are imposing structures some are magnix00660069cent

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They were 147designed to intimidate the 145dangerous classes146148 according to their foremost histo-rian Robert Fogelson Originally they housed National Guard units thought to be more reli-able than Download


guard labor 146 x00660069 labor guard x00660069 146 united 148 147 150 states economists security force www economy police

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1 are imposing structures, some are magni&
are imposing structures, some are magni�cent. They were “designed to intimidate the ‘danger ous classes’” according to their foremost histo - rian, Robert Fogelson. Originally they housed National Guard units thought to be more reli - able than local police when upholding urban are utilized in two different ways,” he wrote in 1896: “they are directed to the production or transformation of economic goods, or else to the appropriation of goods produced by others.” We decided to do a rough breakdown of the United States economy using a variant of Pa - reto’s categories, expanded to include not only the appropriation of goods produced by others, but also the prevention of such appropriation. people and property and imposing work disci - pline. Since 1890 the guard labor fraction of the United States labor force ha

2 s increased four-fold. And in Sweden to
s increased four-fold. And in Sweden today the guard labor fraction is less than half that of the United States. Homeland security is not the reason for the growth in guard labor. Despite recent increases -3- Economists’ Voice v March, 2007 classi�ed as guards in the literal sense (47 per - cent) were privately employed in 2002, up from 28 percent in 1890. Our measures of guard labor in the United States are necessarily incomplete and our de�ni - tions dif�cult to implement (Are lawyers guard labor? Lobbyists? Even some economists?). Foremen monitor workers and also solve tech - nical or coordination problems that are clearly productive in the sense just de�ned. Teachers instruct the next generation in essential productive skills; and they also socialize them to internal - ize the norms cont

3 ributing to conformity to the society&#
ributing to conformity to the society’s in - stitutions, and so on. We have been forced to count only those whose main activities conform to our de�nition (thereby sparing our own profession the label). We have also ignored labor involved in the pro - duction of weapons for self protection, of locks and security cameras, and surveillance devices such as the trackers attached to long haul trucks to monitor their drivers’ speed and routes. We do not think we have overestimated the number of su - pervisors; we have certainly missed some types of work that could be termed guard labor. INTERNATIONALCOMPARISONS S imilar calculations of guard labor for 18 economies (but not including police and private security personnel on which compa - rable data are not available) appear in �gure 2. Differences in the extent of guard labo

4 r are substantial, ranging from less th
r are substantial, ranging from less than a tenth of the labor force in Switzerland to a �fth or more in Spain, the United States, the U.K., and Greece. Guard Labor as a Percentage of the Labor Force Figure 1: Guard Labor United States 1890–2002 Note: Our unemployment number is the excess of measured unemployment over an estimate of frictional levels . 9.7% 10.6% 10.9% 11.5% 12.4% 12.6% 12.7% 14.3% 15.7% 15.8% 16.3% 18.1% 18.2% 18.3% 19.8% 19.9% 22.2% 24.0% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Switzerland Iceland Sweden Denmark Norway Austria Portugal Italy Netherlands Ireland Canada Belgium Australia New Zealand Spain United Kingdom United States Greece Guard Labor/Labor Force Figure 2: Guard Labor: Cross-National Comparisons Note: Police and private security personnel are not in - cluded due to lack of comparable data. -7- Economists’ Voice www.bepress.

5 com/e v March, 2007 behavioral experimen
com/e v March, 2007 behavioral experiments have provided convinc - ing evidence that humans in diverse cultures are inequality-averse, and that violations of fairness or reciprocity norms provoke costly con�icts. America’s urban armories, built over a cen - tury ago to contain social unrest, now house such facilities as an indoor track and �eld arena, a homeless shelter, and a �lm studio. Is it too much to hope that some of the burden of today’s guard labor might also be redirected to more so - cially productive uses? Letters commenting on this piece or others may be submitted at submit.cgi?context=e v . REFERENCESANDFURTHERREADING Bowles, Samuel (2004) Microeconomics: Behavior , Institutions, and Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Bowles, Samuel (1986) “The P

6 rocess of Produc - tion in a Competitive
rocess of Produc - tion in a Competitive Economy: Reply,” Ameri - can Economic Review, 76(5):1203–4. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2004) Occupa - tional Outlook Handbook 2002–2012. Washing - ton, DC: Of�ce of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections. Available at: http:// / . Fogelson, Robert (1989) America’s Armories: Architecture , Society and Public Order . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Hood, Michael (2006) Quoted by Jens Erik Gould, “High Crime Sti�es Latin Economies,” New York Times, 17 October, C1. Jayadev, Arjun (2007) “Estimating Guard Labor,” University of Massachusetts Boston, Economics Department, Working Paper 7. Available at:�les/ jayadev- egl.pd f . Jayadev, Arjun and Samuel Bowles (2006) “Guard Labor,

7 ” Journal of Development Eco - nomi
” Journal of Development Eco - nomics, 79(2):328–48. Mill, John Stuart (1965) Principles of Political Economy . New York: Kelley. Pareto, Vilfredo (1971) Manual of Political Economy . New York: Augustus Kelley (original French edition published 1896). Ray, Debraj, Jean-Yves Duclos, Joan Esteban (2004) “Polarization: Concepts, Measurement, Estimation,” Econometrica, 72(6):1737–72. Shapiro, Carl and Joseph Stiglitz (1984) “Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device,” American Economic Review, 74(3):433–44. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Jack Hirshleifer (1925–2005) was among the few economists who followed the lead of Pareto and Mill. We dedicate these pages to his memory. Thanks to Deborah Boehm and Elisabeth Wood for their con - tributions to this research, and the Behavioral Sci - ences Program at the Santa Fe Institute and

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