DIGITAL BEHAVIORAL DESIGN

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Document on Subject : "DIGITAL BEHAVIORAL DESIGN"— Transcript:

1 3NirEyal.Hooked:Howtobuildhabit-formingp
3NirEyal.Hooked:Howtobuildhabit-formingproducts.Penguin,2014ThePowersofHabit4,RichardThalerandCassSunsteinsworkon4CharlesDuhigg.Thepowerofhabit:Whywedowhatwedoinlifeandbusiness,volume34.Rand

2 omHouse,2012ChoiceArchitectureinNudge5,D
omHouse,2012ChoiceArchitectureinNudge5,DanArielysworkonBehavioral5RichardHThalerandCassRSunstein.Nudge:Improvingdecisionsabouthealth,wealth,andhappiness.HeinOnline,1999EconomicsinPredictably

3 Irrational6,DanielKahnemanspioneering6D
Irrational6,DanielKahnemanspioneering6DanAriely.Predictablyirrational.HarperCollinsNewYork,2009workondecisionmakinginThinkingFastandSlow7,RobertCialdinis7DanielKahneman.Thinking,fastandslow

4 .Macmillan,2011Inuence It omputationalN
.Macmillan,2011Inuence It omputationalNeuroscienceRecentresearchhasmadestridesinunderstandingthebrainsmotivationmachinery.Thestudyofbrainstructures,chemicals,andcircuitsresponsibleforhowwel

5 earnfromexperience21have21particularlyfr
earnfromexperience21have21particularlyfromreinforcementmadesignicantprogressinthepastdecadefrombasicresearch,medicine,andevenarticialintelligenceandroboticsresearch.Wenowhaveclearerundersta

6 ndingsofhowthebrainformshabits, muchchea
ndingsofhowthebrainformshabits, muchcheaperthanyoucouldhavein themutually-reinforcingrelationshipbetweenacademicscience,high-techcompanies,ispushingtomakesthesetoolseasiertouse.frameworksaref

7 reelyavailable,anyonecanstartusingpatter
reelyavailable,anyonecanstartusingpatterndetectors,predictionengines,andautomationpipelinesthatmighthave,10yearsago,takenseveralPhDsworthofinnovation,andonlybeenusablebythehandfulofexpertswh

8 obuiltthem.Bettertoo,dozensoffreevideoco
obuiltthem.Bettertoo,dozensoffreevideocoursesfromleadinguniversitieshelpanyone,globally,startbuildingsophisticatedmachinesthatlearn.2323DaltontookAndrewNgsduringgraduateschool.100%recommende

9 d.Today,yourappcansenseausersbehavior.I
d.Today,yourappcansenseausersbehavior.ItcansendthatdatatotheCloudinstantly.ThatdatacanbeprocessedbyPersuasiveAIdesignedtomodifytheirbehavior.ThatAIcaninstantlyrecommendtoyourapphowtomodifyit

10 sdigitalenvironment(itsUX)toinducethatus
sdigitalenvironment(itsUX)toinducethatusertochangehisbehavior.Allofthiscanbebuilt-andoperated-cheaplyandscalably-touchingnotonlythatusersmindbutmillionsofmindsgloballyeverysecond.2424thisisl

11 iterallywhatwedoat BehavioralDesigncanbe
iterallywhatwedoat BehavioralDesigncanbeanextremelystrongdrivingforceinbuildingthatworldwhenusedwithinastrongethicalframework.Asfaraswecantell,thereareatleasttwomajorethicalquestionsunderpinn

12 ingBehavioralDesign.1.)IsanyBehavioralDe
ingBehavioralDesign.1.)IsanyBehavioralDesignethicalatall?2.)IsthisparticularuseofBehavioralDesignethical?BehavioralDesignpatternsaredarkorlightdependingonhowyouusethem.Dontletthevillainsbet

13 heonlyoneswithsuperpowers.!BehavioralDe
heonlyoneswithsuperpowers.!BehavioralDesignisasetoftechniquesforpersuasion.Itisatechniqueofcoercion.Whenusedproperly,BehavioralDesigntakesadvantageofcognitivebiasestomakeparticularbehaviorsm

14 orelikely:itdoesnotforcecertainactions.I
orelikely:itdoesnotforcecertainactions.Itdoesnotuseviolenceorthreatstochangebehavior.Itdoesnotliterallyrestrictsomeonesabilitytoactornot.Itmerelyprovidestestable,provablewaytoincreasethechan

15 cesthatbehaviorschange:itdoesnotforcecha
cesthatbehaviorschange:itdoesnotforcechange.ItisaTechnologyofBehavior,notaTechnologyofForce.Tothatextent,thetechniquesofBehavioralDesign,andDesignersthemselves,mustrespectpersonsintrinsicrig

16 htstofreedomof AlignmentwithSocialGood3.
htstofreedomof AlignmentwithSocialGood3.AlignmentwithaUsersDesires1.TransparencyBehavioralDesign,andourusesofit,aremostethically-aligned behaviors.AmbientCommunicationOften,youllneedtoprese

17 ntcomplexordenseinformationtosomeone.Amb
ntcomplexordenseinformationtosomeone.AmbientCommunicationprescribesthatusingnon-textcommunication,suchascolor,size,texture,pattern,motion,sound,vibration,ortimecanhelpyoucommunicatecomplexcon

18 tentto roupStructureIfyourAppconnectspeo
tentto roupStructureIfyourAppconnectspeopletooneanother,howdoyouknowthebestwayeachuserwouldprefertoexperiencethissocialcomponent?Differentusersexhibitdifferentpreferencesfortheirinteractionsw

19 itheachother:somefeelmostmotivatedalone,
itheachother:somefeelmostmotivatedalone,othersinsmallgroupsofpeers,andsomeinthefullgazeofpublic.OptimalGroupStructureproposesthatthereexistpredictable,optimalscopesandnaturesofinteractivitybe

20 tweenappusersthatwillbestmotivatethemtoc
tweenappusersthatwillbestmotivatethemtochangetheirbehavior.PersonalizationYoumayhaveheardofthehypothesisthatstudentshavelearningstyles,34andthatstudentslearnbestwhenmaterialisadaptedto34Vis

21 ual,Auditory,Tactile,Converger,etc.thats
ual,Auditory,Tactile,Converger,etc.thatstyle.Thathypothesishasbeensoundlyrepeatedlyfalsied.3535ScottOLilienfeld,StevenJayLynn,JohnRuscio,andBarryLBeyerstein. )mentallyassociatedtotheperforma

22 nceaparticularaction.Youcanthinkofitlike
nceaparticularaction.YoucanthinkofitliketheIfthis�thenthatpairingofacuetoanaction:ifsensecue,thendoaction.Non-BehavioralDesignersonlyfocusontheactionasthewhole understandingwhethero

23 rnotauserwillact.HisMATModel3838Dr.Fogg
rnotauserwillact.HisMATModel3838Dr.FoggsMATModel,onlinesuggeststhatusersperformahabitwhentheyhaveadequate[M]otivation,[A]bility,andinthepresenceofaSynthetic[T]rigger.AsaBehavioralDesigner,yo

24 uneedtobalancehowmotivatedauserisagainst
uneedtobalancehowmotivatedauserisagainsthowdifcultataskis.Ifanactionistoohard,theuserwontdoit.Iftheactionistooeasy,thenyouvewastedtheusersmotivationalpotential.Theywerereadytodosomethingh

25 ard,butyoudidntaskenoughfromthem.Ideall
ard,butyoudidntaskenoughfromthem.Ideally,yourproductshouldpresentasyntheticcueforanactionthatsomeoneisabletoperformwhentheyremotivatedtoact.SomeActionsareeasiertoturnintouserhabitsthanother

26 s.WhenweatBoundlessMindhelpourclientside
s.WhenweatBoundlessMindhelpourclientsidentifywhatactionsinsidetheirappwouldbebesttoturnintoahabit,weusethefollowingcriteria:1.SmallActionsarebetterthanlargeActionsFavorashortactionthatcanbequ

27 icklyaccomplishedoversomethingthattakesa
icklyaccomplishedoversomethingthattakesalotoftime,rigour,focus,energy,orotherscarceresources.Theuserisalmostalwaysbusy.Theyhavetimeforyourapp-andyourhabit-solongasitcouldalreadytintotheirlif

28 e.2.SpecificActionsarebetterthangeneral,
e.2.SpecificActionsarebetterthangeneral,largerbehaviorsWhatuserbehaviorsinyourapplendthemselveswelltobecomingahabit?What RememberthatonefoodordrinkyoujustCANThaveanymorebecauseofthatonetimei

29 tmadeyoureaaaallysick?Yeah.Thatsthekind
tmadeyoureaaaallysick?Yeah.Thatsthekindofone-shotlearningthebrainsgoodatfor TotheBehavioralDesigner,rewarddoesntjustmeansomeprizeearned.Rewardisbroaderthanagiftorabonusorathingwecanmea

30 sureindollars.AsBehavioralscientistsandB
sureindollars.AsBehavioralscientistsandBehavioralDesigners OneofSkinnerspigeonsinanoperantchamber.Whenthelightcameon(cue),abirdwouldpeckatthebutton(action)andthebuttonwouldclick(feedback).At

31 rstbirdsdidthismerelybychance.Butasfoodp
rstbirdsdidthismerelybychance.Butasfoodpellets(reward)beganbeingreleasedaftersomepecks-unexpectedly-thebirdsquicklylearned.Somebirdsgotapelleteverypeck.Somegotpelletsveryrarely.Some,inbetween

32 .Somegotapelleteveryfewminutes,somegotap
.Somegotapelleteveryfewminutes,somegotapelletatrandomtimes.Somegotapelletafterevery3rdpeck.Somegotapelletafterarandomnumberofpecks.Skinnernoticedsomethingfascinating.Somebirdsstartedpeckingmu

33 ch,muchmorethanothers.!"#$Thepelletswere
ch,muchmorethanothers.!"#$Thepelletswereallthesame.Thebirdswerelargelysimilartooneanother.Sowhataccountsforthedifference?Hefoundthatthepatternofpeck"pelletorpeck"no-pellet47waschangingtheirpe

34 cking.47Hecalledtheseschedulesofreinfor
cking.47HecalledtheseschedulesofreinforcementThebirdsthatreceivedpelletsafteraseeminglyrandomnumberofpecks(whathecalledaVariableRatioreinforcementschedule)learnedtoassociatethesyntheticcuel

35 ightwiththebutton-peckactionmuchfasterth
ightwiththebutton-peckactionmuchfasterthananyoftheothergroupsofbirds.Andtheypeckedmuch,muchmore.Theirfuturepeckingwasbeingactivelyprogrammedbytheconsequencesoftheiractions(overwhichheheldcont

36 rol.)NotonlydidSkinnerhaveevidencethatbe
rol.)NotonlydidSkinnerhaveevidencethatbehaviorisshapedbyreward,hefoundthatthepatternofreward-whenandhowitsgiven-wascriticaltoshapingbehavior.AfewyearsearlieratMcGillUniversity,Drs.OldsandMil

37 nertookamoredirectapproachtoshapingbehav
nertookamoredirectapproachtoshapingbehavior.Theyskippedthetaste-budsentirelyandinsteadplacedelectrodesdirectlyintoratsbrains.48ElectricalstimulationintheSeptumbrainregionwould48Specically,t

38 heyplacedtheelectrodesintoabrainregionkn
heyplacedtheelectrodesintoabrainregionknownastheSeptum(locatedimmediatelybeneaththeBasalGangliasmainpleasurecenter).causetheemotionalsensationofpleasurefortherats.Thentheygavetheratsasmallle

39 vertheycouldpush.Thatleverwouldsendaburs
vertheycouldpush.ThatleverwouldsendaburstofelectricitytotheSeptum.Andman,theratsLOVEDthatlever.Infact,theratswouldpressithundredsoftimesanhour.Sometimeseventhousandsof RewardsoftheHuntReward

40 softheHuntsatisfyourdesireforconquest.Th
softheHuntsatisfyourdesireforconquest.Thegainsofvictory.Thesetiecloselytotheprimaryreinforcersthatourbrainsevolvedbecausetheymostcloselymimicreality(hence,thenameHunt.)BehavioralDesignersofte

41 nuseRewardsoftheHuntingames,insettingswi
nuseRewardsoftheHuntingames,insettingswithcompetition,and(surprisingly),insituationswherethenextblastofdopaminemightbejustafewswipesaway.5252Werelookingatyou,Tinder.Dotheuseractionsinyourapp

42 haveanobviouscomponentofcompetition?Dous
haveanobviouscomponentofcompetition?Dousersseekinsideyourapp?Arethecorebehaviorsyouneedtoincreasepartofagame?Partofachase?Ifso,whatsortofRewardoftheHuntcanyouimplementtosurpriseanddelightthem

43 ?R maximizegainsfromyourcurrentusers,ita
?R maximizegainsfromyourcurrentusers,itactivelyhelpsyougrow DevelopingaCultureofExperimentation,aworkenvironmentwherepeopleareinformed,empowered,andrewardedforexperimentation,iscriticalforsuc

44 cess.AsManagement,itsyourjobtocreatethe
cess.AsManagement,itsyourjobtocreatetheemotionalandoperationalspacethathelpsProduct,Design,andEngineeringTeamsexperiment.Forthemtobecreative,takerisks,andlearnastheyiterate.IfyoureusingaLea

45 norAgiledevelopmentmethodology,muchofthi
norAgiledevelopmentmethodology,muchofthismightfeelintuitive.TrackingexperimentationandtinkeringasaninternalperformancemetriccanshowyouifyouresucceedinginbuildingaCulturethatencouragespeoplet

46 oexperimentandlearn,andforgivesandunders
oexperimentandlearn,andforgivesandunderstandswhenthingsgosideways. Goal3:PushNoticationsareOwnedbyProduct,notbyMarketing.Forhistoricalreasons,MarketingandMessagingTeamsoftenownresponsibility

47 foraProductsuserretention.Thisismostcom
foraProductsuserretention.ThisismostcommoninteamsthatstartedaftertheadventoftheWeb,butbeforetheriseofMobile.BeforeMobile,theseteamsusedemailtore-engagelostusers,ormarketnewproductstoretained

48 users.WhenPushNoticationscameout,itseem
users.WhenPushNoticationscameout,itseemedlikeanaturalt:PushNoticationswerejustre-engagementemails,butfaster.SothesameMessagingandMarketingTeamsbecameresponsiblefordesigningandsendingPushNo

49 tications,andbyextension,userretention.
tications,andbyextension,userretention.. ! . . . Weunderstandhowthiscametobe,wejustthinkitsaterriblesetup.ThisturnedPushNoticationsintoachannelforspam.Spamthatjusthappenedtob

50 eclosertousersbrains.ItcreatedthePush-o
eclosertousersbrains.ItcreatedthePush-overloadworldweliveintoday.ItexplainswhyPusharejustoftentreatedassmallercrappieradvertisements,insteadofthoughtofascues. Segmenting arerun.Werecommendse

51 gmentingaportionofyouruserbasetoconducta
gmentingaportionofyouruserbasetoconductarolloutexperiment.Deploythenewchangestothatsegment.MeasurehowuserbehaviorKPIsarechangingovertime,andhowthesechangesaredifferentbetweenthewholeuserbasea

52 ndtheexperimentalsegment(or,betweenacont
ndtheexperimentalsegment(or,betweenacontrolgroupandatreatmentgroupintheexperimentalsegment).Ifsheseesstatisticallysignicantchangesinuserbehaviorthatcorrelatewiththechange(andnoothermodicati

53 ons,norchance),thatsasignalthattheinter
ons,norchance),thatsasignalthattheinterventionisworkingasdesigned!Sheshouldfeelempoweredscalingoutthedeployedchangetotheentireuserpopulation.Repeat!Often!IfthemeasuredbehavioralKPIsarentcha

54 nging,orarechanginginwaysthatsuggestthey
nging,orarechanginginwaysthatsuggesttheyrehurtingengagementandretention,shecanrollbackthedeployment,documentwhathappened,explorerootcauses,andreturnagainwithadifferentexperiment.Noharmdone:s

55 omethingextremelyvaluablewaslearned. Int
omethingextremelyvaluablewaslearned. Inthisexample,aKPIyoumightconsidertrackingforthisteammaybehowsubtleofachangeinuserengagementcanbeaccuratelypredictedbythetooltheyredeveloping.Astheyexper

56 imentanditerateandexperimentanditerate,y
imentanditerateandexperimentanditerate,youcouldexpectthemtomakesomequantiableprogresstowardimprovingthetoolsprecisionandaccuracyatpredictinguserengagementchanges.If,evenwithmorework,theirto

57 olspredictionsdontbecomemoreaccuratewi
olspredictionsdontbecomemoreaccuratewithtime,itslikelythatsasgoodasthemeasureisgoingtoget,andtheteamshouldstartworkingonadifferentgoal.Becausetheyrelargelyoperatingattheedgeofbothhumanun

58 derstanding,andtechnology,theirworkwillo
derstanding,andtechnology,theirworkwilloftenresembleacademicresearchmorethananything.Because,tobefair,theyreliterallybuildingtoolsnoonesevermadetosolveproblemsnooneconsideredsolvable.Cutem

59 someslack.Considerfosteringcollaboration
someslack.ConsiderfosteringcollaborationsbetweentheseDataScienceTeamsandotherinternalteamswitheventslikeinternalsymposiaanddatahackathons.Thesewillgivethedatascientistsvisibilityonwhatproblem

60 sotherteamsareseeing,andshowtheotherteam
sotherteamsareseeing,andshowtheotherteamswhatkindofproblemstheDataScienceTeamisabletosolve.Also,20%timethatallowstheDataScienceTeamfreedomtotinkercancreatethekindofinnovationthatmanagementd

61 idntknowtoaskfor.6767Alotofgreatscience
idntknowtoaskfor.6767Alotofgreatsciencestartswithabeeranddoodles.Trustus.Were ehavioraliststoFloatOnceyourProductteamhasincorporatedBehavioralDesigndeeplyintotheirprocessesandtools,theBehav

62 orialistsandpolymathsyouvestaffedupwith
orialistsandpolymathsyouvestaffedupwithshouldbeallowedtodissociatefromtheProductTeamtofocustheirattentiononyourotherbusinessprocesses.Grantthemtheirownbudget,aplacethemorthogonaltoyourstanda

63 rdorganizationchart(perhapsreportingtoaC
rdorganizationchart(perhapsreportingtoaCTOorCOO),butnoimmediateabilitytoforcechanges.Treatthemlikeunderpowered,in-houseconsultants.TheirfreedomtounhookfromProductandobservehowotherhuman-facin

64 gpartsofthebusinessoperatewillnotjustspr
gpartsofthebusinessoperatewillnotjustspreadthesetechniquesandtheirimpacttotherestofyouroperations,itwillencouragethetypeoflateralthinkingthatwilldrivefutureinnovationbackwithintheProductTeami

65 tself.OnceotherteamsarefamiliarwiththeBe
tself.OnceotherteamsarefamiliarwiththeBehaviorTeam,andtrusthasbeenestablished,encouragetheBehaviorTeamtoproviderecommendationstotheseotherbusinessunits,andincentivizethe certainpredictableway

66 s.Inthischapter,weexploreseveralexamples
s.Inthischapter,weexploreseveralexamplesofProductsandEnvironmentsyourealreadyfamiliarwith,andhighlighttheBehavioralDesigntechniquestheyveusedtoengineerhowpeoplebehave.ReinforcementLearninga

67 ndCues:FacebookFacebookhasmasterfullyemp
ndCues:FacebookFacebookhasmasterfullyemployedBehavioralDesigntechniquestobuildoneofthemosthabit-formingproductsonanyonesphone.Whiletheyveusedseveraldifferenttechniques,wefocushereontwo:Rein

68 forcementLearningandCues,whichtheyvecom
forcementLearningandCues,whichtheyvecombinedtogetheranimplementationofCARModel.PINGyouhaveanewnotication!Cananyonereallyresisttheurgetoopentheappandseewhatsinside?!Thatnoticationstartst

69 henextchainofeventstounfold:youunlockyou
henextchainofeventstounfold:youunlockyourphone,ndtheFacebookApp,andopenit.AsdescribedbytheCARModel,yourepresentedwithaSyntheticCue(acuedesignedbyFacebookthattheycontrol),andyouperformthedes

70 iredtargetAction.Then,whenyouopentheapp,
iredtargetAction.Then,whenyouopentheapp,therearenoticationswaitingforyou.And,maybe,oneofthenoticationsisdelightful!Here,FacebookemployedReinforcementLearningtocarefullyinduce AtBoundlessMin

71 d,weexploredthisconceptwithourapp,Space.
d,weexploredthisconceptwithourapp,Space.WewereinterestedinhelpingpeopleregaincontroloftherelationshipstheyhavewithappsbychangingtheimpactoftheCARModel.StimulusDevaluationoperatesbyincreasingt

72 hetimedelaybetweenanactionandthereinforc
hetimedelaybetweenanactionandthereinforcementthatauserreceivesforthatinteraction.AsdiscussedinChapters2 rewardingstimuli,whiledecreasingthechancethattherewardcan ,theleadingcausesofdeathwerei

73 nfectiousdiseases.Men,women,andchildrens
nfectiousdiseases.Men,women,andchildrensufferedTyphoid,Pneumonia,Fever,Tuberculosis,andInuenza.Wediedofpathogens70inourwaterandfoodandurbanairfromwhichwe70forwhichwebarelyhadnamesyethadlittl

74 echoicebuttosuccumb.Andthensomethingbrav
echoicebuttosuccumb.Andthensomethingbravehappened.WetookseriouslytodevelopingarigorousTechnologyoftheBody.Tomodernmedicine,sanitization,andvaccination.Wechallengedourpreviouslyheldnormsofthes

75 anctityofbody,andmenandwomenworldwidein
anctityofbody,andmenandwomenworldwidein BJFogg.PersuasiveTechnology:UsingComputerstoChangeWhatWeThinkandDo.MorganKaufmann,2002.BillGates.Gatesnotes.URLhttps://www.gatesnotes.com/.JohnGeake.Ne