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Inn situofs ttu dtfydtws vl


In tu c rItrIu nIui ttu yIEttodItp lIu uf vl ltrEIr rEiutft piuIEItfIu fd gtE Id- o- C1204b t- p2qA o- E849 f-t- p7Isituootyotd tlocdvnElvpdtuKlyigp-oy4oblpdngvlpdo4yi8oudvntud6u7 o-oRooo-oRRtwpfrty

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1 Inn situofs ttu dtfydtwࠇࠉs vl In Ѕ
Inn situofs ttu dtfydtwࠇࠉs vl In Ѕtu c rItrIu nIui ttu yIEtto dItp lIu uࠁf vl ltrEIr ᄐrEiutfࠐt pi᜗uIEItfIu ᠈fd gࠉtEࠋ I d- o- Cᬜ1204b t- p2qA.,ᬡ o- Eᬟ849ᬜ ᬟ+ f-t- pᬧ7ᬟ. Iȃsituoऊot఍yȅot༐d ЅtАlocdጉ఑༉vईn఍Elvpdtu Kly᠂iȌ༈gȎጄp-oᬑyȐȌ༈ᰝḟᰈ4obఢऌlpdn gऐvlpጉఢdఏo,4yȍi8o│ఌudఢvnt+ȥuЌd6uȥउ7 ऎ ⤑̑കᄢo⨂ఄȐ܈ᴫ-oḝRⰭoଃ̑ጆᄢođ᠐ЂဇoḞ-oḝRR twpfrtyf Iȃsitusࠉsst఍yswisstos စlఅt stn s ff ctsࠉsആ tirysဆtiutnsEssఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔstnsK ഌsiᐍ C uiᐆsȃᐊsr ri ds duopdts siᐍsᤆဃᐄfiru r-fࠓu఑it dsആ tsࠔs ᤙsᘃrfࠓuiᐒ s.sAstࠋilsࠉsᴞἄf uil iᐍsḠsuil s℆rഊsw r s ∌illysdtဆഃഄtᐋࠄtwࠄgrࠌᘊsࠉsK ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆ,swttnsiဃriᤃs℈dysw tᤂt ࠉsᴤ┟ ✛⠥siᐍsᴤ⤟ ⤥✛ḩsᤣsr sp cttဃly.sBisilsrittࠔswiss℅s dsࠔstȃsdt tsfࠓu఑it dsbystn firu rs(R1)scࠔststtᐙsࠉscࠓns(⤟%),srtc sℓins(⼟%),sᘓot tnscࠔc ᐋrit s(ᴯ%),siᐍsᘓ utxs(⼮). Dt tirystr itu ᐋss စlఅt dsw r sR1s(wttȈఋsi഍tttࠔilsဆtiutnsE),siᐍstȃsotȃrstȓ sw r stȃ tᐒlఊtࠔsࠉsDLsα-tࠒࠖȃrylsic tit stᐋࠄtȃsRᴄആ tsఖstࠄḄ(R2),s (R3)siᐍs✄IUs(R‭.sIȃs 〖 rtu ᐋ wissirriᐙ ഄtᐄisRiᐍoutz dsBlࠒ㜄D stᤔswttns tr itu ᐋs,siᐍsḄആff r ntsgrࠌᘊsofsȃᐄ(K ഌsiᐍ C uiᐆ)sw r sisstᤔ dsissℑࠒk.sPiriu t rssࠡs rv dsw r sf dscࠔsuuᘋtࠔ,sȃnsഅysᘓࠍఒttࠔ,sf d cࠔဃrstࠔsritto,s ᤙs∌iltty,sf rttltty,siᐍsȅtcȅ℆ltty.sIȃsr s఑tssȈw dstȅtsvttiutnsE sఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔsആdsᐈtsiff ctswȅt ဃrsᘅriu t rs,s 〒 pts ᤙsf rttltty.sEᤙsȅtcȅbtlttys℃tw nsK ഌ iᐍsC uiᐆsȃᐊswissstᤔtftciᐋlysdtff r nts(ᘹ0.Ἧ).sIr ᐍscouᘅrtsࠔst ststᐍtcit dsstᤔtftciᐋly ltᐃirs(ᘹ0.Ἧ)sfࠓsf rttlttysiᐍsȅtcni℆ltty.sInscࠔclఊtࠔ,sဆtiutnsEssఖpl u ᐋittࠔsఖstos6sIU tᐒr is dsltᐃirlys ᤙsf rttlttysiᐍsȅtcȅ℆lttysࠉsi℈ఋs⼚8%,siᐍs ᤙsȅtcȅ℆lttysࠉsK ഌsȃᐊs wis Ȇᤂ rs(1ᴮ)stȅᐄtȅtsofsC uiᐆ. %lu+ऐ∖8l༏oslvtdidtuoȌ∈│t │Cdidtu-obఈpdts-oo%l∄o Ȍ∈g lyȌdo ┑up-E dtȎdఈ, otfrvuiyfovt R s ircnscࠔഌct dstnstȃsft ldsofsᐌtrtttࠔ fࠓslࠒilscȆc㜃nstnsᤃᐃril,sw r siluࠊtsfࠒus d ࠔstȃs vilఅttࠔsࠉs ᐃrgysiᐍsprࠋ tn r ∌tr u ᐋsࠔlysഌrtᐙsstirttᐙ,sᤓࠏtᐙsiᐍ liytᐙsᘃrtࠍss(G఑tous ltoni .,sᴥ␥;sWtഈഈ, ᴥ␥;sSషiutࠣsᴥ┨;sHఊuitᐆ,sḟἯ; R sᐅwitt,sḟἯ).sOtȃrsr s ircȊsw r silso cࠔഌct dsࠔstȃsuttltzittࠔsࠉsᐈn-cࠔဃᐋtࠔil f dstఉfstnsrittࠔsforu఑ittࠔsforslocilscȆck n (S఍jirwosiᐍsIᐍirtࠣsᴥ␥;sUsuins ltoȅ .,sḟἯ; Sఋȅui,sḟἯ;sH ruiwiᐣsḟἨ).sHࠏ ဃr, tᐉoruittࠔscࠔc rᐆᐙsdt tirysဆtiutn sఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔsfࠓsℓ ഃrsK ഌscntc㜃nsit liytᐙsᘃrtࠍswissဃrysltutt dsiᐍssttllstn ∌ sttࠔ. Aᘖrࠖrtit sl ဃlsofsဆtiutnscࠔt ntstnstn rittࠔsfࠓsℓ d rscȆc㜃nsitsliytᐙsp rtࠍswis tuᘈrtintsiᐍswissiℊolఋ lysᐃ ഃdsfࠓ uℓyࠔtcsഃv lࠖu ᐋsࠉsȅtcȆᐙs ᤙ.sNi℃r (ᴥ⠥)sctt dsbysNRCs(ᴥ┠)sstit dstȅtsvttiutn r ∌tr u ᐋsfࠓsℓ d rscȆc㜃nsࠉsᐈnslࠒil stritnswissȆᤂ rstȅnstȅtsࠉscouu rctilsliytᐙ cntc㜃nsitstȃssiu sᘃrtࠍ.sInsi഍tttࠔ,sᤃᐃttc စrtittࠔsࠉsᐈnslࠒilscȆck ᐊslt㜃sℓࠆl rssࠓ liy rsswissuࠓ sఔtfࠓuscouᘅr dstoslࠒilsstritn sucnsissK ഌscȆck ᐛsIȃr fࠓ ,sttstssᐃc ssiry tosst఍คvttiutnsr ∌tr u ᐋsofsK ഌscȆc㜃nsfࠓ ᤈࠍs∌ilttysࠉsnitcntᐙs ᤙsᘓࠍఒttࠔ.s AccࠓdtᐙstosL sࠔs(ḟἨ),sဆtiutnstns ᤙs cins℃stᐒr is dsbystᐒr istᐙsl ဃlsofsആ tiry vttiutnssఖply.sAuࠔgstȃsfࠌrsfitssࠑడl vttiutᐊ,sဆtiutnsAstsstȃsuࠊtstrinsf riℑ vttiutnsfrousrittࠔstntostȃs ᤙ,sfࠑlࠏ dsby vttiutnsDsiᐍsE,swȆl stȃslࠏ ststssဆtiutnsK (Ni℃r,sᴥ┩).sVttiutnsEspliyssisrࠑ stn r ᘓࠍఒttࠔsiᐍs uℓyoᐆcsഃv lࠖu ᐋ.sLick ofsဆtiutnsEsciఊ ss

2 ubryࠔtcsഃᤃᐃrittࠔ tᐊtഃstȃs
ubryࠔtcsഃᤃᐃrittࠔ tᐊtഃstȃs ᤙs(CȌrcnsiᐍsPࠔണsᴥ┤). Fఓtȃruࠓ ,sCȌrcnsiᐍsPࠔds(ᴥ┤)s 〖litᐃd tȅtsဆtiutnsEsd ftct ᐒystnscࠒksrittࠔsciఊ s itrࠖnysࠉstȃst st s,sfurtȃruࠓ sttsdtsrఖts sp rusᘓࠍఒttࠔsiᐍs∌iltty.s NittࠔilsR s ircȄCࠌᐒtls(ᴥ┠)sఖstࠄᐈw, tsstȃsbistcsr f r ᐒ stȅtscouuoᐑysఊ dsto ⌏༈⼑ညऐyȌ lᘈऊ࠮l∄࠙┍ xluࠁl∈cdltȐu࠱dtȎdఈ⌈⤑Ȑl∈ࠡ ఈpdts Lα7b⠈In┇Ќdࠑtࠂi7U ഃt rutᐃsဆtiutnsr ∌tr u ᐋsforscȆck ᐣ Ȉw ဃr,stnsr ilttysဆtiutnsr ∌tr u ᐋsഃᘃᐍs ࠔstȃsഃv lࠖu ᐋsࠉscouu rctilsf d sᘃctftcittࠔs(L sࠔ,sḟἨ).sInsi഍tttࠔ,sL sࠔ (ḟἨ)silsos 〖litᐃdstnitstȃsr ∌tr u ᐋsof ဆtiutnsA,sD ,sEsiᐍsKsfࠓsliytᐙsȃᐊsw r Ȇᤂ rsbys⼟἟,s⤞἟,s siᐍsḛ5sIU,sr sp cttဃly, tȅnstȈs sr couu ᐍ dsbysNRCs(ᴥ┠).sIȃ Ȇᤂ rsr ∌tr u ᐋsilsostᐒl఍ ssforsillswit r sࠑడl svttiutᐊ,s 〒 ᘋscȈltᐃstsslࠏ rstȅn NRCs (ᴥ┠)s r couu ᐍittࠔ.sIȃr for ,sttsts sఙᤃst dstȅtsဆtiutnsr ∌tr u ᐋswtllsb ആff r ntsࠓscniᐙ siccorആᐙstostȃsഃဃlࠖu ᐋ iᐍsစrtittࠔsࠉsᤃᐃttcsciᘅcttysࠉstȃscȆc㜃nsis w llsisstȃsဆtiutᐊscࠔt ᐋsࠉstȃsrittࠔs. R s ircȊsࠔs ᤙsnitcȅbtlttysniဃs℃ n cࠔഌct dsᘓ ဆࠌslคbคSషiutos(ᴥ┨)stnsK ഌ cȆck nsf dsdt tswttnsစrtࠌssl ဃlssࠉs ᐃrgคiᐍ ᘓࠋ tn,siᐍsD suiyittsiᐍsJiᐔins(ḟἯ)stnslࠒil cȆck nswttnsആ tiryslystᐃssఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔ. How ဃr,stȃstwosst఍t ssw r scirrt dsࠌtsitstȃ iᐆuilsȈఊ sࠉstn sli℈ritࠓy,siᐍs℈tnsఊtᐙ tᐍtဆഌils℅tt rysᘃᐊ,siᐍsuittᐙssyst uswis cࠔഌct dsbysirttftctilstᐊ utᐅttࠔ.sAccࠓdtᐙsto Sఔirtos ltoȅ .s(ḟἠ)sctt dsbysS఑iᐍirts ltoni (ḟἨ),styᘃsofsflࠈrsiff ct ds℈dysw tᤂtsiᐍ circisss∌ilttysofsK ഌscȆc㜃n,stȌs,stᐍtဆഌil ℅tt rysᘃnssw r ssఆtiℑ sfࠓsu itsprࠍఒtᐙ K ഌscȆc㜃n.sB stഃs,suittᐙssyst uswttn irttftctilstᐊ utᐅttࠔstssuor sആfftc఑tstos℃ tuᘑ u ᐋ dsiᐍs tss ilsosl sssiഈᘋ dsbystȃ firu rsࠉsK ഌscntc㜃ᐛsIȃr fࠓ ,stnsorഃrsto ᐊఓ s ᐐt rࠔu ᐋilscࠔdtttࠔsstutlirstostȅtsof tȃsᐅturilsȅ℆titsࠉsK ഌscntc㜃ᐣstȃsᘓ s ᐋ st఍ys ofs ആ tirysvttiutnsEssఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔstn K ഌsȃnswisscirrt dsࠌts duopdts7o Iȃsst఍yswis uᘂistz dstos စlఅt stȃsဆtiutnsEsr ∌tr u ᐋ fࠓsn ᐊs℃tw nsK ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆs(J t-blick cȆck ᐭ,sr ir dssᐅtఓillysbystn sfiru r,stn r littࠔstos℃tt rsᘃrforui ᐒ siᐍs∌ilttysࠉs ᤙs tȅtswࠌlഄtᐒr is sȅtcȅ℆ltty. EtfIrotup ttu EIfdvup Iࠋilsᐌub rsࠉsᴞ0sn ᐊswttnsdtff r ᐋsktᐍ ࠉsȃᐊ,sᐅu lysK ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆs(✟s℆rdss icȭ ࠉsᴞ-ᴤsuࠔtȊsࠉsiᤃsitsliytᐙsᘃrtࠍswttnsin iဃriᤃs℈dysw tᤂtsࠉsᴤ┟ ḝ6.⠥siᐍ ⤥✛ḩsᤣsr sp cttဃly,sw r sఊ dstnstȃ 〖 rtu ᐋ.sIw ᐋysfࠌrsbtrഊsࠉscࠒksofsḟ-Ḡ uoᐋȊsࠉsiᤃsw r silsostᐋrࠍఒ dstostȃsȃn ᘈᘌlittࠔswttnstȃsrittosofs5sf uil ss(n ᐊ)siᐍ 1suil s(coc㜭.sDt tirystr itu ᐋsr ᘓ s ᐋtᐙ cࠔtrolsᤓࠌpswisstȃsrittࠔstȅtsfࠓu఑it dsiᐍ ఊuillysus dsbystȃsfiru rswȆcnscࠔstst dsࠉ y llowscࠓns(⤟%),srtc sℓins(⼟%),scࠔc ntrit (ᴯ%)siᐍspr utxs(⼮).sNఋrtttࠔilscࠔt ᐋssࠉ cࠔtrolsrittࠔs(Rᴭsw r s1ᴛ⠤%scr఍ sᘓot tn, 6.⤟%scr఍ sfit,sᴤ.ᴞ%scr఍ sft℃r,sḛḟ%sCi, 0.␠%sP,s⤟✩.┯s㜒ilsu ti℈ltzibl s ᐃrgy (ME)/㜙siᐍs0.ᴩsIUsဆtiutnsE.s Dt tiry tr itu ᐋsst st d,sᐅu lysfiru r-foru఑it ds dt t wttȈఋssఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔsࠉsဆtiutnsEs(R1) ,siᐍ tȃsotȃrstȓ sw r stn stᐒlఊtࠔsofs DLsα- tࠒࠖȃrylsic tit s tntostn sdt tsఖstos sIUs(Rḭ ,s4 IUs(R⤭s iᐍs✄IU s(R‭. Iȃsᘓ s ᐋs 〖 rtu ᐋswisscࠔഌct dstnsi Riᐍoutz dsBlࠒksD stᤔswttns 4sdt tiry tr itu ᐋ ssiᐍs2sᤓࠌpssࠉsആff r ᐋsȃns℅s dsࠔ coubscolࠓs (K ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆ) sw r sisstᤔ dsis blࠒ㜛 Iȃsbtrഊsw r sk ᘋstnss utstnt

3 ᐊtဃsᘃns issttswisspricttc dsbyst
ᐊtဃsᘃns issttswisspricttc dsbystȃsfiru rsitsK ഌsဆlliᤃ, wȃr suࠊtsofsK ഌscȆc㜃nssw r siℌᐍintly fࠌᐍ.sInsorഃrstosu isఓ sf dscࠔsuuᘋtࠔsfࠓ tȃsȃᐊsiᐍscockss ᘅrit ly,stȃsᘃᐊsw r ∌tᘖ dswttnssᘃctftcsf ഃr.sP ᐊsw r silso ∌tᘖ dswttnsdrtᐷtᐙswit rscࠔtitn rs,sᐃstsiᐍ ᐃstssȃlt r.sF dtᐙstrtilswisscࠔഌct dsfࠓs3 uࠔtȊsആvtഃdstᐋos1s(ࠔ )suࠔtnsfࠓsf d idiᘋittࠔsiᐍs2suoᐋȊsforscoll cttᐙsഅti.sEᤙs w r scࠑl ct ds ဃryഅysiᐍsnitcȃdswttn ȅtcȆᐙsuicȆᐃs ဃrys5sdiyssofscoll cttࠔ ᘈols.sIȃsftrstsnitcntᐙs℅tcnswisscࠔഌct dsࠔ tȃsd-5sࠉstn ss cࠔdsuoᐋnsofstȃsf ആᐙsᘃrtࠍ. Onstȃsftrsts9sഅคࠉsr sᘃcttv stncడittࠔsᘃrtࠍ, tȃs ᤙssw r sciᐍl dstosആsttᐙutsnsf rttl siᐍ ఔf rttl s ᤙs.sF rttl s ᤙssw r stᐍtcit dsbystȃ pr s ᐒ sࠉs uℓyࠔtcsഃဃlࠖu ᐋstnstഃ.s Piriu t rssࠡs rဃdsw r sf dscࠔsuuᘋtࠔ, ȃnsdiคᘓࠍఒttࠔss(HDP),sf dscࠔဃrstࠔsritto (FCR),s ᤙs∌ilttys (w tᤂtsࠉs ᤙ,s ᤙ-cࠔt nt, ᤙ-sȃllsiᐍssȃllstȆc㜔 ss) siᐍsf rttlttysissw ll issȅtcȅbtltty.sF rttlttyswissu isఓ ഄbysആဆdtᐙ ᐌub rsࠉs ᤙsstᐒడit dswttnsᐌu℃rsof uℓyo cࠔtitᐆᐙs ᤙs,swȆl sȅtcni℆lttyswis tȃs စlఃsofstȃsrittos℃tw nsᐌub rsࠉs ᤙs ȅtcȃdsiᐍsᐌub rsࠉsf rttl s ᤙs.sDitisw r sడj ct dstosiᐅlystssࠉsစrtiᐒ siccࠓdtᐙstosi riᐍoutz dsℑࠒksd stᤔsissഃscrt℃dsᘓ vtࠌsly, iᐍsttswisscࠔttᐌ ഄwttnstr ᐍscouᘅrtsࠔst st sit tȃsl ဃlsࠉs⼮sᘓࠡibtltty. rIpiufp ttu uopyippovt l33+ y⨟92,(q4⨟ ᬟ+ K6⨦2Rq4)4qᴃ Iȃsiv riᤃsofsf dscࠔsuuᘋtࠔ,sHDPsiᐍ B7bఢऌlᘍȌࠗvओ⠋఍y⠋༐d 7࠶㜲RU࠸Ȑ ┈ḝRR FCRsࠉs K ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆsȃᐊsf dsfiru r’ssആ t fࠓu఑ittࠔswttnsဆtiutnsEssఖpl u ᐋittࠔ r ir ds duopdts sir sᘓ s ᐋ dstnsIiℑ s1.s F d cࠔsuuᘋtࠔsriᐙ dsfrous111. stos1ᴩ.Ḡ ᥆btrെഅy,sHDPsriᐙ dsfrousḞ.␟stos⤠.✧%, wȆl stȃsiဃriᤃsofsFCRswissစrt dsfrous7.✧sto ᴞ.⤯.s F dscࠔsuuᘋtࠔstnstȃsᘓ s ᐋsst఍คwis i℈ఋsḟsg/℆rd/അystȅtswissntᤂ rsisscouᘅr d tostȅtsࠉspr ဆࠌssst఍t sscࠔഌct dsbysSషiuto (ᴥ┨)siᐍsS tyiᐆᐙruus ltoȅ7o (ḟἥ).sStᐒ s℈tn st఍t ssw r scࠔഌct dstnstᐍtvtഌilsᘃᐊ,stȃ ᐌtrt ᐋsr ∌tr u ᐋssఖᘑyswisslࠏ rstȅnstȈs r ∌tr dsbystȃsȃᐊstnstȃsᘓ s ᐋsst఍ys℃cius ttswissn ldstnss utstᐋ ᐊtဃsp ᐊ.sIȃs n rgy r ∌tr u ᐋsࠉstȃsȃᐊsutᤂts℃sȆᤂ rsstᐒ tȃysuitᐋitᐃdstnsiss utstnt ᐊtဃsᘃnswttn wtഃrsspic swȃr stȃsȃᐊsȅဃsuఒnsuor ࠖᘈrtఔttystoswilksirࠌᐍsiᐍsഈtᐙsࠋn r icttဆtt s.sIȌs,sp nscࠔdtttࠔssbrtᐙsi℈ఋstȃ tᐒr is stᐄf ഄcࠔsuuᘋtࠔ. Iȃsr sultsofsᘓ ဆࠌssst఍ys(Sషiutࠣsᴥ┨; S tyiᐆᐙruus ltoȅ7 s,sḟἥ)swȃnscouᘅr dstostn ᘓ s ᐋsst఍ystᐍtcit dsntᤂ rsHDPsiᐍslࠏ r f dscࠔဃrstࠔ.sH nsdiysᘓࠍucttࠔs(HDP)siᐍ f dscࠔဃrstࠔsࠉstn sᘓ s ntsst఍yswissᴟsiᐍ ⼟%slࠏ r,sr sᘃcttဃly.sIuᘓࠐ dsആ tirค∌iltty iᐍsuiᐅᤃu ᐋsiᘖlt dstostȃslࠒilscntc㜃n r sult dstns℃tt rsprࠍఒttဆtystȅnstȈs sr ir d 》 nstဃlysࠓs dఈpdts ,sℌtsttswisssttllstᐒoupiribl wȃnsr ir dscouu rctillys(Fitrf఑lsiᐍsGow , ḟἤ).s Dt tiryssఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔsࠉsဆtiutᐄEsആഄᐈt stᤔtftcintlysiff ctsf dscࠔsuuᘋtࠔ,sHDPsiᐍ f dscࠔဃrstࠔstn sK ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆsn ᐊ sr ir d duopdts .sIȆsswissഌ stostȃsఔcȅᐙ dsᐌtrtttࠔil cࠔt ᐋssࠉstȃsആ t,s 〒 ptsl ဃlssofsဆtiutnsE. Allstȃsfiru r’ssfࠓuulit ഄആ tscࠔtitᐃഄ11.⠤% cr఍ sᘓot tnsiᐍs⤟✩.┯s㜒ilsMEs/㜙. Iȃr fࠓ ,stt wissࠡဆࠌsstȅtsillsȃnsscࠔsuu d stutlirsiuoఔtsࠉsf dsstᐒ stn s ᐃrgy-ᘓot tn rittoswisstȃssiu ,siᐍstȌs,sr sult dsᐈsdtff r nt စlఃsࠔsHDPsiᐍsFCR. I␤ s2ᬮ4q1b l36q4%4qᴃᬟ+ dᬢRAᬯ4%4qᴃ Eᤙs∌ilttystnst rusofsiဃriᤃsw tᤂtsࠉ ᤙ,s ᤙ-cࠔt ᐋsi

4 ᐍs ᤙ-sȃllsissw llsiss ᤙ- sn llstn
ᐍs ᤙ-sȃllsissw llsiss ᤙ- sn llstntc㜔 sssࠉsK ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆsȃᐊsf dsആ t ofsfiru rsfࠓu఑ittࠔswttnsi഍tttࠔilsvttiutnsE r ir ds duopdts stsspr s nt dstnsIiℑ s2.sN ttn r w tᤂtsࠉs ᤙ,s ᤙ-cࠔt ᐋsiᐍs ᤙ-sȃllsᐈrs ᤙ- sn llstȆc㜔 ssswissiff ct dsbysആ tirysဆtiutnsE sఖpl u ᐋittࠔ.s Itswissilsosࠡs rဃdstnitstȃ tᐍssࠉsȃnsdtdsᐈtsstᤔtftcintlysiff ctsill ᘅriu t rssࠉs ᤙs∌iltty.sIȆssu iᐊstȅts ᤙ prࠍఒ dsbysK ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆsȃᐊsȅdsstutlir ∌ilttysആsr ᤅrdtᐙsဆtiutnsEssఖpl u ᐋittࠔ. Hࠏ ဃr,s ᤙsw tᤂtsࠉstn s2sആff r nts㜆ᐍssof ȃnss(K ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆ)sw r sᐈtstnsiccࠓdiᐒ ⌏༈⼑ညऐyȌ lᘈऊ࠮l∄࠙┍ xluࠁl∈cdltȐu࠱dtȎdఈ⌈⤑Ȑl∈ࠡ ఈpdts Lα7b⠈In┇Ќdࠑtࠂi7U Iiℑ sᴛsF dsCࠔ਌uᘋtࠔ ,sH nsDiคPrࠍఒttࠔs(HDP)siᐍsF dsCࠔဃrਆࠔsRittos(FCR)sࠉsK ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆ H ᐊу dуiru r’਄Dt tуoru఑ittࠔЏttȄVttiutᐄᔄSఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔs Piriu t rs KtᐍЈfо n L v lЈfsVttiutᐄᔄ(IU)s Aဃriᤃ F ഄCࠔ਌upttࠔЫg/ȃᑆഅy) K ഌ 1ᴞᬥ9 1ᴩᬟ4 1ᴩᬟ1 1ᴩᬟ3 1ᴩᬟ2 C uiᐆ 11ᴛ✤ 1ᴩᬞ4 1ᴞᬥ6 11ᴛ  1ᴞᬩ3 Aဃriᤃ 1ᴞᬩ4 1ᴩᬝ4 1ᴞᬥ9 1ᴞᬞ4 1ᴞᬧ8 HDPЫ%) K ഌ C uiᐆ Aဃriᤃ FCR K ഌ C uiᐆ Aဃriᤃ wttnstȃsftᐍtᐙsofsNitiiutjiyis ltoȅ .s(ḟἧ)stȅt ᤙsw tᤂtsw r sstᤔtftciᐋlysആff r ntsiuࠔgs3 lࠒilsn ᐊ,sᐅu lysKiupࠔᤣsS ᐋ఑siᐍsAriℛs Iiℑ s3stᐍtcit sstȃs iဃriᤃsစlఃssࠉs ᤙ f rttlttysiᐍsȅtcȅ℆lttysࠉ sK ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆ ȃᐊsr ir ds duopdtso iᐍsf dsfiru r-fࠓu఑it d rittࠔswttnsvttiutnsEssఖpl u ᐋittࠔ.s Eᤙ f rttlttysiᐍsȅtc ȅbtlttysစlఃssഌrtᐙs8sw 㜊 ࠡs rvittࠔstnstȃspr s nt sst఍yswiss5siᐍsᴥ% lࠏ r,sr sᘃcttv ly,scoupir dstostȈs sr ᘈrt d by sS఑iᐍirts ltoȅ .s(ḟἨ)swttȆnsḟsw 㜊 ࠡs rvittࠔ. ᐅlystssࠉsစrtiᐒ ssȈw dstȅt ဆtiutnsEssఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔsstᤔtftcintlysiff ct d ᤙsf rttlttys(ᘹ0.Ἧ)sℌtsᐈt sࠔsȅtcni℆ltty. Wȃnsttswisscࠔttᐌ dstostr ᐍscouᘅrtsࠔst st, tȃsr s఑tstᐍtcit dsstᤔtftciᐋlysltᐃirs(ᘹ0.Ἧ) fࠓs℈tț sHow ဃr,s ࠔlys ᤙsȅtcȅ℆lttyssȈw d stᤔtftciᐋlysdtff r ᐋs(p 㤟.Ἧ )sഌ stostȃ ആff r nc sktᐍssofsȃn. Dt tiryssఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔsࠉsဆtiutᐄEsఖstࠄ6 IU/㜙srittࠔ stnstȃsᘓ s ᐋsst఍yswissࠔlysiℑ sto tᐒr is sltᐃirlys ᤙsf rttlttysiᐍsnitcȅbtlttysby irࠌᐍs7-┮siᐍsḚ8%,sr sᘃcttဃly.sIntssftᐍtᐙ wissiluࠊtsstutlirstostȃsst఍ysࠉsIrtyiᐋts ltoȅ (ḟἧ)siltȈఙnstȃsuiᐅᤃu ᐋswisscouᘑ t ly dtff r ᐋsisscouᘅr dstostȃsᘓ s ᐋsst఍y.sIȃ KiuᘈᐙscȆc㜃nsw r sȈఊ dstᐍtဆഌillysiᐍ prࠍఒ dsf rttl s ᤙsstȓࠌᤂsirttftctil tᐊ utᐅttࠔ.sIȃsȃnssᤆဃnsvttiutnsE sఖpl u ᐋittࠔsఖstos⤟su᥆㜙srittࠔstᐒr is d f rttlttysࠉsi℈ఋs1ᴮsℌtsᐈtsfࠓsnitcȅbtltty (Irtyiᐋts ltoni .,sḟἧ).sFఓtȃruࠓ ,sȆᤂ rsဆtiutn Essఖpl u ᐋittࠔs(␟su᥆㜙srittࠔ)stᐒr is d f rttlttysℌtsᐈtsnitcȅbtlttystnsIitwiᐃs sȃnssis r ᘈrt dsbysLtns ltoni .s(ḟἠ).sEဃnstȈఙnstȃ vttiutnssఖpl u ᐋittࠔswissȆᤂ rscouᘅr dsto tȅtstᐄtȃspr s ᐋsst఍y,stȃstᐒr is ഄ ᤙsf rttltty wissuor sࠓsl sssstutlirstostȈs sࠡs rဃdstnstȃ pr s ᐋsst఍ys(7-ᴟsည.s7.⠮).sIȃscࠔstst ᐒy ᘂ ᐈu ᐈnsࠉstȃstwosst఍t sscins℃scࠔftru d iᐍsttstsstrఃstȅts ᤙsȅtcȅ℆lttyswissᐈtsiff ct d bysဆtiutᐄEssఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔ. Eᤙsȅtcȅ℆lttystnsIiℑ s3ssȈw dstȅt irࠌᐍsᴯ%sࠉstȃs uℓyosആdsᐈtsഃဃlࠖ sw ll ఖstostȃs ᐍsofstȃsȅtcȆᐙsp rtࠍ.sIȃstwo s ᘅrit dsfఔcttࠔssofsvttiutnsEsᐅu ly,ssఖᘈrts B7bఢऌlᘍȌࠗvओ⠋఍y⠋༐d 7࠶㜲RU࠸Ȑ ┈ḝRR Iiℑ sḛsEᤙsQఅlttystnsI rusࠉsW tgȋsࠉsᔙg,sEgᤚCࠔt ᐋsiᐍsᔙg-Sȃllsissw llsissEgᤚSȃllsĂtc㜔 ਊsࠉ K ഌЅᐍИ uiᐆо ᐊЬ ir ds bఈ dtЈ F dЬittࠔЈfуiru rуࠓu఑ittࠔЏttȄA഍tttࠔilsVttiutᐄᔄ Piriu t rs KtᐍЈfо n

5 L v lЈfsVttiutᐄᔄ(IU) Aဃriᤃ Eg
L v lЈfsVttiutᐄᔄ(IU) Aဃriᤃ EgᤄW tgȋЫg/ ᤙ)s K ഌ C uiᐆ Aဃriᤃ ᔙg-Cࠔt ᐋsW tgȋЫg/ ᤙ) K ഌ C uiᐆ Aဃriᤃ EgᤚSȃllsW tgȋЫg/ ᤙ) K ഌ C uiᐆ Aဃriᤃ EgᤚSȃllsĂtc㜔 ਊЫuu) K ഌ C uiᐆ Aဃriᤃ tȃsഃv lࠖu ᐋsࠉs uℓyosiᐍsictssissin iᐋt࠰tഅnt,sutᤂtsb stȃsciఊ sofstȃsprࠡl usࠉ lࠏs ᤙsȅtcȅ℆ltty.sAltȈఙnsfitstsstȃ triᐊᘈrttᐙscirrt rsࠉsဆtiutnsEsiᐍstsstȃsuitn ᐃrgyssࠌrc ssfࠓstȃsᘓࠒ sssࠉs uℓyࠔtc ഃဃlࠖu ᐋ,stn s℃ᐃftctils ff ctsofsဆtiutnsE fࠓs ᤙssആdsᐈtsf఑lysisȌᐍr dsᘃrc ᐋssఖᘈrts tȃsഃv lࠖu ᐋsࠉs uℓyos,sℌtsttssȈuldsilso ᘅrtlys℃sibl stosfఔcttࠔsissinsintt࠰tഅᐋ. AccࠓആᐙstosSఓits ltoni .s(ᴥ┥)stȃstᐒr istᐙsof ဆtiutnsEscࠔc ᐋrittࠔstnscntc㜃ns uℓyo’s ttssఃs,sᘅrttc఑irlคtnstȃsℓitnsc ll,scࠌldsr ഌc sఊc pttbtlttt sstosᘃr࠰tഅttࠔ.sIȃssiu u cȅᐆsustssഃuoᐊtrit dsbystȃsst఍ysࠉsLtns lt .s(ḟἯ)stȅtsဆtiutnsEssఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔsࠉsᴞἚ ᴧ0su᥆㜙sആ tstncr is dstȃsciᘅcttysofstts fఔcttࠔsissinsiᐋt࠰tഅnt,swȆcnstnstఓnsr ഌc d tȃsstr sssl ဃlsࠉstȃs uℓyosiᤅtnsts࠰tdittv r icttࠔs.sIȃr for ,sforstn sfutఓ sst఍t s,sttsts ᐃc ssirystoscࠔstഃrstȃsᘌrᘈs sofstȃs stwo isᘃctsstnsorഃrstostuᘓࠐ snitcȅbtlttคࠖttuilly tȓࠌᤂsdt tirysi഍tttࠔsofsဆtiutnsE.sItstss℃tt r tos℃scࠔstഃr dstȅtssఖᘑytᐙ ဆtiutnsEstssᐈt ࠔlysfࠓstȃsr prࠍఒttࠔsᐃ ഃdsℌtsilsosissin iᐋt࠰tഅntsorsttssr littࠔsȆpswttnstȃsicttࠔsof ࠋȃrsintt࠰tഅᐋsဆtiutnssఒȄissဆtiutnsA. Lࠏsᐌtrt ᐋsscࠔt ᐋsࠉsആ tirystr itu ᐋsࠉ tȃsᘓ s ᐋsst఍y,s xc ᘋstȃsMEsစlః,stnsᤃᐃril utᤂtsilsoscࠔtrtℌt stostn slࠏs ᤙsȅtcȅbtltty. Prࠋ tnscࠔt ntsࠉstȃsആ tirystr itu ᐋstnstȃ ᘓ s ᐋsst఍yswiss4-✮slࠏ rstȅnstȅtstnstȃ st఍ysࠉsSషiutos(ᴥ┨),stȆsstuᘑt sstȃsᘈࠓ ∌ilttysࠉsᘓot tnssఖᘑy.sLows ᤙsȅtcȅ℆ltty wissഃtrtu ᐋilsഌ stostȃsuulttpl sn ᤅttဃ ff cts,sᐅu ly,slࠏs∌iᐋttysiᐍsᘈors∌ilttysࠉ prࠋ tnssఖplystȅnstȃspr ဆࠌssst఍y.sOnstȃ otȃrsȅᐍ,swȃnsrittࠔswttns℅liᐒ srittosof n rgค(ḯ⼟,sḨ⼟siᐍsḥ⼟skcil/㜙)siᐍsᘓot tn (ᴩ,sᴯsiᐍsᴨ%)swissgtဃᐣsആdsᐈtsiff cts ᤙ ȅtcȅbtlttys(Sషiutࠣsᴥ┨).sEubryࠔtc ഃv lࠖu ᐋsr ∌tr ssᐈtsࠔlysvttiutnsEsℌtsilso tȃs℅liᐒ sࠉsࠋȃrsᐌtrt ntssissw ll.sLࠏ uℓyoᐆcsഃv lࠖu ᐋsiᐍs ᤙsȅtcȅ℆ltty w r scࠔtrirystostȃsᘓ vtࠌssftᐍtᐙsissr ᘈrt d i℈v .s Itscins℃sirᤌ dstȅtsr irtᐙssyst usts gr itlys ᘈsstℑ s tos brtᐙsi℈ఋstȃsആff r ntsr s఑t. Iȃsആff r nc sofsr irtᐙssyst ustnsr littࠔstostȃ ff cttဃn sssofsᐌtrt ᐋssఋtltzittࠔsfors ᤙ ȅtcȅbtlttystssiᐈtȃrsprࠡl ustȅtssȈ఑dsb cir fullyscࠔstഃr ഛs Itsȅဃs℃ nsആscuss dstn tȃsᘓ vtࠌssᘅriᤓiᘂstnits tȃspr s nts st఍ys wis cࠔഌct dstnss ut-tnt ᐊtဃsuoഃlswttnsinsࠖ n spic sࠉsᘃnsillࠏtᐙstȃsȃᐊstosȅဃscȅnc ഈtᐙs 〃rcts siᐍswil㜆ᐙsirࠌᐍ.sFࠓstȆs cࠔdtttࠔ,sdt tirysᐌtrt ᐋsscࠔt nt ssȈulds℃ ntᤂ rstࠄcࠐ rstȃsr ∌tr u ᐋsissttswissࠡs rဃd tᐄtȆssst఍y. Firu r’ssആ tsfࠓuulittࠔswisscࠔstiᐋly ᤆဃnsfrousstirttᐙsᘃrtࠍsఔttls ᤙsliytᐙ wttȈutsinyscȅᐙ stnstȃsfࠓu఑istosidjఊtstȃ ᐌtrt ᐋssr ∌tr u ᐋsisstȃsᘂystࠑ࠙tcilsiᤃ ഃဃlࠖ dsiᐍstȃssȆft dsࠉsᘓࠍఒttࠔsᘌrᘈs s. ⌏༈⼑ညऐyȌ lᘈऊ࠮l∄࠙┍ xluࠁl∈cdltȐu࠱dtȎdఈ⌈⤑Ȑl∈ࠡ ఈpdts Lα7b⠈In┇Ќdࠑtࠂi7U Ii℃ls⤛sEᤙssF rttlttysiᐍsHitcni℆lttysࠉsK ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆsH ᐊsR ir ds buo dtso F dsFiru r’ssFࠓu఑it dsDt t wttȄVttiutᐄᔄSఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔs Piriu t rs KtᐍЈfо n L v lЈfsVttiutᐄᔄ(IU) Aဃrig F rttlttyЫ%) 1) K ഌ C uiᐆ Aဃrig Hitcni℆lttyЫ%) K ഌ C uiᐆ Aဃrig 1) sIr ᐍscࠇᘅrtਈnst ਋stᐍtcit dsਆgᐆftciᐋlysltᐃirs(ᘹ

6 Ἧ) ;ss Aဃrig sစlఃstns ttȃrsc
Ἧ) ;ss Aဃrig sစlఃstns ttȃrscࠑఇnsࠓsrowsfࠑlࠏ d byЍtff r ᐋЊఖ rscrtᘋЊȈw਄ਆgᐆftciᐋlyЍtff r ᐋЫᘹἛἯ) Eᤙsᘓࠍucttࠔsciᘅcttคclos lysr lit dstosf ആᐙ ᘅtt rnsiᐍsᐌtrt ntssఋtltzittࠔsciᘅbtlttysitstȃ irlysᘃrtࠍsofsiᤃsࠉstȃscȆc㜃ᐊ.sK ഌscntc㜃n r ir dstns duopdts sf dsdt tsofsfiru rsfࠓu఑ittࠔ frousstirttᐙsఔttlsgrࠏtᐙsᘃrtࠍssᘓࠍఒ dsslࠏ rit sࠉsᘓࠋ tnstఓᐈဃrsorslࠏsᘓࠋ tnsd ᘈstttࠔ isscouᘅr dstosᐌtrtttࠔillystuᘓࠐ dsആ t (Sutȅui,sḟἧ).sF ആᐙsᐌtrtttࠔillysఔsittsft d dt tsciఊ sscntc㜃nssఉf rsᐌtrtttࠔilsstr sssiᐍ fఓtȃruࠓ s x rtsstn sᐃᤅttဃs ff ctsࠔ prࠍఒttဃsciᘅcttysitsliytᐙsᘃrtࠍ.sCࠔttᐌࠌs ᐌtrtttࠔilsstr sss brࠌᤂtsi℈ఋsȆᤂ rsrit sࠉ prࠋ tnsഃᤓiഅttࠔswȆcns wisstᐍtcit dsbysntᤂ xcr ttࠔsofstᐋ ru ആirysiutᐈsictdscill dsN u tnylȆsttആn s(Sutȅuis ltoni .,sḟᴟ). Pȃᐈu ᐈnsofssఒnscࠔdtttࠔsr s఑t dstnslࠏ prࠋ tnsഃᘈstttࠔsࠓsslࠏsᤓࠏtnsrit ,swȃr is prࠋ tnsഃᘈstttࠔsitstȃsstirttᐙs–sgrࠏtᐙsᘃrtࠍ tssisᘓ cఓsࠓsforstȃsfࠑlࠏtᐙsᘃrtࠍs(liytᐙ ᘃrtࠍ).sItstssࠡဆࠌsstȅtsᘈorsᐌtrtttࠔil cࠔdtttࠔsࠉstn sആ t,swttnslࠏsprࠋ tnsiᐍsȆᤂ n rgy,sissw llsissȆᤂsft℃rscࠔt nts,sgtဃnstostȃ liytᐙsᘌll tssfrous irlysᘃrtࠍsఔttls ᤙ prࠍఒttࠔstssl sssiഐiᐋig ssfࠓsnitcntᐙs ᤙ prࠍఒttࠔ.sOnstȃsotȃrsȅᐍ,sf dtᐙsആ tswttn ntᤂ rsᐌtrtttࠔilscࠔt nts,s sp ctillysᘓࠋ tnsiᐍ vttiutnsE,sprࠍఒ ssntᤂ rs∌ilttysࠉsȅtcȆᐙ ᤙ.sAslts ltoni .s(ḟἨ)sr ᘈrt dstȅtsvttiutnsE sఖpl u ᐋittࠔscࠌldstᐒr is sᘃrc ntiᤃsࠉs ᤙ yࠑksfrousḧ.6stosḤ.⤮.sIȌs,sttsᘓࠍఒ dsin tᐒr is stns ᤙs∌ilttyswttnsȆᤂ rsȅtcȆᐙ w tᤂts℃ciఊ s ᤙsyࠑkstssissࠌrc sofsᐌtrt ntsfࠓ tȃstȃs uℓyoᐆcsഃဃlࠖu ᐋsഌrtᐙsnitcntᐙ prࠒ sssiᐍstȃsftrsts⤄അyssᘈst-ȅtcȄ.s Iȃstᐉlu ᐒ sࠉstȃsആff r ᐋs㜆ᐍsofsȃᐊstn tȃspr s ntsst఍yswissstᤔtftciᐋsࠔlysࠔ ȅtcȅbtlttysᘅriu t r.sEᤙssȅtcȅ℆lttysࠉsK ഌ ȃnssw r sȆᤂ rstȅnstȈs sࠉsC uiᐆ (Iiℑ s⤭. C uiᐆsȃᐊsw r sࠡtitᐃdsfroustȃsiᐒ stࠓsࠉ ℈tnsuil siᐍsf uil sࠉsK ഌscȆck ᐣsiᐍ prࠍఒtᐙsࠉfsprtᐙs wttnstȃs cȅrict rtsttcsࠉ K ഌsC uiᐆscȆc㜃nstȅts wisstȃsuitnsᘌrᘈs d ofstn sr littဃsuittᐙ.s Iȃssp ctftcscȅrict rtsttc tnsC uiᐆscȆc㜃nstsstn sj t-blicksiᘖ iriᐒ sof tȃswȈl stncl఍tᐙstȃscou℣ssktᐣstࠔᤌ siᐍ ᘅlit sissw llsisstȃsℑࠈd.sItstssw lls㜔ࠏnsto tȅtsC uiᐆscntc㜃ᐊsw r s cࠔoutcillysဃry စlఅℑ scouuࠍttysiᐍsȆᤂsuir㜃tsഃuiᐍ. FࠓstȆssr isࠔ,sfiru rssȅဃs℃ nssttu఑it dsto br dstȃtrscntc㜃ᐊsbystuᘑ u ᐋtᐙsr littဃ uittᐙscࠔttᐌࠌslysfࠓsy irs.sFiru rssഈsᐈt iwir siᐍsȅဃsᐈscࠔc rnsiᐍscࠔstഃrittࠔsࠔ tȃsuittᐙssyst ustnitswࠌldsictఅllysbrtᐙsi℈ఋ tᐡr dtᐙsഃᘓ sstࠔ.sAccࠓആᐙstosHirjࠊడrࠋo (ᴥ┠)stȅtssఒnsu tȈdsࠉsuittᐙstᐒr is dstn tᐡr ആᐙsഃpr sstࠔstᐍ xsbysᴟ%,siᐍ ᘓࠍఒ dslࠏ rsȅtcȅ℆lttysbysi℈ఋs1s–s‮. Iȃr fࠓ ,sttstsstuᘈrtiᐋstosᐈt stȅts ᤙ ȅtcni℆lttysࠉsC uiᐆswisslࠏ rstȅnstȅtsࠉ K ഌsisstȃtrsiᐒ storsഌ stostȃstᐡr ആᐙ uittᐙsuoഃl. Lࠏ rs ᤙsȅtcȅ℆lttysࠓsȆᤂs uℓyࠔtc uortilttystnsC uiᐆscȆc㜃nswࠌldsb suitᐑy r lit dstostȃsȆᤂ rstᐡr dtᐙstᐍ xsiᐍ ᘈsstblysilsostostȃs℅r -ᐃc㜃dsഌ stostȃ r littဃsuittᐙsfrousᤃn rittࠔstosg ᐃrittࠔ.sIt tssࠡs rဃdstȅtsi℈utsᴯ%sࠉsC uiᐆsȃnssఊ d tnstȃsᘓ s ᐋsst఍ystᐍtcit dstȃs℅r -ᐃc㜃d ᘂ ᐈtyᘃscȅrict rtsttc.sAccࠓആᐙstosS ttiᐋos lt ȅ7 s(ḟἥ)stȃsbir -n c㜃dsᘂ ᐈtyᘆcswissഌ sto tȃsNisᤃᐃ,sttscࠌlds℃s ttn rsȈu࠶ygࠋ (NiNi)sࠓsȃt r࠶yᤈt slocఊs(Niᐅ). sWȃnstn lࠒఊswissn t rozygࠋ ,stȃsᘂ ᐈtyᘆcsࠉstȃ ᐃckswiss℅lds(Stഅഈl࠙,s

7 ┝sctt dsbysS ttiᐋo ltoni .,sḟἥ)
┝sctt dsbysS ttiᐋo ltoni .,sḟἥ).sIȃr for ,sttscins℃sissuu dstȅt ℅r -ᐃcksᤃᐃsutᤂtscࠔtrtℌt stostȃslࠏ ȅtcni℆lttคࠉsC uiᐆs ᤙs,sstᐒ siluostsḟ%sࠉ uℓyࠊsw r sഃidsb fࠓ snitcntᐙs(⠠.⠥svs. ⼯.ḯ%,sIiℑ s3). sAccࠓആᐙstosFitrf఑lsiᐍ Gow s(ḟἤ),s ᤙssfrousȃᐊswttnsNisᤃᐃsniဃ isȆᤂs uℓyosuࠓtilttysrit sഌrtᐙsȅtcntᐙ couᘅr dstostȅtsfrousn ᐊswttȈఋsNisᤃᐃ. AltȈఙnsᤃᐃscȅrict rtzittࠔswissᐈtssᘃctft d tnstȃsᘓ s ᐋsst఍y,sttscinsb sirᤌ dstȅtsuࠓ tȅnsᴯ%sࠉsK ഌsȃᐊscirrt dsȃt r࠶ygࠋ lࠒఊsofsNisᤃᐃs(Niᐅ).sIȆssissuuᘋtࠔsts sఖᘈrt dsbystȃsftᐍtᐙsࠉsS ttintos ltoni .s(ḟἥ) tȅtsᴥ.⠮sࠉsNisᤃᐃsfr ∌ ncyswissࠡs rဃd froussou s℅r -ᐃckscࠒ㜊sorsȃᐊsriᐍouly uit dswttnsᐈruil-f itȃr dsࠉscntc㜃nsࠓsvtc ဃrsi.sItswissilsosr ᘈrt dstȅtstȃs uℓyo uortilttysȅဆᐙs℅r -ᐃcksᘂ ᐈtyᘃsw r Ȇᤂ rstȅᐄtȅtsࠉsᐈruil-f itȃr ഄᘂ ᐈtyᘃ. yvtyuipovt Sఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔsࠉsဆtiutnsEsఖstostn sl ဃl ofs6sIUstntostȃsfiru r-fࠓu఑it dsdt tstᐒr is d ᤙsf rttlttysiᐍsȅtcȅ℆lttysltᐃirlysbysirࠌᐍs⼚ 8%stns℈tnsK ഌsiᐍsC uiᐆsȃᐊsuitᐋitn ds du pdts7 sHࠏ ဃr,s ᤙsȅtcȅ℆lttysofsC uiᐆswis 11%slࠏ rstȅᐄtȅtsࠉsK ഌsȃᐊ. tyntv᠇IunEItf IȃsiutȈrstssᤓit fullysic㜔ࠏl ങ siᐍ stᐒ r stȅᐷsഌ stostȃsvilఅbl sftniᐒtil sఖᘈrtsiᐍscࠔtrtℌttࠔsᤌirint dsbysDPṅ, B7bఢऌlᘍȌࠗvओ⠋఍y⠋༐d 7࠶㜲RU࠸Ȑ ┈ḝRR Dtr ctࠓit sofsHtᤂ rsEഌcittࠔ,sMtᐆstrysࠉ NittࠔilsEഌcittࠔ.sIȃswࠓksfࠓstntssuiᐌscrtᘋ wisssఖᘈrt dstnsᘅrtsbystȃsGriᐋ-tᐚAtdsᐈ: ᴞ“/H⠛ṆKP/ḟἥstȓࠌᤂsDtᘈᐃᤈro UᐆဃrsttysB఍ᤃttᐙsPrࡀ cts(DIPA) sᐈ: Ἕ✟.0/἞⤚ἠ.2/XIII/ḟἥ.s rIlIrItyIp Aslt,sM.M.,sS.A.sHࠊs tᐆ,sH.sLࠋfollintiᐣsiᐍsF. Sȅrtituiഅrt.sḟἨ.sEff ctsࠉsᘓࠡtࠋtcs y ist,svttiutnsEsiᐍsဆtiutnsCssఖᘑ u ᐋs ࠔsᘃrfࠓuiᐒ siᐍstuuuᐃsr sᘈᐊ sࠉ liytᐙsȃnsഌrtᐙsȆᤂs ᐐtrࠔu ᐋil t up ritఓ .sIᐋ.sJ.sPࠌlt.sSct.s6(ᴞ):␥5-┟Ἓ CȌrcȣsD.C.siᐍsW.sG.sPࠔഛsᴥ┤.sBistc AᐆuilsNఋrtttࠔsiᐍsF dtᐙ.s4 tn sEഛsJࠂn Wtll ysiᐍsSࠔ,sStᐙiᘈr .s D suiyittsZ.siᐍsI.sR.sJiᐔin.sḟἯ. Sఖl u ᐋistsisiusiutᐈsltstᐄഅliusrinsuu ℅silsiyiuskiupఔgsp t lఓst rniഅps℈℈t t lఓ,stᐍ 㜊st lఓ,sdiyistఔissഅnsഅyist tis s rtis㜈r listnyi.sJ.sIᐍࠔ stinsIrࠖ.sAᐆu. Aᤓtc.,sSᘃctilsEdtttࠔ,sBࠈ㜄ḣsPiᤃs⤥-‧. Fitrf఑l,sR.W.siᐍsR.S.sGow .sḟἤ.sBr dtᐙsfࠓ r ststiᐒ stosȃitsstr ss.s In :sPࠌltry PrࠍఒttࠔstnsHࠋsCltuit .s(Diᤂtr,sN.J., Eഭ.s2 sEd.sCABI,sLࠔഈn.sPiᤃ.sᴩ-ḥ. G఑tou,sD.,sD.sWtlࠃtࠣsiᐍsPrtuisirt.sᴥ␥. Prࠋ tnsdins ᐃrᤆsr ᐍinsഅliusriᐊuu iyiusℌrissᘃrtࠍ s℃rt lఓ.sPrࠒ dtᐙs, S utᐅrsUᐙᤅssL࠷ilsI.sS uiriᐙ, S ᘋ ub rsḤ,sᴥ␥.sPiᤃs⼝-⼨. Hirjࠊడrࠋo,sW.sᴥ┠.sAᘑtkistsP uultiin I rᐅ㜄dtsLiᘅᐙiᐛsPI.sGristᐍo,sJikirti. H ruiwiᐣsD.sḟἨ.sP ᐙᤌᐅinsI ᘌᐙsDiఔ P ᘅyis( gȐd noጂጂun )sഅliusRiᐊuu AyiusAribsI rȅഅpsPrࠍషttvttissഅn Aᐋtcictᐙ.sMSsIȃsts.sPr࠙riusMigtst r IluusI rᐅk,sFi㜌ltissP t rᐅ㜅nsUᐆဃrsttis Dtᘈᐃᤈro,sS uiriᐙ. Hఊuitᐆ.sḟἯ.sP ᐙirంsᘃu℃rtins℃℃riᘅ l ဃlsprࠋ tnsriᐊuust rȅഅpsᘃᐅuᘆlinsF1 ᘃrstliᐙinsiyiusiribsdins㜅upఔgsᘃrtࠍ stirt r.sJ.sIᐍࠔ stinsIrࠖ.sAᐆu.sAᤓtc, SᘃctilsEdtttࠔ,sBࠈ㜄ḣsPiᤃsᴨ-Ḟ. lrtyiᐋt,sN.,sZఖrtzil,sI.sYఏiᐋisiᐍsS.sK uiᐛ ḟἨ.sIȃs ff ctsࠉsvttiutnsE sఖᘑ u ᐋittࠔstnsrittࠔsࠔsf rttltty, ȅtcni℆lttysiᐍsnitcnsw tᤂtsࠉsᐅttဃ cȆck ᑇss ᤙs.sAᐆu.sPrࠍ.,sFi㜌ltis P t rᐅ㜅nsUᐆဃrsttissJ ᐍrilsSࠃആruiᐣ Pఓw࠷ rto.s9(ᴭ:⤧-┛s L sࠔ,sS.sḟἨ.sVttiutnsr ∌tr u ᐋs:stsstȃr ℅stssforsr - vilఅttᐙsആ tiryssᘃctftcittࠔs. WࠓlഄPࠌlt.sSct.sJ.s✩(ḭ:sḯ5-ḧ✛ Ltn,sY.F.,s

8 S.J.sCȅᐙ,siᐍsA.L.sHsఛsḟἠ.sEff
S.J.sCȅᐙ,siᐍsA.L.sHsఛsḟἠ.sEff cts ofssఖpl u ᐋilsဆtiutnsEsഌrtᐙstȃsliytᐙ ᘃrtࠍsࠔstȃsr prࠍఒttဃsᘃrfࠓuiᐒ sࠉ Iitwinsᐅttဃscntc㜃ᐊ.s Br.sPࠌlt.sSct. ):␟7-s␝4. Ltn,sY.F.,sH.L.Isit,sY.C.sL ,siᐍsS.J.sCȅᐙ. ḟἯ.sMit rᐅlsဆtiutnsEssఖpl u ᐋittࠔ iff ctsstȃsiᐋt࠰tഅntscipi℆lttysiᐍ ࠰tഅttဃsstitఊsࠉsnitcntᐙscȆcks.sJ.sNఋr. ᴩ5:Ḡ⼨-‧ᴛ Ni℃r,sE.sC.sᴥ┩.sMࠍtfytᐙsvttiutn coupࠊtttࠔsࠉs ᤙs:sAsr ဆ w.sJ.sAᘖl. Pࠌlt.sR s.sṋ⤤5-⤥⤛ Nitiiutjiyi,sA.G.,sArᐃstosiᐍsS.N.sJiruiᐆ, ḟἧ.sR ᘓࠍucttࠔsᘃrfࠓuiᐒ sofsf uil lࠒilscȆc㜃ᐊsbr ഊsఔഃrsဆtiutnsE sఖpl u ᐋittࠔ.sAᐆu.sPrࠍ.s(Fi㜌ltis P t rᐅ㜅nsUᐆဃrsttissJ ᐍ rilsSࠃdtruiᐣ Pఓw࠷ rt࠭.s8(ḭ:⠤-␞.s NittࠔilsR s ircnsCࠌᐒtl.sᴥ┠.sNఋrt ᐋ R ∌tr u ᐋsofsPࠌltry.s9 tn sEd.sNittࠔil AciഃutcsPr ss,sWisȆᐙtࠔ. R sᐅwitt,sH.sḟἯ.sK ℌtంins ᐃrᤆsu ti℈lts അliusrinsuusiyiusstliᐙsyingsആp ltniri s ciristnt ᐊtf.sJ.sIᐍࠔ stinsIrࠖ.sAᐆu. Aᤓtc,sSᘃctilsEdtttࠔ.sBࠈ㜄ḣsPiᤃsḩ-ḧ. S ttintࠣsJ.,sWirᐈto,siᐍsI.sIrtidt.sḟἥ. EsttuittࠔsࠉsNisᤃᐃsfr ∌ ᐒysࠔsᐅttဃ cntc㜃nsᘈᘌlittࠔsiᐍsttss ff ctsࠔ ȅtc ȅ℆lttคᘃrforuiᐒ .sJ.sIᐍࠔ stinsIrࠖ. Aᐆu.sAᤓtc.s⤠:Ḥ‚Ḥ␛ S tyiᐆᐙruu,sS.,s. H.I.sWinyuᐆsiᐍsB.sSషiutࠛ ḟἥ.sP uiᐉiitinsKilstuusKiᘌrsഅnsK఑tt K riᐙsఔtషsP u℃ᐋషinsCiᐙ㜅ᐙsഅn MࠡtltsistsKilstuusI఑iᐙsᘅഅsAyiusK ഌ. Proc ആᐙs,s NittࠔilsS utᐅrsࠔ “I 㜔ࠑ࠙tsP t rᐅkinsഅnsV t rtᐃr”, B࠙or,sAఙఊts4-⼣sḟἥ.sPiᤃs✨4-✤ᴛ S఍jirwࠣsEsiᐍsP.sIᐍirtࠛsᴥ␥.sP ᐙirం ᘃᐙᤌniins℃r℅gitsuicius℅ninslttt r t rȅഅpsp rtiu℅ȅns℈℈ts℅അnsഅn 㜈ᐊuustspi㜅nsiyiuskiuᘌᐙsuuఓs␚ᴞ utᐙᤌ.sPrࠒ ആᐙs,sS utᐅrsUᐙᤅssL࠷il I,sS uiriᐙ,sS ᘋ ub rsḤ,sᴥ␥.sPiᤃs✤- ⠝. SషiutࠣsB.sᴥ┨.sK ℌtంinsEᐃrᤆsഅnsPrࠋ tn B rdisir㜅nsEftst ᐊtsP ᐙᤌᐅinsPrࠋ tn ഃᐙinsMiᐆf stistnyist rȅdipsP rforuin PrࠍషstsAyiusK ഌ.sPȱsIȃsts.sPr࠙riu PiscisSirjiᐅsUᐆဃrsttissPiീidjirin, Biᐍఔg. ⌏༈⼑ညऐyȌ lᘈऊ࠮l∄࠙┍ xluࠁl∈cdltȐu࠱dtȎdఈ⌈⤑Ȑl∈ࠡ ఈpdts Lα7b⠈In┇Ќdࠑtࠂi7U S఑iᐍirt,sS.,sM.S.A.sZ tᐣsS.sPiryiᐋt,sI.sSirtt㜅, M.sAstutt,sI.sWtീistutt,sE.sSీiᐅ,sS. Diriᐅ,sI.sS ttiwin,siᐍsD.sGirᐆഅ.sḟἨ. Suu℃rഅyisᤃᐃttksiyiusl࠷ilsIᐍࠔ sti. IᑋsK iᐃ㜅riᤅuinsSuu℃rsDiyisHiyitt AyiusL࠷ilsIᐍࠔ sti:sMinfiitsdinsPࠋ ᐊt. (DtwyiᐋࠣsKsiᐍsS.sN.sPrtjࠔࠣsEഊ).s1 st sEഛ LIPIsPr ss,sJi㜅rti.sPiᤃs
-ᴟ‛ Sఓit,sP.F.,sR.C.sNࠡl ,siᐍsB.K.sSᘃ㜃.sᴥ┥. R littࠔsntps℃tw nsဆtiutns Escࠔt ntsiᐍ sఊc pttbtlttystosltptdsᘃr࠰tdittࠔstnsttssఃs ࠉstȃsᐃwlysȅtcȃdscȆck.sBr.sPࠌlt.sSct. ‟:‟✚”0. Sఋȅui,sN.sḟἯ.sR sᘈnsᘓࠍషstsiyiu 㜅uᘌᐙsᘃt lఓst rȅഅpsriᐊuusu ui㜅t ഃഅksᘅആsf ru ᐋistsഃᐙinssఖl u ᐋist suu℃rsutᐃril.sJ.sIᐍࠔ stinsIrࠖ.sAᐆu. Aᤓtc,sSᘃctilsEഛ,sBࠈ㜄2,sPig s1ᴧ-ᴞ1. Sఋniui,sN.sḟἧ.sKijtinsisp ks“ᘓࠋ tn tఓᐈဃr”stడంsᘅഅsiyiusK ഌsp rtࠍ ᘃrtuubంiᐛsM ആisP t rᐅ㜅ᐄḥ(2):
-⼩. Sఋniui,sN.,sH.I.sWinyuᐆ,siᐍsI.sMiᐙtsin. ḟᴟ.sLijusᘃrtuuℌȅns℃rഅsirkin ഃgriഅstsᘓot tnstడంsᘅഅsiyiusK ഌ dtᘃltȅris l { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "https://www.docslides.com/slides/870415/NANS_J_sC______si___sA_L_sHs___s_______sEff", "description": "S_J_sC______si___sA_L_sHs___s_______sEff_cts_ofss___pl_u____ils___tiutnsEs___rt___st__sliyt_______rt___s___st__sr_pr____", "width": "1240" }