs.Eventually,theSVCdeliverstheaggregatedassetinformationtotheusersthroughtheAssetAdvertisementservice(seeAlgorithm3). Algorithm2:AdvertiseReusableAssets 1:varprevAssetList=NULL2:whiletruedo3:varcurrentAssetList=retrieveReusableAsset()4:ifprevAssetList6=currentAssetListthen5:newAssetList=getUpdateAssets(prevAssetList;currentAssetList)6:forccingetCloudControllerList()do7:sendUpdate(cc:IP,cc:Port,newAssetList)8:endfor9:endif10:prevAssetList=currentAssetList11:Thread.Sleep(DELAY PERIOD)12:endwhile Algorithm3:AssetCompilation 1:forcspingetCloudProviderList()do2:forsvincsp:getserviceList()do3:insertsv:SpecificationintoDB:Service:Table4:endfor5:forresincsp:getResouceList()do6:insertres:SpecificationintoDB:Res:Table7:endfor8:endfor 2)ServiceIntegrationEngine(SIE):SIEintegratescloudservicesfrommultiplesCSPs,andprovidesauniedapplica-tioninterfacetotheusers.SIEalsoprovidesmechanismstoaddandcongureservicesfromheterogeneousclouds(seeAlgorithm4).TheSIEexposeswebandapplicationprogramminginterfaces(APIs)viatheManagementandOperationConsole(MOC).JugoprovidesuniedAPIstohandleheterogeneousserviceAPIsofCSPsthatareusedbyclouduserstobuildanddeployapplicationsinanycloudplatform.TheprotocoltranslationandmanagementaredonebytheIaaS/PaaS/SaaSmanageroftheServiceConsolemodule.3)ProvisioningService(PS):Resourcescanbepro-activelyorre-activelybalancedbyreplicatingandmigratingtheservicestotheclosestorlargerCSPsviatheLoadBalancer.PScanalsoelasticallyallocatemoreresourcesfortheusersfrommultipleCSPsdependingonuser-denedprovisioningspecications.4)EventManagementService(EMS):EMSconsistsoftwomodules:MonitoringandAlarming.TheMonitoringmoduleperiodicallychecksandveriestheSLAandQualityofService(QoS),andgenerateslogprovenanceforthegivenCSP.TheSLAlogsgeneratedandpreservedbytheMonitoringmoduleareusedduringtheperformanceauditphase.TheAlarmingmoduleallowstheuserstomanagetheusageofresources.AusercanspecifyusagethresholdparametersfortheallocatedservicesandtodenetherequiredactionsthatwillbeperformedwhenametricexceedsthethresholdusingtheAlarmingmodule.5)AuditingService:Thisserviceiscomposedofthreecomponents:securityauditmodule,privacyimpactauditmodule,andperformanceauditmodule.JugoactsasagatewaybetweenthecloudconsumersandtheCSPs.TheAuditingmoduleperiodicallylogstheactivitiesamongtheusers,CSPs,andtheJugoCloudController,andmaintainsthesecureprovenanceofthelogsforpost-veriableauditing[22,23].TheAuditingservicealsoprovidesaninterfaceforauditorstoretrieveandanalyzethestoredlogsforforensicinvestigation. 3 Fig.3:Serviceselectionprocess. Algorithm4:Cross-ProtocolServiceGateway Input:inRequest1:varsvcManager=NULL2:switch(inRequest:TYPE)3:caseIaaS:4:svcManager=IaaS.Manager5:casePaaS:6:svcManager=PaaS.Manager7:caseSaaS:8:svcManager=SaaS.Manager9:endswitch10:varmsg=svcManager.TranslateMsg(inRequest:Msg,inRequest:CloudProvider)11:svcManager.InvokeAPI(msg,inRequest:MethodName,inRequest:CloudProvider) 6)SecurityService:TheSecurityServiceprovidesauthenti-cation,accesscontrol,andaccountingforcloudusersandCSPs.Authenticationservice(AuthS)managesusers'credentialsandmanagesServiceAccessTokens(SAT).AuthScanissueSATstoveriedusersforaccessinginbound(e.g.,provisioningandauditingservices)andoutbound(e.g.,IaaS/PaaS/SaaSservice)cloudservicesbasedonthedenedprivilegesforservicesandresources.TheJugoCloudControllerprovidessupportforopen-sourceandcross-platformauthenticationprotocols[24].Hence,veriedandprovisionedJugouserscanbypasstheJugoCloudControllerandcandirectlyaccessthecloudresourcesbypresentingtheSATs.AccessControlService(ACS)providespoliciestodeneserviceandresourceprivilegesforeachuser.7)ServiceReportingandBilling:Thereportingmoduleprovidesrepo

3 rtsonserviceusageandSLAs.Thereportingmod
rtsonserviceusageandSLAs.ThereportingmodulegeneratesaggregatedusagereportsforindividualCSPs.Similarly,thebillingincludesthechargesforJugoaswellasfortheallocatedresourcesfromtheCSPs.8)ManagementandOperationConsole(MOC):TheMOCisthecontactpointfortheJugoCloudController.TheMOCinterfaceenablesuserstointeractwithJugo'sservicesaswellaswiththeCSPs.TheinterfaceallowsJugouserstoexploreavailableresources,submitrequests,subscribeupdatesfromCSPs,manageandcongureJugoservices,monitorusagestatistics,andretrievereportingandbillinginformation.III.OPERATIONALMODELNext,wepresentthreeusecasesandthecorrespondingoperationalmodelsforJugo.A.ServiceSelectionServiceselectiondescribestheinteractionstopurchaseservicesthroughJugo(Figure3).Ausersubmitsservicespecications(seeTableI)totheSVCthroughtheMOC.The Fig.4:Serviceprovisioningprocess.SVCanalyzestheuser'srequirements,followedbydiscoveryandcompilationofavailableassetsfrommultipleCSPs.TheSVCperformsthespecicationrequestvs.resourceavailabilitynegotiationanddeterminesthebestdealsfortheclientatthegiventime.TheclientselectsandnotiestheSVCwiththedesiredservice(s)fromtheavailableoffers.Finally,theSVCrequeststhecorrespondingCSP(s)toallocatetheselectedresourcesforthegivenservice(s).TABLEI:JugoMessageFormats(a)ServiceSpecication Request[List[Services]] Services[List[Service]] Service[Type,List[Resources],List[SLA],PriceRange,ServiceLo-cation,NumberOfUsers,ServicePe-riod] Resources[Resourcex,x2R] SLA[QoS,Throughput,PowerBackup,Security,List[Provisioning],ServiceCommu-nity] Provisioning[Action,Options] (b)SecurityAccessToken(SAT) SAT[UserId,IssueInstance,Issuer,Subject,PublicKey,Signature,Sign-Hash,List[Services]] Services[List[Service]] Service[Address,List[Capabilities]] Capabilities[Actions,Obligation,List[AccessLocations]] Obligation[NotBefore,NotAfter] AccessLocations[Locationsx,x2R] B.ServiceandResourceProvisioningTheEventingServiceperiodicallymonitorstheperformanceandstatusoftheallocatedCSPservicesviaJugo(seeFigure4).EventingServiceevaluatestheservicestatusagainstusers'SLAsandraisesanoticationalarmincaseofanyvariationoftheQoSparameters.TheProvisioningServiceisrequestedtotakenecessaryactions(e.g.,resourcescaleup,migration,andreplication)toimproveserviceperformanceandtomaintaintheSLAsandQoSparameters.TheProvisioningServiceretrievesprovisionactionsandoptions(e.g.,on-demandmeasureandproactivemeasure),andre-actsaccordingly.C.AuthenticationandAccessControlTheJugosecurityserviceissuesSATstotheexistingandauthenticatedJugousers.TheuserscanthenusetheSATstoaccesstheallocatedresourcesattheCSPs(seeFigure5).AuserauthenticateswiththeJugoandrequestsaSATforthepurchasedresources.TheAuthenticationSerververiestheuserandretrievestheprivilegesfromtheAuthorizationServer.Next,theAuthenticationServergeneratesasignedSATwiththeusercapabilitiesandissuestheSATtotheuser.Subsequently,theJugousersendsaserviceaccessrequestwiththeSATtoaCSP.TheCSPveriestheSATandchecksprivilegesforthe 4 Fig.5:AuthenticationandAccessTokenGenerationdelegatedresourceaccess,andthengrants/deniestherequestaccordingtothevericationresult.ThemessageformatforSATsispresentedinTableI.ASATdescribesalistofallowedservicesandcapabilitiesforeachoftheservices(e.g.GET,POST,etc.).ASATalsocontainsalistofveriableobligationparametersforarequesttobeserved(e.g.notbefore,notafter).TheSATspeciestheaccesslocationsfortheservicerequest,alongwiththeuser'sidentity,resourcename,CSP'sname,user'scontact,Jugo'spublickey,SAT-signatureandSAT-hash.IV.RELATEDWORKSeveralschemeshavebeenproposedtounifymultiplecloudservicesandtheirfunctionalities[25,26].Toreducevendorlock-inandtoimproveportability,Costaetal.[27]presentedageneralpurposehighlevelCloudAPI.AcommonmanagementinterfacefortheIaaSusershasbeenproposedin[28].Rochwergeretal.[29]proposedaserviceorientedframeworktoallowdynamicinteroperabilityofcloudserviceproviders.Maximilienetal.[30]presentedacloud-agnosticmiddlewarebrokerforcloudusers.Anopen-standardabstrac-tionlayerforcross-platformcloudserviceshavebeenproposedin[31].Additionally,researchershaveproposedthird-partybrokerbasedstrategiestoselectcloudresourcesbasedonuserrequirements[32–35].UnlikeJugo,theseworksdidnotconsidercompositeplatformswithmultiplecloudserviceproviderswithdifferentservicecapabilities.Jugofocusesonauniedplatformforservicenegotiation,delivery,andmanagementbetweendifferenttypesofcloudresourcesandtheusers.Jugocanleveragetheabovedesignsandconceptstoprovideopen-standardsforsuchcompositecloudarchitectures.V.CONCLUSIONTheproposedJugomodelintroducesanovelarchitectureforcompositeservicedeliveryformultiplecloudproviders.Theconceptleveragestheopaquemarketingapproachprovidinguserswithcloudresourcesviaservicenegotiationandprice-matchingassurance.Jugoenablescloudserviceproviderstorentoutunderutilizedandfragmentedresources,resultinginincreasedprotsandresourceutilization.Moreover,Jugomayalsopromotesmallercloudprovidersandprivatecloudresourceswillingtorentoutidleresourcesandenterthecloudcomputingmarketniche.WepositthatincreasingthenumberofJugo-contractedcloudproviderswilleventuallybenetthecloudusersbycreatingbetterservicedeals,theJugoprovidersbyreceivingincreasedservicerevenue,aswellasthecloudserviceprovide

4 rsbyimprovingthequalityofservices.VI.ACK
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