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Contexts150BookofAbstractspages2315027LjubljanaSloveniaBellandiAGiovan


Figure4Theinterfacetothesyntaxandsemanticsmoduletestimonianza148147ButwhentheyarrivedatthecourtinYavn30erabb30anGamli30elwhowasthepresidentofthecourtacceptedtheirtestimony148Basicallythetermverbalizes

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Document on Subject : "Contexts150BookofAbstractspages2315027LjubljanaSloveniaBellandiAGiovan"— Transcript:

1 Contexts–BookofAbstracts,pages23
Contexts–BookofAbstracts,pages23–27,Ljubljana,Slovenia.Bellandi,A.,Giovannetti,E.,,andWeingart,A.(2018b).Multilingualandmultiwordphenomenainalemonoldoccitanmedico-botanicallexicon.Information,9(3)52.Bellandi,A.,Khan,A.F.,andMonachini,M.(2019).Enhancinglexicographybymeansofthelinkeddataparadigm:Lexoforclarin.InKirlSimovetal.,editors,ProceedingsoftheCLARINAnnualConference2019,pages134–137,Leipzig.Bosque-Gil,J.,Gracia,J.,andMontiel-Ponsoda,E.(2017).Towardsamoduleforlexicographyinontolex.InPro-ceedingsoftheLDK2017Workshops:1stWorkshopontheOntoLexModel,pages74–84.Kilgarriff,A.,Baisa,V.,Busta,J.,Jakub´cek,M.,Kov´ar,V.,Michelfeit,J.,Rychl´y,P.,andSuchomel,V.(2014).Thesketchengine:Tenyearson.Lexicography,1(1).McCrae,J.,Montiel-Ponsoda,E.,andCimiano,P.(2012a).Collaborativesemanticeditingoflinkeddatalexica.InIntheProceedingsoftheLanguageResourcesandEval-uation,pages2619–2625,Instanbul.McCrae,J.P.,AguadodeCea,G.,Buitelaar,P.,Cimiano,P.,Declerck,T.,G´omez-P´erez,A.,Gracia,J.,Hollink,L.,Montiel-Ponsoda,E.,Spohr,D.,andWunner,T.,(2012b).InterchangingLexicalResourcesontheSeman-ticWeb,pages701–709.LanguageResourcesandEval-uation.SpringerNetherlands.McCrae,J.P.,Bosque-Gil,J.,Gracia,J.,Buitelaar,P.,andCimiano,P.(2017).Theontolex-lemonmodel:Devel-opmentandapplications.InProceedingsofElectronicLexicographyinthe21stCentury,pages19–21.McGuinness,D.L.andHarmelen,F.V.(2004).Owlwebontologylanguageoverview.W3Crecommendation10.Mechura,M.(2017).Introducinglexonomy:anopen-sourcedictionarywritingandpublishingsystem.InPro-ceedingsofElectronicLexicographyinthe21stCentury,pages19–21.Piccini,S.,Bellandi,A.,andGiovannetti,E.(2018).Asemanticwebapproachtomodellingandbuildingabilingualchinese-italiantermino-ontologicalresource.InXVIIIEURALEXInternationalCongressLexicogra-phyinGlobalContexts–BookofAbstracts,pages87–90,Ljubljana,Slovenia.Stellato,A.,Turbati,A.,Fiorelli,M.,Lorenzetti,T.,Costetchi,E.,Laaboudi,C.,Gemert,W.V.,andKeizer,J.T.(2017).Vocbench3:Pushingcollaborativedevel-opmentofthesauriandontologiesfurtherbeyond.InProceedingsof17thEuropeanNetworkedKnowledgeOrganizationSystemsWorkshop,pages39–52. Figure4:Theinterfacetothesyntaxandsemanticsmodule.testimonianza”(“ButwhentheyarrivedatthecourtinYavne,rabbanGamliel,whowasthepresidentofthecourt,acceptedtheirtestimony”).Basically,thetermverbalizesthepropertytalmud:courtPresidentwherethesubjectcor-respondstotherstargumentoftheproperty(i.e.,theprop-ertydomainclass),andtheobjectcorrespondstothesecondargumentoftheproperty(i.e.,thepropertyrangeclass).TheencodinggeneratedbyLexOisthefollowing::presidente_del_tribunale_it_entryaontolex:LexicalEntry,ontolex:MultiwordExpression;synsem:synBehavior:presidente_del_tribunale_it_frame1.:presidente_del_tribunale_it_frame1asynsem:SyntacticFrame,lexinfo:NounFrame;lexinfo:subject:presidente_del_tribunale_it_frame1_arg1;lexinfo:object:presidente_del_tribunale_it_frame1_arg2.:presidente_del_tribunale_it_frame1_arg1asynsem:SyntacticArgument.:presidente_del_tribunale_it_frame1_arg2asynsem:SyntacticArgument;synsem:marker"of";synsem:optional"true"ˆˆxsd:boolean.:presidente_del_tribunale_it_sense1asynsem:OntoMap,ontolex:LexicalSense;synsem:ontoMapping:presidente_del_tribunale_it_sense1;ontolex:referencetalmud:courtPresident;synsem:subjOfProp:presidente_del_tribunale_it_frame1_arg2;synsem:objOfProp:presidente_del_tribunale_it_frame1_arg1.Finally,byselectingthe“dictionaryview”tab,adictionary-likerenderingofalltheinformationrelatedtotheselectedentryisshowninthecentralpanelofLexO.TherenderinglayoutcanbemodiedbyreplacingtherelativeCSSles14.3.NextStepsInthisworkwehaveintroducedLexO,awebcollaborativetoolfortheconstructionoflexicographicresourcesbasedonthelemonmodel.LexOdoesnotrequireanyknowledge 14Thisoperatio

2 nrequirestheskillsforeditingtheJavaproje
nrequirestheskillsforeditingtheJavaproject,substitutingtheCSSles,andrecompilingtheLexOproject.onLinkedDataandSemanticWebtechnologiestobeusedbyalexicographer.Thoughsimilartoolsalreadyexist(inprimisthecitedVocBench),weintendtospecializeLexOintheeasewithwhichitmakesitpossibletocreatelexicalLLODresources,thoughattheexpenseofexibilityandgenerality.RegardingfurtherdevelopmentsofLexO,anumberofup-gradeshavealreadybeenplanned,amongwhichwelistthefollowing:i)theintegrationofamoduleforthemanage-mentoftext,toallowausertoimportacorpusoftextsandusethemasasourceoflexicographicdata;ii)thein-tegrationoftoolsfortextprocessingtosupportinthecon-structionofthelexicographicresource(forexample,givenalemma,byautomaticallysuggestingcandidateforms),similarlytowhatLexonomy(Mechura,2017)andSketchEngine(Kilgarriffetal.,2014)allowtodo;iii)thepossi-bilityofeasilyextendingtheunderlyinglexicalmodelbytheuser,throughhighlevelinterfaceshidingpropertiesandclasses;iv)theintegrationofanimportingmodule,toen-ableausertouploadanexistinglexicalresourceencodedinothermodels,suchasTEI-Lex0(Ba´nskietal.,2017),orLMF;v)theenhancementofLexO'sRESTAPIsforallow-inguserstogetthelexicaldataineitherJSON-LD,LMF,orTEI-Lex015;vi)thepossibilitytomanagethemoduleforlexicography(Bosque-Giletal.,2017)targetedattherep-resentationofdictionaries16.TogureoutwheretostartfromandtowhatextentweshouldreassessourplannedactivitieswewouldliketohavefeedbackfromtheLLODcommunityandfromlexicogra-pherswillingtocreateresourcesinthiseld.Asamatteroffact,itisnowcrucialbothtondnewusersandapplica-tioneldswheretotestit,and,evenmoreimportantly,tounderstandinwhichwayLexOshouldevolve.Finally,weareplanningtoperformanevaluationofLexOfocusedonitsusabilitybyinvolvingsomepotentialuserscomingfromtheLLDcommunity.4.AcknowledgementsThisworkwassupportedbytheTALMUDprojectandcar-riedoutwithinthescienticcollaborationbetweenS.c.ar.l.PTTBandILC-CNR(09/11/2017).5.BibliographicalReferencesBa´nski,P.,Bowers,J.,andErjavec,T.(2017).Tei-lex0guidelinesfortheencodingofdictionaryinformationonwrittenandspokenforms.InProceedingsofElectronicLexicographyinthe21stCentury,pages485–494.Bellandi,A.andKhan,A.F.(2019).Lexicographyandthesemanticweb:Ademowithlexo.InProceedingsofElectronicLexicographyinthe21stCentury,pages53–56.Bellandi,A.,Giovannetti,E.,,andPiccini,S.(2018a).Collaborativeeditingoflexicalandtermino-ontologicalresources:aquickintroductiontolexo.InXVIIIEU-RALEXInternationalCongressLexicographyinGlobal 15ConsiderationsandresultscomingfromELEXISprojectwilltakeintoaccount.Seeforexamplehttps://elex.is/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/ELEXIS_D2_1_Interface_for_Interoperable_Resources.pdf16https://www.w3.org/2019/09/lexicog/ asensetoanyofitsontologicalentities(class,instanceorproperty).2.1.WorkingExamplesThemaininterfaceofLexO,asshowninFigure1,isde-signedfortheeditingofamultilinguallexicon.Itismainlycomposedof2parts.Theleftmostcolumnallowsausertobrowselemmas,formsandsenses,accordingtotheOntoLex-Lemoncoremodel.Iftheresourceismultilin-gual,alexicographercanlterlemmas,formsandsensesbylanguage.Informationrelatedtotheselectedentryisshowninthecentralpanelwherethesystemshowsthelex-icalentryofreference,alongsidethelemma(redbox),itsforms(blueboxes)andtherelativelexicalsenses(yellowboxes).Bymeansoftheplusbuttonitispossibletoaddotherformsandothersenses.Figure1showstheentry“presidentedeltribunale”(courtpresident)modeledwiththedecomp12module.LexOautomaticallytriestolinkeachmultiwordcomponenttothecorrespondentlexicalen-try,ifalreadyavailableinthelexicon. Figure2:Themanagementoftheimportedontology.Asgure2depicts,LexOgivesusersthepossibilitytoim-portanexistingdomainontology,visualizeitshierarchicalstructure,itspropertiesandinstances,andallowstheasso-ciationofanontologicalentitytoalexicalsense.Inourexampleofgure2,theTalmuddomainontology,whichisbeingdevelo

3 pedwithintheproject,isshown.Thesenseofth
pedwithintheproject,isshown.Thesenseoftheterm“presidentedeltribunale”islinkedtotheobjectpropertytalmud:courtPresidentbindingJewishRabbistogeographicalplaces.Throughtheselectbuttonatthetopcenteroftheinterfaceofgure1,alexicographercanswitchtothe“variationandtranslation”orthe“syntaxandsemantics”part.Theformer(gure3)consistsoftwokindsofrelations:i)thesemanticrelationsholdingbetweensensesandincludingterminolog-icalrelations(dialectal,register,chronological,discursive,anddimensionalvariation)andthetranslationrelation;ii)therelationslinkinglexicalentriesand/orforms,whichde-scribe,forexample,themorphologicalandorthographicvariationsoftheword.Figure3showsanexampleofrela-tionbetweenlexicalentries,i.e.“presidente”istheheadof 12https://www.w3.org/2016/05/ontolex/#decomposition-decomp Figure3:Theinterfacetothevariationandtranslationmod-ule.“presidentedeltribunale”,andarelationbetweensenses,i.e.theculturalItaliantranslation13withtheoriginalsenseassociatedwiththeHebrewterm.TheencodinggeneratedbyLexOisthefollowing::presidente_del_tribunale_it_entryaontolex:LexicalEntry,ontolex:MultiwordExpression;lexinfo:partOfSpeechlexinfo:NounPhrase;decomp:constituent:presidente_it_comp0,:del_it_comp1,:tribunale_it_comp2;ontolex:canonicalForm:presidente_del_tribunale_it_lemma;ontolex:sense:presidente_del_tribunale_it_sense1.:presidente_del_tribunale_it_lemmaaontolex:Form;ontolex:writtenRep"presidentedeltribunale"@it.:presidente_it_entrylexinfo:head:presidente_del_tribunale_it_entry.:presidente_del_tribunale_it_sense1aontolex:LexicalSense;skos:definition"TheHeadoftheCourt..."@en;ontolex:referencetalmud:courtPresident.:rosh_beit_din_heb_sense1aontolex:LexicalSense;:transavartrans:Translation;vartrans:source:presidente_del_tribunale_it_sense1;vartrans:target:rosh_beit_din_heb_sense1;vartrans:categorytranscat:culturalEquivalent.Figure4showsthesyntacticbehaviorofawordanditsgovernmentpattern,namelytheactantsintroducedbytheword,theirsyntacticfunctionsandtheirmorpho-syntacticrealization.Thesesyntacticframesneedalsotobeboundtotheontologicalstructuresrepresentingtheirmeaning.Asaconsequence,LexOmakesitpossibletomaptheargumentofapredicatedenedinanontologyandthesyntacticar-gumentintroducedinagivensyntacticframe.Figure4depictsanexampleofnounframeofthetermhav-ingasubjectandan(optional)objectthathastheprepo-sition“di”(of)asmarker.AnexampleofframeinstanceintheItaliantranslationoftheBabylonianTalmudis:“MaquandogiunseropressoiltribunaleaYavne,rabbanGamliel,cheerailpresidentedeltribunale,accettolaloro 13LexOalsousesthevocabularytranscatdenedathttp://purl.org/net/translation-categories opedisDiTMAO5,aprojectaimedatproducingadigital-bornmultilingualmedico-botanicalterminologypivotingonOldOccitananddevelopedbyphilologists(Bellandietal.,2018b).Then,ateamoflexicographersappliedLexOtocreateFdS6,amultilingualdiachroniclexiconofSaussureanterminologyintheframeworkofanItalianPRINproject(Bellandietal.,2018a).Finally,abilingualChinese-ItalianresourcewascreatedwithLexOontheba-sisofMatteoRicci'sAtlasinthecontextofTotusMundus7project(Piccinietal.,2018).CurrentlyLexOisbeingusedinthecontextoftheBaby-lonianTalmudTranslationProjectinItalian8,tocreateamultilingualAramaic/Hebrew/Italianterminologicalre-sourcesofthetalmudicdomain.Theexamplesthatwillfollowarebasedonthiswork.DuringthedevelopmentofLexOwehavealsobeeninuencedbysomeofthelatestworkstakingplaceintheEuropeanH2020projectELEXIS(inwhichtheInstituteofComputationalLinguis-ticsofPisaisinvolvedasapartner).Inparticular,ourworkhasbeencloselyinformedbythesurveyoflexicographicusers'needsconductedaspartoftheprojectandrecentlypublishedasadeliverable9.ThemainaimofLexOistoencouragetheinvolvementoflexicographersintheLLODcommunitybyi)spreadingtheuseofthelemonmodelalsoincommunitiesoflexicographersnewtothemode

4 llingofresourcesaslinkeddataii)makethemo
llingofresourcesaslinkeddataii)makethemodelavailabletolex-icographersalreadyinvolvedinLDandSWbutwhodonothavetheskillstohandletherequiredtechnologies.Inthissense,LexOactsasalterbetweentheformalrep-resentationlanguageencodingthelexiconandtheuser,al-lowingthelattertofocusonthelexicographicworkwithouthavingtotakecareoftheunderlyingmodelingtechnology.Tobringanexample,toestablishatranslationrelationbe-tweentwolexicalsensestheuserdoesnothavetoknowwhichpropertiesaretobeinvolvedandhowtoinstantiatethereicationpatternrequiredbythe“variationandtrans-lation”(vartrans)moduleoflemon.AnotherkeyfeatureofLexOisitscollaborativenature.Asawebapplication,itallowsateamofuserswithdifferentroles(administrators,editors,viewers,etc.)toworkonthesameresourceatthesametime.Theissueofconcurrentaccesshasbeenfacedbyimplementinglockingmechanisms.Assoonasauserstartseditingacertainlexicalentry,thesystemlocksitandalltherelatedentities,avoidingtheconcurrenteditingofotherusers.Finally,LexOprovidesasetofservicesimplementedwithRESTfulprotocolsthatgivesoftwareagentsaccesstotheresourcesmanagedbythetool.TheRESTinterfaceimple-mentedinthesystemallowstoqueryindividualresourcesandgetinformationaboutlexicalentriesinJSONformat. 5https://www.uni-goettingen.de/en/487498.html6Demoavailableathttp://ditmao-dev.ilc.cnr.it:8082/saussure7Demoavailableathttp://lexo-dev.ilc.cnr.it:8080/TMLexicon8www.talmud.it9SeedeliverableD1.1“LexicographicpracticesinEu-rope:asurveyofuserneeds”athttps://elex.is/deliverables/Inthecurrentversion,arstsetofbasicRESTservicesisavailable,thoughwhichitispossibletolistallthelexiconlanguages,thelexiconlemmas,thelemmametadata,thelemmasinvolvedinaspeciclexico-semanticrelationwithagivenlemma,andsomebasicstatistics. Figure1:ThemaininterfaceofLexOshowingthecoremodule.Thesysteminterfacehasbeenconceptuallydesignedonthebasisofthelemonmodel10.Asshowningure1,thelin-guisticinformationisorganizedin3modules11:thecoremodule,todenethestructureofeachentry,e.g.,lemma,otherforms,senses;thevariationandtranslationmodule,torepresentthevariationofrelationsacrossentriesinthesameordif-ferentlanguages(e.g.,dialectal,register,andtrans-lationrelations,ormorphologicalandorthographicones);thesyntacticandsemanticsmodule,todescribethesyntacticbehaviorofanentry,itsvalence(thesyntac-ticargumentsinvolvedbythesituationthewordrefersto)andthelinktotheontologicalstructuresrepresent-ingthemeaningoftheentry.Aparticularconsiderationhastobemaderegardingthecoremodule(OntoLex).Asalreadysaid,LexOisbasedonthelemonmodel,whichwasdesignedtolexicalizeon-tologiesinanonomasiologicalperspective(i.e.fromtheconcepttotheword).LexO,onthecontrary,aimsatsup-portingintheconstructionoflexicalresourcesbystartingfromtext,inamoresemasiologicalperspective(i.e.fromthewordtotheconcept),withoutrequiringthatanontol-ogymustbeavailablefromthebeginning.Asamatteroffact,thesystemdoesnotforcetheusertolinkeachlexicalsensetoaconcept.However,tostaycomplianttothelemonmodel,itlinksanOWL:Nothingclasstoeachnewlexicalsense,thoughinatransparentwaytotheuser.Ifauserdoeswanttospecifytheconceptualreferenceofalexicalsense,LexOprovidesawaytoimportanOWLontologyandlink 10Fordescribingthepropertiesoflinguisticobjects,LexOreliesontheLexInfovocabulary.11InLexO,thevalueoflinguisticCatalogisautomaticallysettoLexInfo,anontologythatprovidesdatacategoriesfortheOntoLex-Lemonmodel. InvolvingLexicographersintheLLODCloudwithLexO,anEasy-to-useEditorofLemonLexicalResourcesAndreaBellandi,EmilianoGiovannettiInstituteofComputationalLinguisticsViaG.Moruzzi,1-Pisa,Italyfname.surnameg@ilc.cnr.itAbstractInthiscontributionweshowLexO,auser-friendlywebcollaborativeeditoroflexicalresourcesbasedonthelemonmodel.LexOhasbeendevelopedinthecontextofDigitalHumanitiesprojects,inwhichakeypointinthedesignofaneditorwastheeaseofusebylexicographerswithnoskillinLinkedDataorSemanticWebte

5 chnologies.Thoughthetoolalreadyallowstoc
chnologies.Thoughthetoolalreadyallowstocreatealemonlexiconfromscratchandletsateamofusersworkonitcollaboratively,manydevelopmentsarepossible.TheinvolvementoftheLLODcommunityappearsnowcrucialbothtondnewusersandapplicationeldswheretotestit,and,evenmoreimportantly,tounderstandinwhichwayitshouldevolve.Keywords:SemanticWeb,toolsforE-Lexicography,lemonmodel1.IntroductionTheincreasinggrowthoftheLinguisticLinkedOpenDataCloud1(LLOD)witnessesthelivelinessofactivitiescarriedoutbytherelativecommunity(inwhichtheOpenLinguis-ticsWorkingGroup2standsout)inthelastfewyears.Inthiscontext,theavailabilityofmodelsandtoolscanbecru-cialtoattractpeople(suchaslinguists,lexicographers,ter-minologists)willingtobeinvolvedbutwhofeelworriedbythelackofstandardsand,atthesametime,bythetechno-logicalskillsrequiredtofacetheconstructionofaresourceasalinkeddata.Asolutiontotherstissuehascomefromthedenitionoflemon,amodeldevelopedtocreateresourcesformallydescribinglexicalizationsofontologicalconcepts(McCraeetal.,2012b).Thelemonmodelhasbeendesignedtocom-pensateforthewayinwhichtheWebOntologyLanguage(OWL)(McGuinnessandHarmelen,2004)allowstode-noteaconcept,i.e.bysimplylabellingitwithastringandnot,asitcanbedesired,withacomplexlexicalunit.Today,lemoncanbeconsideredadefactostandardfortherepre-sentationofcomputationallexiconsintheSemanticWeb(SW).Thenumberofuserspotentiallyinterestedinedit-ingorconsuminglemondataislarge(McCraeetal.,2017).However,theconstructionofalexiconbasedonlemoncanbeatediousprocess,duetothecomplexityofthemodel(constitutedbyanumberofdifferentmodules)andontheneedofrelyingoncomplexpatterns,suchasreication,torepresentcertainphenomena.Inordertofacethesecondissue,relativetotheaforemen-tioned“technicalbottleneck”,wehavedevelopedLexO3(Bellandietal.,2019;BellandiandKhan,2019),acollab-orative,easytouse,webeditoroflexicalresourcesbasedonthelemonmodel.InthecontextofSemanticWeb(SW),veryfeweditorsoflexiconsexist,andjusttwoofthem(at 1https://linguistic-lod.org/2http://linguistics.okfn.org3Itisfullycompatiblewiththelatestversionoflemon,de-velopedbytheOntologyLexicon(Ontolex)communitygroup.Please,seehttps://www.w3.org/2016/05/ontolex/leasttothebestofourknowledge)handlethelemonmodel.Therstoneis“lemonsource”,aWiki-likewebinterfacetomanipulateandpublishlemondatainacollaborativeway(McCraeetal.,2012a).lemonsourceallowsausertoup-loadalexiconandshareitwithothers.Thistoolwasde-velopedasanopen-sourceproject,basedonthelemonAPI,anditisfreelyavailableforuseonline.However,itcanonlymanageolderversionsofthelemonmodel,anditdoesn'tseemtobeupdatedanymore.ThetoolthatappearstobethemostsimilartoLexOisVocBench(Stellatoetal.,2017)aweb-based,multilingual,collaborativedevelopmentplatformborntomanageOWLontologiesandSKOS(/XL)thesauriandmorerecentlyup-datedtomanagealsoOntolex-LemonlexiconsandgenericRDFdatasets.VocBenchisaverywellengineeredtool,conceivedforuserswithexperienceinSWtechnologiesandvocabularies.Indeed,themaindifferencebetweenVocBenchandLexOliesintargetusersandtherequiredexpertisetousethetool.Asamatteroffact,LexOisaimedatlexicographerswhohaveno(orverylimited)skillsinrepresentinglexicausingtheOntoLex-Lemonmodeland,moreingeneral,inusingSWandLDrelatedtechnologies.However,theeasewithwhichausercancreatealemonlexicalresourceinLexOiscounterbalancedbythelittleexibilityitcurrentlyoffers,forexampletoextendtheun-derlyinglexicalmodelwithcustomclassesorrelations,asVocBenchallowstodo.2.AnOverviewofLexOLexO4isacollaborativewebeditorforeasilybuildingandmanaginglemonresources.ThefeaturesofLexOweredenedonthebasisofourexperiencegainedinthecre-ationoflexicalandterminologicalresourcesintheframe-workofseveralprojectsintheeldofDigitalHumanities.ThecontextinwhichtherstversionofLexOwasdevel- 4Thesourcecodeisavailableathttps://github.com/andreabellandi/LexO-lite.Youcanndademoathttp://klab.ilc.cnr.it/talmud/L