DIGITAL BEHAVIORAL DESIGN

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1 3NirEyal.Hooked:Howtobuildhabit-formingp
3NirEyal.Hooked:Howtobuildhabit-formingproducts.Penguin,2014ThePowersofHabit4,RichardThalerandCassSunstein’sworkon4CharlesDuhigg.Thepowerofhabit:Whywedowhatwedoinlifeandbusiness,volume34.Rand

2 omHouse,2012ChoiceArchitectureinNudge5,D
omHouse,2012ChoiceArchitectureinNudge5,DanAriely’sworkonBehavioral5RichardHThalerandCassRSunstein.Nudge:Improvingdecisionsabouthealth,wealth,andhappiness.HeinOnline,1999EconomicsinPredictably

3 Irrational6,DanielKahneman’spioneering6D
Irrational6,DanielKahneman’spioneering6DanAriely.Predictablyirrational.HarperCollinsNewYork,2009workondecisionmakinginThinkingFastandSlow7,RobertCialdini’s7DanielKahneman.Thinking,fastandslow

4 .Macmillan,2011InŖuence It omputationalN
.Macmillan,2011InŖuence It omputationalNeuroscienceRecentresearchhasmadestridesinunderstandingthebrain’smotivationmachinery.Thestudyofbrainstructures,chemicals,andcircuitsresponsibleforhowwel

5 earnfromexperience21have21particularlyfr
earnfromexperience21have21particularlyfromreinforcementmadesigniřcantprogressinthepastdecadefrombasicresearch,medicine,andevenartiřcialintelligenceandroboticsresearch.Wenowhaveclearerundersta

6 ndingsofhowthebrainformshabits, muchchea
ndingsofhowthebrainformshabits, muchcheaperthanyoucouldhavein themutually-reinforcingrelationshipbetweenacademicscience,high-techcompanies,ispushingtomakesthesetoolseasiertouse.frameworksaref

7 reelyavailable,anyonecanstartusingpatter
reelyavailable,anyonecanstartusingpatterndetectors,predictionengines,andautomationpipelinesthatmighthave,10yearsago,takenseveralPhD’sworthofinnovation,andonlybeenusablebythehandfulofexpertswh

8 obuiltthem.Bettertoo,dozensoffreevideoco
obuiltthem.Bettertoo,dozensoffreevideocoursesfromleadinguniversitieshelpanyone,globally,startbuildingsophisticatedmachinesthatlearn.2323DaltontookAndrewNg’sduringgraduateschool.100%recommende

9 d.Today,yourappcansenseauser’sbehavior.I
d.Today,yourappcansenseauser’sbehavior.ItcansendthatdatatotheCloudinstantly.ThatdatacanbeprocessedbyPersuasiveAIdesignedtomodifytheirbehavior.ThatAIcaninstantlyrecommendtoyourapphowtomodifyit

10 sdigitalenvironment(itsUX)toinducethatus
sdigitalenvironment(itsUX)toinducethatusertochangehisbehavior.Allofthiscanbebuilt-andoperated-cheaplyandscalably-touchingnotonlythatuser’smindbutmillionsofmindsgloballyeverysecond.2424thisisl

11 iterallywhatwedoat BehavioralDesigncanbe
iterallywhatwedoat BehavioralDesigncanbeanextremelystrongdrivingforceinbuildingthatworldwhenusedwithinastrongethicalframework.Asfaraswecantell,thereareatleasttwomajorethicalquestionsunderpinn

12 ingBehavioralDesign.1.)IsanyBehavioralDe
ingBehavioralDesign.1.)IsanyBehavioralDesignethicalatall?2.)IsthisparticularuseofBehavioralDesignethical?“BehavioralDesignpatternsaredarkorlightdependingonhowyouusethem.Don’tletthevillainsbet

13 heonlyoneswithsuperpowers.”!BehavioralDe
heonlyoneswithsuperpowers.”!BehavioralDesignisasetoftechniquesforpersuasion.Itisatechniqueofcoercion.Whenusedproperly,BehavioralDesigntakesadvantageofcognitivebiasestomakeparticularbehaviorsm

14 orelikely:itdoesnotforcecertainactions.I
orelikely:itdoesnotforcecertainactions.Itdoesnotuseviolenceorthreatstochangebehavior.Itdoesnotliterallyrestrictsomeone’sabilitytoactornot.Itmerelyprovidestestable,provablewaytoincreasethechan

15 cesthatbehaviorschange:itdoesnotforcecha
cesthatbehaviorschange:itdoesnotforcechange.ItisaTechnologyofBehavior,notaTechnologyofForce.Tothatextent,thetechniquesofBehavioralDesign,andDesignersthemselves,mustrespectpersons’intrinsicrig

16 htstofreedomof AlignmentwithSocialGood3.
htstofreedomof AlignmentwithSocialGood3.AlignmentwithaUser’sDesires1.TransparencyBehavioralDesign,andourusesofit,aremostethically-aligned behaviors.AmbientCommunicationOften,you’llneedtoprese

17 ntcomplexordenseinformationtosomeone.Amb
ntcomplexordenseinformationtosomeone.AmbientCommunicationprescribesthatusingnon-textcommunication,suchascolor,size,texture,pattern,motion,sound,vibration,ortimecanhelpyoucommunicatecomplexcon

18 tentto roupStructureIfyourAppconnectspeo
tentto roupStructureIfyourAppconnectspeopletooneanother,howdoyouknowthebestwayeachuserwouldprefertoexperiencethissocialcomponent?Differentusersexhibitdifferentpreferencesfortheirinteractionsw

19 itheachother:somefeelmostmotivatedalone,
itheachother:somefeelmostmotivatedalone,othersinsmallgroupsofpeers,andsomeinthefullgazeofpublic.OptimalGroupStructureproposesthatthereexistpredictable,optimalscopesandnaturesofinteractivitybe

20 tweenappusersthatwillbestmotivatethemtoc
tweenappusersthatwillbestmotivatethemtochangetheirbehavior.PersonalizationYoumayhaveheardofthehypothesisthatstudentshave“learningstyles,”34andthatstudentslearnbestwhenmaterialisadaptedto34Vis

21 ual,Auditory,Tactile,Converger,etc.thats
ual,Auditory,Tactile,Converger,etc.thatstyle.Thathypothesishasbeensoundlyrepeatedlyfalsiřed.3535ScottOLilienfeld,StevenJayLynn,JohnRuscio,andBarryLBeyerstein. )mentallyassociatedtotheperforma

22 nceaparticularaction.Youcanthinkofitlike
nceaparticularaction.Youcanthinkofitlikethe“Ifthis�–thenthat”pairingofacuetoanaction:ifsensecue,thendoaction.Non-BehavioralDesignersonlyfocusontheactionasthewhole understandingwhethero

23 rnotauserwillact.HisMATModel3838Dr.Fogg’
rnotauserwillact.HisMATModel3838Dr.Fogg’sMATModel,onlinesuggeststhatusersperformahabitwhentheyhaveadequate[M]otivation,[A]bility,andinthepresenceofaSynthetic[T]rigger.AsaBehavioralDesigner,yo

24 uneedtobalancehowmotivatedauserisagainst
uneedtobalancehowmotivatedauserisagainsthowdifřcultataskis.Ifanactionistoohard,theuserwon’tdoit.Iftheactionistooeasy,thenyou’vewastedtheuser’smotivationalpotential.Theywerereadytodosomethingh

25 ard,butyoudidn’taskenoughfromthem.Ideall
ard,butyoudidn’taskenoughfromthem.Ideally,yourproductshouldpresentasyntheticcueforanactionthatsomeoneisabletoperformwhenthey’remotivatedtoact.SomeActionsareeasiertoturnintouserhabitsthanother

26 s.WhenweatBoundlessMindhelpourclientside
s.WhenweatBoundlessMindhelpourclientsidentifywhatactionsinsidetheirappwouldbebesttoturnintoahabit,weusethefollowingcriteria:1.SmallActionsarebetterthanlargeActionsFavorashortactionthatcanbequ

27 icklyaccomplishedoversomethingthattakesa
icklyaccomplishedoversomethingthattakesalotoftime,rigour,focus,energy,orotherscarceresources.Theuserisalmostalwaysbusy.Theyhavetimeforyourapp-andyourhabit-solongasitcouldalreadyřtintotheirlif

28 e.2.SpecificActionsarebetterthangeneral,
e.2.SpecificActionsarebetterthangeneral,largerbehaviorsWhatuserbehaviorsinyourapplendthemselveswelltobecomingahabit?What RememberthatonefoodordrinkyoujustCAN’Thaveanymorebecauseofthatonetimei

29 tmadeyoureaaaallysick?Yeah.That’sthekind
tmadeyoureaaaallysick?Yeah.That’sthekindofone-shotlearningthebrain’sgoodatfor TotheBehavioralDesigner,“reward”doesn’tjustmeansomeprizeearned.“Reward”isbroaderthanagiftorabonusorathingwecanmea

30 sureindollars.AsBehavioralscientistsandB
sureindollars.AsBehavioralscientistsandBehavioralDesigners OneofSkinnerspigeonsinanoperantchamber.Whenthelightcameon(cue),abirdwouldpeckatthebutton(action)andthebuttonwouldclick(feedback).Atř

31 rstbirdsdidthismerelybychance.Butasfoodp
rstbirdsdidthismerelybychance.Butasfoodpellets(reward)beganbeingreleasedaftersomepecks-unexpectedly-thebirdsquicklylearned.Somebirdsgotapelleteverypeck.Somegotpelletsveryrarely.Some,inbetween

32 .Somegotapelleteveryfewminutes,somegotap
.Somegotapelleteveryfewminutes,somegotapelletatrandomtimes.Somegotapelletafterevery3rdpeck.Somegotapelletafterarandomnumberofpecks.Skinnernoticedsomethingfascinating.Somebirdsstartedpeckingmu

33 ch,muchmorethanothers.!"#$Thepelletswere
ch,muchmorethanothers.!"#$Thepelletswereallthesame.Thebirdswerelargelysimilartooneanother.Sowhataccountsforthedifference?Hefoundthatthepatternofpeck"pelletorpeck"no-pellet47waschangingtheirpe

34 cking.47Hecalledthese‘schedulesofreinfor
cking.47Hecalledthese‘schedulesofreinforcement’Thebirdsthatreceivedpelletsafteraseeminglyrandomnumberofpecks(whathecalledaVariableRatioreinforcementschedule)learnedtoassociatethesyntheticcuel

35 ightwiththebutton-peckactionmuchfasterth
ightwiththebutton-peckactionmuchfasterthananyoftheothergroupsofbirds.Andtheypeckedmuch,muchmore.Theirfuturepeckingwasbeingactivelyprogrammedbytheconsequencesoftheiractions(overwhichheheldcont

36 rol.)NotonlydidSkinnerhaveevidencethatbe
rol.)NotonlydidSkinnerhaveevidencethatbehaviorisshapedbyreward,hefoundthatthepatternofreward-whenandhowit’sgiven-wascriticaltoshapingbehavior.AfewyearsearlieratMcGillUniversity,Drs.OldsandMil

37 nertookamoredirectapproachtoshapingbehav
nertookamoredirectapproachtoshapingbehavior.Theyskippedthetaste-budsentirelyandinsteadplacedelectrodesdirectlyintorats’brains.48ElectricalstimulationintheSeptumbrainregionwould48Speciřcally,t

38 heyplacedtheelectrodesintoabrainregionkn
heyplacedtheelectrodesintoabrainregionknownastheSeptum(locatedimmediatelybeneaththeBasalGanglia’smainpleasurecenter).causetheemotionalsensationofpleasurefortherats.Thentheygavetheratsasmallle

39 vertheycouldpush.Thatleverwouldsendaburs
vertheycouldpush.ThatleverwouldsendaburstofelectricitytotheSeptum.Andman,therat’sLOVEDthatlever.Infact,theratswouldpressithundredsoftimesanhour.Sometimeseventhousandsof RewardsoftheHuntReward

40 softheHuntsatisfyourdesireforconquest.Th
softheHuntsatisfyourdesireforconquest.Thegainsofvictory.Thesetiecloselytotheprimaryreinforcersthatourbrainsevolvedbecausetheymostcloselymimicreality(hence,thenameHunt.)BehavioralDesignersofte

41 nuseRewardsoftheHuntingames,insettingswi
nuseRewardsoftheHuntingames,insettingswithcompetition,and(surprisingly),insituationswherethenextblastofdopaminemightbejustafewswipesaway.5252We’relookingatyou,Tinder.Dotheuseractionsinyourapp

42 haveanobviouscomponentofcompetition?Dous
haveanobviouscomponentofcompetition?Dousersseekinsideyourapp?Arethecorebehaviorsyouneedtoincreasepartofagame?Partofachase?Ifso,whatsortofRewardoftheHuntcanyouimplementtosurpriseanddelightthem

43 ?R maximizegainsfromyourcurrentusers,ita
?R maximizegainsfromyourcurrentusers,itactivelyhelpsyougrow DevelopingaCultureofExperimentation,aworkenvironmentwherepeopleareinformed,empowered,andrewardedforexperimentation,iscriticalforsuc

44 cess.AsManagement,it’syourjobtocreatethe
cess.AsManagement,it’syourjobtocreatetheemotionalandoperationalspacethathelpsProduct,Design,andEngineeringTeamsexperiment.Forthemtobecreative,takerisks,andlearnastheyiterate.Ifyou’reusingaLea

45 norAgiledevelopmentmethodology,muchofthi
norAgiledevelopmentmethodology,muchofthismightfeelintuitive.Trackingexperimentationandtinkeringasaninternalperformancemetriccanshowyouifyou’resucceedinginbuildingaCulturethatencouragespeoplet

46 oexperimentandlearn,andforgivesandunders
oexperimentandlearn,andforgivesandunderstandswhenthingsgosideways. Goal3:PushNotiřcationsareOwnedbyProduct,notbyMarketing.Forhistoricalreasons,MarketingandMessagingTeamsoftenownresponsibility

47 foraProduct’suserretention.Thisismostcom
foraProduct’suserretention.ThisismostcommoninteamsthatstartedaftertheadventoftheWeb,butbeforetheriseofMobile.BeforeMobile,theseteamsusedemailtore-engagelostusers,ormarketnewproductstoretained

48 users.WhenPushNotiřcationscameout,itseem
users.WhenPushNotiřcationscameout,itseemedlikeanaturalřt:PushNotiřcationswerejustre-engagementemails,butfaster.SothesameMessagingandMarketingTeamsbecameresponsiblefordesigningandsendingPushNo

49 tiřcations,andbyextension,userretention.
tiřcations,andbyextension,userretention.. ! . . . Weunderstandhowthiscametobe,wejustthinkit’saterriblesetup.ThisturnedPushNotiřcationsintoachannelforspam.Spamthatjusthappenedtob

50 eclosertousers’brains.ItcreatedthePush-o
eclosertousers’brains.ItcreatedthePush-overloadworldweliveintoday.ItexplainswhyPusharejustoftentreatedassmallercrappieradvertisements,insteadofthoughtofascues. Segmenting arerun.Werecommendse

51 gmentingaportionofyouruserbasetoconducta
gmentingaportionofyouruserbasetoconductarolloutexperiment.Deploythenewchangestothatsegment.MeasurehowuserbehaviorKPIsarechangingovertime,andhowthesechangesaredifferentbetweenthewholeuserbasea

52 ndtheexperimentalsegment(or,betweenacont
ndtheexperimentalsegment(or,betweenacontrolgroupandatreatmentgroupintheexperimentalsegment).Ifsheseesstatisticallysigniřcantchangesinuserbehaviorthatcorrelatewiththechange(andnoothermodiřcati

53 ons,norchance),that’sasignalthattheinter
ons,norchance),that’sasignalthattheinterventionisworkingasdesigned!Sheshouldfeelempoweredscalingoutthedeployedchangetotheentireuserpopulation.Repeat!Often!IfthemeasuredbehavioralKPIsaren’tcha

54 nging,orarechanginginwaysthatsuggestthey
nging,orarechanginginwaysthatsuggestthey’rehurtingengagementandretention,shecanrollbackthedeployment,documentwhathappened,explorerootcauses,andreturnagainwithadifferentexperiment.Noharmdone:s

55 omethingextremelyvaluablewaslearned. Int
omethingextremelyvaluablewaslearned. Inthisexample,aKPIyoumightconsidertrackingforthisteammaybehowsubtleofachangeinuserengagementcanbeaccuratelypredictedbythetoolthey’redeveloping.Astheyexper

56 imentanditerateandexperimentanditerate,y
imentanditerateandexperimentanditerate,youcouldexpectthemtomakesomequantiřableprogresstowardimprovingthetool’sprecisionandaccuracyatpredictinguserengagementchanges.If,evenwithmorework,theirto

57 ol’spredictionsdon’tbecomemoreaccuratewi
ol’spredictionsdon’tbecomemoreaccuratewithtime,it’slikelythat’sasgoodasthemeasureisgoingtoget,andtheteamshouldstartworkingonadifferentgoal.Becausethey’relargelyoperatingattheedgeofbothhumanun

58 derstanding,andtechnology,theirworkwillo
derstanding,andtechnology,theirworkwilloftenresembleacademicresearchmorethananything.Because,tobefair,they’reliterallybuildingtoolsnoone’severmadetosolveproblemsnooneconsideredsolvable.Cut‘em

59 someslack.Considerfosteringcollaboration
someslack.ConsiderfosteringcollaborationsbetweentheseDataScienceTeamsandotherinternalteamswitheventslikeinternalsymposiaanddatahackathons.Thesewillgivethedatascientistsvisibilityonwhatproblem

60 sotherteamsareseeing,andshowtheotherteam
sotherteamsareseeing,andshowtheotherteamswhatkindofproblemstheDataScienceTeamisabletosolve.Also,‘20%time’thatallowstheDataScienceTeamfreedomtotinkercancreatethekindofinnovationthatmanagementd

61 idn’tknowtoaskfor.6767Alotofgreatscience
idn’tknowtoaskfor.6767Alotofgreatsciencestartswithabeeranddoodles.Trustus.We’re ehavioraliststoFloatOnceyourProductteamhasincorporatedBehavioralDesigndeeplyintotheirprocessesandtools,theBehav

62 orialistsandpolymathsyou’vestaffedupwith
orialistsandpolymathsyou’vestaffedupwithshouldbeallowedtodissociatefromtheProductTeamtofocustheirattentiononyourotherbusinessprocesses.Grantthemtheirownbudget,aplacethemorthogonaltoyourstanda

63 rdorganizationchart(perhapsreportingtoaC
rdorganizationchart(perhapsreportingtoaCTOorCOO),butnoimmediateabilitytoforcechanges.Treatthemlikeunderpowered,in-houseconsultants.TheirfreedomtounhookfromProductandobservehowotherhuman-facin

64 gpartsofthebusinessoperatewillnotjustspr
gpartsofthebusinessoperatewillnotjustspreadthesetechniquesandtheirimpacttotherestofyouroperations,itwillencouragethetypeoflateralthinkingthatwilldrivefutureinnovationbackwithintheProductTeami

65 tself.OnceotherteamsarefamiliarwiththeBe
tself.OnceotherteamsarefamiliarwiththeBehaviorTeam,andtrusthasbeenestablished,encouragetheBehaviorTeamtoproviderecommendationstotheseotherbusinessunits,andincentivizethe certainpredictableway

66 s.Inthischapter,weexploreseveralexamples
s.Inthischapter,weexploreseveralexamplesofProductsandEnvironmentsyou’realreadyfamiliarwith,andhighlighttheBehavioralDesigntechniquesthey’veusedtoengineerhowpeoplebehave.ReinforcementLearninga

67 ndCues:FacebookFacebookhasmasterfullyemp
ndCues:FacebookFacebookhasmasterfullyemployedBehavioralDesigntechniquestobuildoneofthemosthabit-formingproductsonanyone’sphone.Whilethey’veusedseveraldifferenttechniques,wefocushereontwo:Rein

68 forcementLearningandCues,whichthey’vecom
forcementLearningandCues,whichthey’vecombinedtogetheranimplementationofCARModel.“PING”youhaveanewnotiřcation!Cananyonereallyresisttheurgetoopentheappandseewhat’sinside?!Thatnotiřcationstartst

69 henextchainofeventstounfold:youunlockyou
henextchainofeventstounfold:youunlockyourphone,řndtheFacebookApp,andopenit.AsdescribedbytheCARModel,you’representedwithaSyntheticCue(acuedesignedbyFacebookthattheycontrol),andyouperformthedes

70 iredtargetAction.Then,whenyouopentheapp,
iredtargetAction.Then,whenyouopentheapp,therearenotiřcationswaitingforyou.And,maybe,oneofthenotiřcationsisdelightful!Here,FacebookemployedReinforcementLearningtocarefullyinduce AtBoundlessMin

71 d,weexploredthisconceptwithourapp,Space.
d,weexploredthisconceptwithourapp,Space.WewereinterestedinhelpingpeopleregaincontroloftherelationshipstheyhavewithappsbychangingtheimpactoftheCARModel.StimulusDevaluationoperatesbyincreasingt

72 hetimedelaybetweenanactionandthereinforc
hetimedelaybetweenanactionandthereinforcementthatauserreceivesforthatinteraction.AsdiscussedinChapters2 rewardingstimuli,whiledecreasingthechancethattherewardcan ,theleadingcausesofdeathwerei

73 nfectiousdiseases.Men,women,andchildrens
nfectiousdiseases.Men,women,andchildrensufferedTyphoid,Pneumonia,Fever,Tuberculosis,andInŖuenza.Wediedofpathogens70inourwaterandfoodandurbanairfromwhichwe70forwhichwebarelyhadnamesyethadlittl

74 echoicebuttosuccumb.Andthensomethingbrav
echoicebuttosuccumb.Andthensomethingbravehappened.WetookseriouslytodevelopingarigorousTechnologyoftheBody.Tomodernmedicine,sanitization,andvaccination.Wechallengedourpreviouslyheldnormsofthes

75 anctityofbody,andmenandwomenworldwidein
anctityofbody,andmenandwomenworldwidein BJFogg.PersuasiveTechnology:UsingComputerstoChangeWhatWeThinkandDo.MorganKaufmann,2002.BillGates.Gatesnotes.URLhttps://www.gatesnotes.com/.JohnGeake.Ne

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