NATIONALAERONAUTISANDSPACEADMINISTRATIONTechnicaiReportNo32908bamplin

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NATIONALAERONAUTISANDSPACEADMINISTRATIONTechnicaiReportNo32908bamplin - Description


NATIONALAERONAUTICSANDSPACEADMINISTRATIONTechnicalReportNo32-908SamplingandHandlingofDesertSoilsRECameronGBBlankDRGenseorowaag/BioscienceSectionJETPROPULSIONLABORATORYCALIFORNIAINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGYPA Download

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1 #!NATIONALAERONAUTI.'.;SANDSPACEADMINIST
#!NATIONALAERONAUTI.'.;SANDSPACEADMINISTRATIONTechnica:iReportNo.32-908bamplingandHandlingofDesertSoilsR.E.CameronG.B.BlankD.R.GenselGPOPRICE$CFST!PRICE(S)$N66"23860..,,co,_(._)_.,_o=,.,^cc_._,,_,,....._,.,,,,"r.,,_,Microfiche(MF)___c"__o.,_$I_"_PICES_/ff653Ju_vE5--(_l"1_ACROF"*3'_"O"RA-'__"_"BERI(cA"rE)'i,IdF_JETPROPULSIONLABORATORYCALIFORNIAINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGYPASADENA_CALIFORNIAApril15,19.66\;i1966014571 NATIONALAERONAUTICSANDSPACEADMINISTRATIONTechnicalReportNo.32-908SamplingandHandlingofDesertSoilsR.E.CameronG.B.BlankD.R.Gense;.....orow,.'.,,,,,a,'.ag._/BioscienceSectionJETPROPULSIONLABORATORYCALIFORNIAINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGYPASADENA,CALIFORNIAApril15,19661966014571-002 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908CONTENTSI.Introduction.....................1A.SoilVa_ffab_ty...................1B.Histonea!Studies..................3C.Purpose.....................4II.SelectionandCharacterizo.';onofArea,Site,andSO_I....5A.SoilUnit.....................5B.SoilArea.....................5C.SoilSite.....................5D.ObservationsofArea,Site,andSoft............6III.PhotographyofArea,Site,andSoil...........8IV.SterilizationofSoilSamplingEquipmentandContainers.9V.SoilSampleCollection................10Vi.SoilSampleTransportandShipment...........12VII.SoilSampleHandling,Processing,andStorage.......12VIII.JPLSoilSampleDispersal...............13References.......................14AppendixA.SequenceofStepsforCollectingSoilSamplesinDesertAreas................15AppendixB.SoilSampleInformotionSheetandAccompanyingPhotographs...........AppendixC.SuggestedMinimumEquipmentUst'/orSoilSampleCollecting...............31AppendixD.Nomenclature.............32PRECEDINGPAGEBLANKNOTFILMED.J1966014571-003 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908ABSTRACT___(oVariabilityandcharacteristicsofterrestrialsoilsandvariabilityinmethodsandtechniquesusedinsamplingandhandlingareimportantfactorsresponsiblefordiscrepanciesinresultsofinvestigationsonsoils.Proceduresforsoilsampling,aswellasselectionofthesoiltobesampled,areusuallydeterminedbythepurposeforwhichthesoilwillbeused.Informationispresentedfo

2 rthesequentialselec-tion,characterizatio
rthesequentialselec-tion,characterization,andsamplingofadesertsoilsite.Proceduresarerecommendedandillustrationsgivenforphotegraphyofmajorfeatures,sterilizationofsamplingequipmentandsamplecontainers,thecollectionofdesertsoils,andtheirhandling,processing,storage,shipment,anddispersal.Aseptictechniqueisempb.asizedforthecollectionandhandlingofsoilsamplesformicrobiologic.-.lstudies.I.INTRODUCTIONA.SoilVariabililyandformedundertheinfluenceofcorr,plexandinteract-Soilsamplingisanimportantfactorinvarioussoilingforcesoftime(geological),dhnate,topography,studiesbecausemostterrestrialsoilsarenothomo-biota,parentmaterials(minerals),elevation,andgeo-gencous,noraretheysimplesystems.Exceptinastrictgraphicalposition,aswellasotherfactors(Refs.1and":ngineeringsense,soilsarenotjustunconsolidated2).Differencesbetweenvariouskindsofsoilsdependmassesofsmall-sizedgeologicmaterialsintermsoftheirconsiderablyontheintensityanddegreeofactionandphysicalcomponents.Onthisplanet,soilisathree-interactionofsoil-formingfactors.Variabilityintheinteractionoftheseforcesresultsinthedevelopmentdimensionalbody,usuallyalivingsystem,whichhasandformationofanimmensenumberofsoilsonthisdevelopedinnature.Differencesintherawsoil-formingmaterialsandthenaturalenvironmenthavecontributed,planet.intime,tothedevelopmentandformationofdifferentkindsofsoils.Giventhesamesoil-formingfactors,thesamekindofsoilwillbeformed,whetheritoccursatsomeloea-Soilscanvaryonapoint-to-pointbas:,sandfromtiononthisplanet,orinsomeextraterres_ialenviron-ecosystemtoecosysteminsofarastheyaredevelopedment.Thesamekindofsoilwillnotbeformedata1Pl1966014571-004 JPLTECHHICALREPORTNO.32-908givenlocationunlessthesamesoil-formingfactorsareisessentialtounderstandingthesoilariditsbehavior.operativetothesar_aedegree.ThelesstheinteractionThisalsoincludesfactorsresponsibleforthedevelop-betweenfactorsandthelowerthedegreeofintensi_merit,formation,degreeofmaturity,anddegradationofeachfactorinvolvedinsoilformation,thelowertheofthesoil,aswellascomprehensivecharacteristicsodegreeofcomplexityandmaturityofthesoil.Con-thesoilecos

3 ystem.versely,theoppositeisalsotrue.Fore
ystem.versely,theoppositeisalsotrue.Forexample,ahighinteractionandintensity,ofclimate(especiallyfavorableAccessibilityofthesamplemustbeconsideredsincemoisture-temperatureregime),andbiota(especiallyitinchldesfactorsrelatedtothebesttimeforobtainhadense,deepfibrous-rootedvegetation)willgiverisetothesampleandthetimethatmu:_tbespentinprocurin_ahighdegreeofsoildevelopment,andcomplexity,eventhesample,locationofthesamplingsite,depthandthoughotherfactorsofsoilformationaresimilartothosevolumeofsamplerequired,design,biasandcapabilityofalesscomplexsoil.ofthesamplingdevices,andtransportandshipmenofthesamplefromthesitetoanotherlocation,suchasAnumberofmethodshavebeenusedtosamplesoilsforanalyticalorexperimentalpurpcses.andavarietyofinvestigationshavebeenperformedonsoils,butithasnotbeenpossibletodeviseasinglemethodwhichisentirelypreferableandsatisfactoryforForagivenareaandsamplingsite,variabilityofsolsamplingallkindsofsoilsatalltimesandinallloca-propertiesmaybequiteimportant.Forexample,anareaofdunesand,orabroad,level,aridplainmayshowtions.Shallow,rockysoilsmustbesampled,asweUasdense,aggregated,cemented,andcompactedsoils,oronlyafewsoilswithanarrowrangeofvariabilityinsoilscomposedofloose,cohesionless,driftingdunes,softproperties.However,inalargeareavaryingfromSamplingcapabilitymustextendtothedislodgmentofabarrendesertpeneplaintowet,denselyvegetatecinsituclays,silts,sands,andloams,aswellasothermountainsofincreasingelevation,andcorrespondiP,_largergeologicmaterialsinvariousstatesofstructuralchangesinclimate,radiationfluxes,anddifferentminera-arrangements,logicalcomposition,soilscanvarywidelyfrompointtopoint,fromecosystemtoecosystem,andhenceinindivid-Productivesoils,orthoseoccurringinagriculturalualpropertiesofasingleunitofsoil.regions,usuallyhaveweU-developedprofilesofdistinctA,B,Chorizonsandsubhorizons,andthesesoilscorn-Consideringallofthefactorsinsoilsampling,ithasmonlyshowconsiderablevariabilityintheircharacter-beenfoundthatthepurpgseanduseforwhichtheso/isticswithdepthofsoilprofile.Desertsoilsmayshowsampleisrequiredusuallydeten._inesthek_ndof

4 soimuchlessvariabilityofmorphologyorothe
soimuchlessvariabilityofmorphologyorothercharacter-andthemethodofsampling(Ref.3).Thepurposealsoisticswithdepthandareusuallyazonal,althoughhard-largelydeterminesthequantity,quality,anddepthofpanorcalichelayersmayoccur,sample,thetimeofsampling,thenumberofsamples,theselectionoftheareaandchoiceofsamplingsites,Whichevermethodsareselectedandutilizedtosampleandsubsequentproceduresfollowedduringthe"lifetime"asoil,atleastsixfactorsmustbeconsidered:(1)charae-ofthesample.teristicsoftheenvironn_entexternaltoagivenbodyofsoil;(2)soil-environmentalrelationshipsandinterac-Formostsoilstudies,itisdesirabletocollectavolumetions;(3)accessibilityofthesampleintermsoffeasi-ofsoil,,'_therthananareaofsoil(Ref.3).Inmostbilityofprocurementfromthenaturalenvironment;instances,thismeansthattheinvestigatormustobtain(4)thevariability,aswellastherepresentativecharac-asoilunitwhichisarepresentativesamplefromapar-teristics,ofthesample;(5)thehandling,processing,ticularbodyofsoilorsoilecosystem(Ref.2).Toensuretreatment,shipping,storage,andotherconditionsthatthecollectionofarepresentativeandreasonablyhomo-willbeimposeduponthesoilafterithasbeenremovedgeneoussoilsample,anumberofdislodgedsamplesorfromthenaturalenvironment;(6)thepurposeforwhichsampleunitsareordinarilycollectedfromabodyofthesoilsampleisrequired,i.e.,theanalysesandJnvesti-soil.Thesesamplesarethenmixedtogether,andangationswhichwillbeperformedonthesoil.aliquotistakenastherepresentativesampleofsoil.Itisnotalwayspossibletosatisfyallofthecriteriaforsoilsampliug,andsomefactorsmustreceivepriorityForsomestudies,aselectivesample,suchasfromaoverothers.Thesoilshouldbeconsideredinrelationtospecificareaofsoilorsoilmicroenvironment,ispro-itsexternalenvironment.Knowledgeoffieldconditionscured.Aselectivesample,ratherthanarandomsample,21966014571-005 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908mayalsobedesired,orevennecessary,forsomeexperi-beprocuredfromthe"plowlayer"orfirst12in.ofsoil.mentaldesignpurposes,e.g.,qt:alitativedetectionofSamplestakenfromtheimmediatesurfaceorlessthansoilmicroflorapopulationsorotherorganics.12in.depthwouldn

5 otbeco_ideredforexamination.Itwasalsoreq
otbeco_ideredforexamination.ItwasalsorequiredthatsamplesshouldnotberandomlyProceduresforcollectingandhandlingofsoilsamplescollec/ted,butselectedfromdistinctkindsofsoils,andmustbedeterminedpriortoactualprocurementofthattheyshouldbefromnondisturbedor"v.ncontami-samplesinthefield.Inthisrespect,proceduresforcol-nated"areas.lectionof;_oilsa'.nplesforphysicalorchemicalanalysesare9otthesartaeasforprocurementofsamplesforsoilBeforeshipmentortransport,thesoilwastobesep-monoliths,orformicrobiologicalanalysesandresearch,aratedfrommacrovegetation,andthesamplesweretobehomogeneousfromseveralrepresentativesamplingItshouldberealizedthatprecautionarytechniquessites.Observedchangesinsoilcharacteristicswithdepthforprocurementofsoftsamplesformicrobiologicalin-ofsoilweretobenotedbythecollector,anditwasvestigationsarenotrou_nelyutilizedwhenobtainingadvisedthatcultiw.ted,aswellasadjacentvirginsoilssoftsamples.Methodsforcollectionofsoilsamplesinshouldbeprocured.Itwasalsorecommendedthattheordertoprecludecovtaminationhavenotbeenwelloccurrenceofnormalvegetationshouldbecarefullydevelopedortested.Inthisrespect,itisquitedifficultnotedandrecorded,andthatsoilsiteswithunusualtoobtainaquantityofsoilfromsubsurfacedepthswith-plantsorvegetativegrov,_thshouldbeavoided.outintroducingcontaminationfromsurfacesoil.!naridareas,itwassuggestedthatsamplesofalkaliProcatrementofworthwhileandscientificallyvaluableorsaltysoilsshouldbecollectedtowardtheendofthesoilsamplesdependsconsiderablyuponthecapabilities,dryseasonwhensurfacelayerscontainedthelargestpreparation,andexperienceoftheindividualcollectoramountsofevaporatedsalts.Allwetsamplesweretoorinvestigator.Errorsinsoilseanplingareincreasedbybeair-driedbeforeshippingorstoring,andnosoilsinadequatepreparation,lackofsv.mplingexperience,wereexaminedunlessnotesonsoillocation,layofthelackofarudimentaryknowledgeofbasicsoilprinciplesland,soil"peculiarities,"croporvegetation,accompaniedthesample.Otherwise,"theamountoflaborinvolvedandcharacteristics,poorchoiceofasamplingsite,pro-curementofaninsufllcientquantityofsample,useof[doesnotw

6 arrznt]theirexamination"(Ref.5).improper
arrznt]theirexamination"(Ref.5).impropersamplingmethodsandtechniques,impropertreatment,handling,storage,andshipmentofthesample,Soilsamplecollectionandhandlingprocedureshaveinattentiontothetimeofsamplingwithregardtoevolvedfromtheaboverequirementsoutlinedbythefirstenvironmentalandsoilconditions,andfailuretotakeoutstandingUnitedStatessoilscientist,EW.Hilgardsut_cientnotesoncharacteristicsofthesamplings_te,(fief.5).Mostoftheseprinciplesforthecollectionanditsenvironment,orotherfactorswhichinfluence,thehandlingofsoilsranpleshavebeenretainedtodate.statusofthecollectedsample.Errorsdueto._amplingAlthoughseveralmodificationshavebeenmadeforofsoilsaregenerallygreaterthanthoseofsoil.analysesresearchpurposes,mostagriculturalsoilsarestillcol-(Ref.3),andtheseerrorsinsamplingcouldaffectthelettedwithin12in.ofthesurfaceorfromdistincthori-valueofthesoilsforotherpurposes.Asindicatedabove,zonswhichcomposethesoilprofile."nyonefactororcombinationoffactorscancontributetocollectionofsampleswithdecreasedorverylittleLittleornoregardisusuallygiventoslightcontamina-_,.,entiBevalue.Samplingreliabilitymustbee.-nphasizedtionofsuccessivelayersordepthsofsoilbysurfaceatalltimes,soil.Noproceduresareroutinelyfollowedforsteriliza-tionofdiggingtools,samplers,orsamplecontainers.Aseptictechniques,exceptforspecificmicrobiologicalB.HistoricalStudiespurposes,arenotusedduringthecollectingandprocess-Methodologyofsoilsanaplecollectionshowsthatmostingofsoils,andthiscontributestothecontaminationsoilshavebeensampledforuseinsoilscienceorofsamplesbynonindigenousorganismsandothermate-agronomy.Primarily,soilsampleshavebeenobtainedrials.Itisstillstandardpracticetoair-drysoilsbeforeforanalyticalpurposeswithreferencetoagriculture,andshipping,storage,ordeterminationofsoilproperties,manysubsequentexaminationsofsoftshavebeenunder-butcareisnotordinarilytakentoexcludelaboratoryortakenbythevariousstateandcountyagricultureexperl-open-aircontaminationofsoilsamplesduringtheprocessmeatstations.Acoordingtooneoftheearliestaccountsofdryingorothertreatment.Atimeperiodof24,48hrofsoilsampling(Ref.

7 5),itwasrequiredthatsamplesorlongeriscom
5),itwasrequiredthatsamplesorlongeriscommonlyallowedtodryasoil.Thesoil31966014571-006 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908maybeexposedtoopen-aircontaminationfor._longerquentmethodsandtechniquespresentedinthisReporttimeperiod,dependingconsiderablyuponthetimeandaresimilarinsomerespectstosoilsamplingandhan-convenienceforrepackagingandforinvestigatingthedlingproceduresgenerallyutilizedbymanysoilscientists.soil.However,thesuggestedprocedureshaveevolvedthroughexperiencegainedintheasepticcollectionandhandlingofhundredsofsoilswhichhavebeenanalyzedfortheC.PurposeJPLDesertMicrofloraProgram.ProceduresforsamplingandhandlingofsoilsarepresentedinthisReportonthebasisofprocurementofInstructionsarealsoincludedforthosewhomaywantmanuallydislodgedsamplesofsoilorsamplingunitstocontributetoorobtainsoilsfromtheDesertSoilwhicharetoberemovedfromthefieldinadesertarea.CollectionattheJetPropulsionLaboratory.2AtypicalInstructionsareintendedforindividualswhohavehadSoilSampleInformationSheetandpicturesofthesomeexperienceinsoilsampling,aswellasforthecorrespondingsoilsiteareincludedforthisp,'rposeininexperiencedcollectorwholacksanybackgroundinAppendixB.Additionalinformationonstandardprac-soilscienceorintheprocurementofsoilsamplesfromricesofsoilsampling,equipmentforsampling,andthefield.Emphasisisgiventoprocurementofdesertcharacterizationofthesamplingsitecanbefoundinsoilsamr,lesofbiologicalquality_andstressisgiventosectionsofsomesoiltexts(Refs.4-10).Usefulirfforma-theuseofaseptictechniqueswhichmustbeutilizedintiontoobserveandrecordatthesoilsite,andforaordertoavoidsamplecontamination.Thesoilsurveygivendepthofsoilprofile,areemphasizedinafewmethodofsoilpitexcavationandexaminationisutilizedworksonsoils(Refs.11-13).Sourcesoferrorinsampl2ngforobtaininglargequantitiesofsamples,andforthehavebeengivenE/Cline(Ref.3)andPetersenandconvenienceofpersonnelinmakingsoildepthmeasure-Calvin(Ref.14).Samplingofdesertsoilsandtheirments.Theinstructionsaresummarizedandsimplephysical,chemical,andmicrobiologicalpropertieswithillustrationsaregiveninAppendixA.referencetoextraterrestriallifedetec

8 torsandsamplershavebeenpresentedprevious
torsandsamplershavebeenpresentedpreviously(Ref.15).ItisassumedItisnotthepurposeofthisReporttopresentbasicthatthecollectorwhointendstoundertakesoilsam-characteristicsofdesertsoils,varioustypesofsoftsam-piinginaremotedesertareawillhavemadeadequatepiingdevicesandequipment,preparationofsoilmono-preparationpriortohisdeparture.liths,ortosuggestsoiltestsandanal3ses.1Thesubse-'Cameron,R.E.,Blank,G.B.,andGensel,D.R.,DesertSoil1Cameron,R.E.,Blank,G.B.,andCensel,D.R.,SoilTests,Meas-Collectionatthe]PLSoilScienceLabo_'atory.JPLTechnicalurements,andProperties,JPLTechnicalReport,inpreparation.Report,inpreparation.41966014571-007 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908II.SELECTIONANDCHARACTERIZATIONOFAREA,SITE,ANDSOILForsoilstudiesintheJPLDesertMicrofloraProgram,venientlyscrutinized,reasonablyidentified,andcharac-certainprecautionarymethodsandtechniquesmustbeterizedbyvisualmeans.usedforthecollection,handling,processing,andstorageofsoils.:'Inthisrespect,oldermethodsofsoilsamplingThecollectorshouldallowareasonabletimeFzriodhavebeenmodifiedorreplaced,especiallywiffiregardinorderto"survey"theareabeforedecidingw},ethertotheapplicationofaseptictechniquesandmethodsino_"notitc_ntainssitessuitableforsampling.Som_oforder"toexcludeorminimizemicrobiologicalcontamina-themoreconspicuousareafeaturesmayindicatethetionforcollectionofsurface,aswellasdepthsamplesdensity,distribution,andtypes:,fvegetationandani-ofsoil.Theproceduresgivenbelowhavebeeadevel-mals,relativeproportionsofsoil:,adlock,landfcrr_s,opedthroughtrialanderror,andtheyhavealsobeenerosionanddrainagefeatures,directionofprevailingusedsuccessfullybyindividualswhohavenott:adawinds,slopeofland,elevation,etc.Theareashouldbebackgroundinsoilscienceorwhohavenothadpre-traversedandobservedtosomeextent,eitherbyslowviousexperienceinthecollectionofsoilsformicrobic,-vehicleoronfoot,beforeafinalselectionismadeofthelogicalresearchpurposes..soilsite.Whileexaminingthearea,takecaretoavoidcontaminatingsoilswhichmaylaterbeusedforsampling.A.SoilUnitC.SoilSiteAsoilsampleisobtainedfromalargerportionofasoilbodyorecosystem,anditisco

9 mmonlyreferredtoThesoilsiteisaworkinguni
mmonlyreferredtoThesoilsiteisaworkingunitorsubportionoftheasa"samplingunit"(Ref.3).Thesoilsamplingunitissoilareaorterrainwhichissuit_.bleforsoilsampling.aquantityorvolumeofsoilwhichhasarbitrarylimita-Ithasthree-dimensionalcharacteristicswhicharecon-tionsanddimensionsfordescriptivepurposes,anditvenientforsampling.Forpracticalpurposes,thesoilalsopossessescharacteristicswhichcanbedefinedorsta-siteisarbitrarilydelimitedasthesoilecosystem.Ittisticallyestimatedbysetsofstablenumbers(parameters).shouldbeaccessible,as,wellasconvenientforvariouspersonneloperationsatthesite.Thesoilsamplingunitisausefulworkingunit,anditcartbeusedforvariousexperimentaldesignpurposesandItisimportanttocheckthesiteforevidencesofcon-studies.Itusuallypossessessomecharacteristicsofthetamination.Insofaraspossible,asoilsiteischosenwhichlargersoilbodyfromwhichitisprocured.It,t._.refore,doesnotshowcontaminationbyhumans,animals,hassomecharacteristicsofathree-dimensionalsoilsys-vehicles,ortrash.Evidencesofcontaminationarefoot-ternintermsofareaandvolume,itsphysical,chemical,prints,disturbedvegetation,animaltracks,vehicletracks,andmicrobiologicalsystems,andsolid(inorganicanddiscardedbottles,cans,cigarettewrappers,expendedorganic),gasand/orliquidphases.Asoilsamplingunitammunitioncartridges,dung,feathers,anthills,rodentisnotthenaturalsoilafterithasbeenseparatedfromholes,etc.thesite,butasoilsamplingunitisalwaysarepresenta-tiveportionofthesite,andthequantity,quality,andWhereverpossible,asiteshouldbechosenwhichisreplicationofthisunitareusuallyamatterofchoice,notcoveredby,oradjacenttovegetation(trees,shrubs,convenience,andpurpose.Asufficientquantityofsam-bushes,grasses,reraainsofrecentorpartiallydecom-pieunitshouldbecollectedfromthesoilsiteinsofarposedplantdebris,etc.).Indeserts,smallanimalsoraspossible,evidencesofsmallanimalsarecommonlyobservedaroundshrubswhichprovidethemwithfood,shelter,B.$eilAreaandprotectionfrompredators.AnattemptshouldbeThesoilareareferstoabroadexposureorexpanseofmadetochooseasamplingsitewhichisinanopensoil,andassociatedrock,vegetation,topographicforms

10 ,expanseofbaresoil,unlessitisalsode._ire
,expanseofbaresoil,unlessitisalsode._iredtoobtainandvariousotherinclusivenaturalfeatures.Itincludessamplesfromsoilaroundvegetationandthecorrespond-areasonableportionoftheterrainwhichcanbecon-ingrhizosphere.'_Cameron,R.E.,"CollectionofSoilsfortheProgramonDesertSamplingsitesshouldbeavoidedwhicharecomposedMiemflora,"August1964.entirelyofrocksurfaces,butifthereisnosoilpresent51966014571-008 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908inthearea,thenitmaybedesirabletodislodgeandBadlands,forexample,arecomplex,maturetopo-collectrocksamplesutilizingthesamerecommendedgraphicformswhichdevelopinmanydesertregionspticproceduresasthoseforcollectingsoils,subjecttodeluges.Badlandarecharacterizedbyl_,arrow,steep-sided,valleysandnarrow-crestedhills,theentireFollowingselectionofthesoilsite,co_ltinuetotakeareashowingdissectionsbynumerousgulliesorarroyoscarenottocontaminateit.Donotwalkonthesitelandcloselyspacedvalleys.RocksthatcomposemostSometimesthebestsitesinanareaarecontaminatedbadlandsarealternatingshalesandsandstenes,orpre-whiletheareaisbeingexamined.Alsobecarefulnotdominatelvshales.MuchofthePaintedDesertintostirupdust,ordisturbvegetationwhichmayfallintoArizonaisatypicalbadlandsdesertregion.thesite,anddonotdepositanycollectingdevices,instru-ments,samplesacks,wearingapparel,orotherpara-Vegetation,orthelackofit,isquiteoftencharaeter-phernaliawithinthesite.isticofaparticulardesertregion.Especial._ynotetheAtthistime,measureandrecordanydesirablemicro-kindsortyp._'sofvegetation,e.g.,xerophyticshrubs,climaticorsoilproperties,e.g.,soilpH,oxidation-cacti,shortgrasses,etc.Determinewhichkindsofreductionpotential(Eh),moisture,density,infiltrationvegetationarethemostabundantortypical.Notethedistributi3nofthevariouskindsofvegetation(scattered,rate,refleetivity,soilcolor,temperature,andhumidity,irregular,¢_veven),andtheamountofvegetativegrowthD.ObservationsofArea,Site,andSoil(prolific,moderate,orscant).Afterthesitehasbeenselected,theareas,Jrrnu_4hl:gI)epe.ndingonthetimeofyear,climate,localweatherthesiteshouldbemorecarefullyexarni_ed.These(especiallyastofavorablemgisture-te

11 mperaturecon-observationsshouldbemadeasc
mperaturecon-observationsshouldbemadeascomplete,ob;ective,andditions),aswellasoff.erfactors,reproductivestagesofclearaspossible,andshouldberecordedinailo_ebook,someplantsmaybec.bserved.Ifpossible,makeanesti-Exami/nethegeneraltopography,astowhetheritismateoftheageandap{:arenthealthofthevegetation,mountainous,hilly,steep,gentlyrolling,flat,etc.e.g.,driedgrasses,,:_.,,.._rdehiscentleaves,stunted,twistedshrubs,flaccidc....'i,desiccatedlichens,etc.Ef-Notetheerosionpatterns(gullyorshe_:i_eeoffectsoffirecansom,.tif_:_benoted,withevidencesoferosion(severe,moderate,orslight),anditspxobablecharredwood,firescc_",_Jcond-growth,orrevegetation.source(wind,water,orboth).Trytodifferentiatebe-tweennaturalerosionandacceleratederosio_.W.ndisAsanexample¢,:.:_-._vegetation,thecreGsotebushadominantgradationalfactorresponsiblefor-.:os:onisthemostw.idelv'.,_:ibuted,themostevenlyspaced,indeserts,butforarelativelyshorttimeperiod,waterandthe_ost;_.,_.dyencountered,dominantmacro-_,eoctah,_,:canhavetremendouserosionaleffects.Suddendeluges-'....fo:_._'i._eSonoranDesert.Itisalsoatrans-thatoccurinmanydesertareasprovideturbulent,last-it!onplant£,u;t.;insurroundingdeserts,suchastherunning,debris-ladenwatercoursingthroughdrainageMohave.The-giantsaguarocactusisanexampleofanchannelswhicheventuallyendinclosedbasins,tem-assoemtwe[&mtoccurringwiththecreosotebush,butporaryplayalakes(drylakes),alluvialfans,orpiedmontitisfoundo,:hillsides,intheArizonaUplandregionsalluvialplains,ofthelargerSonoranDesel_t.Landforms,whileofsignificanceinfieldgeology,areObserveandrecordpastorpresentevidencesofalsoimportantfeaturestonoteintheareainrelationtoanimalsandthekindsofanimals,e.g.,cattle,rabbits,thesoilsiteanditsdevelopment.Notetheposition,rodents,lizards,birds,etc.,andtheirnumbersanddegreeextent,arrangement,andcompositionofprominentofactivity.Inadditiontovisualsightingsofanimals,naturalfeatures.Someofthefeaturestonoteaxeflats,recordevidencesoftracks,pathsoftravel,feedingre-valleys,fans,teiraces,mesas,buttes,hogbacks,spires,mains,freshoroldbones,feathers,freshordecomposedpinnacle

12 s,canyons,depressionsandsinkholes,isolat
s,canyons,depressionsandsinkholes,isolateddung,anddistributionandnumbersofvariouskindsofhills,remnants,dunes,sandwashes,loessdeposits,oldburrows,etc.beachdeposits,lacustrinea,,dmarinedepos;ts,cinder,ashortuffdeposits,lavaflows,bedrockescarpments,Makenotationsastothecharacteristicsofsoil(s)with-glacialtillordrift,steeporgentlemountains,scablands,inthearea,adjacenttothesite,andespeciallywithinbadlands,etc.Attempttocharacterizetopographyasthesiteitself,wherethesampleswillbecollected.toageintermsofconditionsofdevelopment(notyears,Pertinentobservationstobem.adeonsoilsinthefieldbutwhetheritisyoung,mature,orold).canbeobtainedbyreferringtoanyofthepublished61966014571-009 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908UnitedStatesDepartmentofAgricultureSoilSurveys,AccordingtotheworemodemU.S.methodsofsoilortheU.S.D.A.SoilSurveyManual(Ref.7).Notationsclassification,mostdesertsoilsfallw_thinthecdtego,Jesshouldbemadeastothecharacterofthesoilslopeorandsubcategoriesofentisolsoraridisols(Ref.11).Deserttheinclhleofthesoilsurfaceandthemicrorelief,soilsarehotorcold,andtheyarebarrenorformedundermixedxericshrubsandbunchgrass,oro,alyscatteredInactualpractice,3oilslopeisaconsiderationoftheshrubvegetation.Availablemoisture:'seitherlacking,entireterrain.Soilslopecharacteristicsareshape,length,low,orsometimesvariable.Evaporationexceedspreeipi-andpatternofgradient.Slopesareeither(1)single,ortation,exceptinpolarregionswheretemperaturesdcaot(2)slopecomplexes,asinarollingterrain,geta_ovefreezing.Mieroreliefor__daceformsincludedesertpavement,Windanddeluge-typewatere:osionaredefinitedevel-desertvarnish,fluffyorhardsaltdeposits,angularoropmentalfactors.So__,_,desertsoiI_arezonal,butmostsmoothpebbles,largeorsmallrocksorcobbles,lagareveryslightly.veatheredorleachedandhaveeithergravels,looseorcoherentsands,dispersedclay,shrinkagefaiutsoilhorizonsandareintrazonal,orlackaprofileandcracks,etc.Somedesertsoilsurfacesarehard,dispersed,arethereforeazonalorstructureless.Manydesertsoilsareandcompact,whereasothersmaybeloose,dusty,lackingfoundinlargeareasofbarren,sandyorstonywastes,andincoh

13 esion,orpossessathintothickfragileordens
esion,orpossessathintothickfragileordensemanyareshalloworfrozen(permafrost)soils.Pansorcrust.¢.er"ontationsofcalcium,sodium,iron,orsilicaoccurindesertsoils.Organicmatter,organiccarbon,andnitrogenAlso,recordanystrikingorunusualprope_esoftheconcentrationsarefrequentlyverylow;salts,solublesoilwhichmayoccurwithinthesite,e.g.,variouskindsmineralsandcorrespondingpHandEhvaluesmaybeofsaltlayers,krotovinas,crusts,coc,;.ings,pockets,crystals,h_gh.Fertilitymaybel_:gh,butproductivityislargelynodules,orconcretions,conspicuousmineraldeposits,dependentuponquantityandqualityofavailablemois-sharporirregularchangesincolor(mottlings),irregular-tureforagiventimeperiod.itiesinstructure,texturalbanding,stonelines,moisturevariations,organicmatteraccalmulations,etc.Alsomakenotationsastothemeteorologicalandmicrometeorologicalormicroelimaticcharacteristics,evenSoiltextureissometimesestimatedinthefieldbyex-thoughtheseobservationsmaybeofaqualitativenature.periencedpersonnelbythemethodof"feel"(Refs.6,7).Notethekind,amount,anddir'_ibutSonofcloudcover,Rubsomeofitbetweenthefingersinbothitswetande.g.,few,thin,highcix_usclouds,thehumidity,winddry._tates.Noticewhetherthesoiliscoarseandsingle-directionandestimatedwindvelocity.,andtemperture.grained,orveryfineandcoherent,looselyaggregated,powderyandfragile,c_"loddyandhardtobreakapart.Ifinstrumentsandtimeareavailableforthesemeasure-Lookatsomeofthesoilforfragmentsoforganicmatter,ments,,_'_isadvisabletotakereadingsforextendedpc-e.g.,seedpods,driedgrasses,dung,etc.riods,andforagivenprofileordepthofenvironment.Ifpossible,measurementsshouldbemadebefore,during,Trytoevaluatethemoisturestatusofthesoilatvariousandaftercollectionofthesamples.Diurnalenviron-levels.Observeandfeelwhetherornotthesoiliswet,mentalmeasurementsarepreferabletothosemadeatslightlydamp,dryorverydry,andpowderyordusty,onlyonepointintime.ItisalsoextremelyimportanttoIfadepthofdesertsoilisinvestigated,influxesorevi-recordinformationwhileatthesamplingsite.Afterdencesofpastprecipitationcansometimesbeobserveddeparturefro,nthesite,ithasbeenfoundthatrecallofas

14 noticeablymoistbandsorlayersofsoil.perth
noticeablymoistbandsorlayersofsoil.perthaentinfornmtionaboutthearea,site,andinsitufeaturesofthesoilarenotreliable.Mostaridregionshavered,grey,yellow,brown,saltorfrozendesertsoils.WithinolderclassificationsofdesertInadditiontomeasurementsofhumidity,wind,andsoilsthesesoilswereincludedinGreatSt;IsGroupsoftemperature,measurementscanbemadeofevaporatienPolarsoils,Tundrasoils,GreyDesertsoils,Sierozem,rate;onset,amount,anddurationofdew;solarradiation;Brownsoils,Reddish-Brewnsoils,Solonehak,Solonetz,netortotalexchangeofthermalradiation;occurrenceSoloth,IAthosol,Regosol,andAlluvialsoils.Thiselassi-anddurationofsunshine;siteelevation,andbarometricfieationschemeisst/llusedbySovietsoilscientistsandpressure.Makeanyadditiopalobservationsormeasure-pedologists,mentsofinterest.Toomanynotesarepreferabletotoo71966014571-010 JPLTECHNIC,S,LREPORTNO.32-908few.Trynottooverlookanyspecialorunl,sualfeaturesaeterizethem.Commonwordshavebecometechnicalintheenvironmentwhichmayhaveinfluenceonfonna-termsinvariousbranchesofscienceforthepurposeoft_onanddevelopmentofthesoilandanyofitsphysical,describingormeasuringnaturalphenomena.Somecorn-chemicalandmicrobiologicalsystems,monwordshavebeengivenpreciseorunusu_!meanings.However,evenv4thoutafamiliaritywithconcise,tech-Referencetotextsondesertssoilscience,pedology,nicaltermsandtheirmeanings,anumberofeoinmongeology,botany,ecology,geography,andmeteorologywordscanbeusedinaqualitatavesenseinordertopro-canprovideusefulir,formation,especiallywithregardtovidesomei.n.formationonthearea,samplingsite,insitufeaturesL-tthenatbralenvironment,andhowtochar-soil"profile,"andthesoilsamplingunit.III.PHOTOGRAPHYOFAREA,SITE,ANDSO:;.Photographsarevaluableinthecharacterizationofthetimesfromdust,extremetemperatures(especiallyheat),area,siteandsoil.Inadditiontothesoilsamplesandandmoisture.Afterexpo_re,filmsshouldbemarkedandrecordedinformationabouttheareaandsamplings_te,identified,andthendevelopedassoonaspossible.photographsareavaluablesourceofinformation.Photo-graphsprovideanexcellentrecordofobservablecon-Taketoomanypicturesratherthantoof

15 ew,andmakeditionsandprominentfeaturesatt
ew,andmakeditionsandprominentfeaturesatthetimeofsampling,arecordandnotatioltsastowhereandwhenthepicturesPerP.nentphotographshelptodefine,ilh_trateorcon-weretaken.Ifne_-_essary,al:orecordthepointofinterest.trastandcompareoneenvironmentandsamplingsiteTryseveralviews,asexposures.Someviewstellthestorywithotherenvironmentsandsamplingsites.Picturescanbetterthanothers.Considershadows,theangleofin-alsobeusefulinrelocatingthesameriteorsimilara.-cascidenceeftheSun'sraysuponthesoilsurface,colorandforfuturesampling(AppendixB)._reflectivityofsoftminerals,themicrorelief,topography,andthetimeofday.Chooseviewswhichhaveadefinitebearingonthesubje_Although_.hesubjectofthepictureshouldbeTakeamizdmumoftwoexposuresofeachview,andofscientificinterest,theviewshouldalsobetakensoincludeatleastthefollowing:(1)picturesofthegeneralastoobtainanartisticbalance.Selectdefinitefeata;resarea,including_veralhundredsquaremetersofterrain,ofinterest,andholdthecameraonalevelsoastomain-andalsoincludethem"'sturbedsoilsite:(2)severaltainbalancesofintersectingperpendicult,randhorizontalpicturesofthesamplingsite,includingtheexactlocationlines,fromwhichth,.soilwillbecollected;and(3)thesameasItem(2)above,afterthesoilhasbeensampled,inorderItisrecommendedthatthecollectorshouldtaketwo,toshowacutorexposureofsoil"profile"characteristics.oreventhreecamerasifpossible.Onecamerashouldbeusedforblackandwhitefilm,thesecondforcolornega-Afourthpicturecanbetakeninordertoshowsoiltives,andthethirdfolcolorslides.Reflexorminiaturefeaturesfromamuchshorterdistance.Othershotsmaycame-_sareoftenpreferred,althoughmovieandpolaroidbetakenofanynoticeablesoilorassociativeproperty,camerascanalsobeused.Whatevercamer_isused,thee.g.,ealicheormineralnodules,desertpavement,algal-lensshouldhavegoodtoexcellentdefinitior,/e¢peciallylichencrusts,mottlings,fossils,roots,undergroundbur-forclose-uppictures),rows,soilstructure,moisturedifferences,etc.Additionalpicturesmayincludeviewsoftypicalorunusualvege-Filmsareamatterofchoice,althoughhigh-speedfilmtation,geologicfeatures,orofcollectingoperations.isnotnecessaryf

16 ormostdaytiraedesertphotographybecauseof
ormostdaytiraedesertphotographybecauseofhighlightintensity.FilmsareusuallycarriedArecognizableorknownreferenceitemshouldbein-intinsorplasticsacks.Theyshouldbeprott;etedatalleludedinthepictures,suchasaman,meterstick,shovel,soilmoisturetin,orsoilsiteinformationsign.Asoilsite's(_footnote2.informationsignisquiteuseful.Thissignshouldinclude81966014571-011 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908pertinentinformationanditshouldbeusedwhentakingferencefromheatwaves,haze,oratmosphericdust.Aapictureofthesoil"profile"pit.Includeonthesignthecommonruleis,don'toverexposethefilmindesertareas!dateandlocationofsampling,depthofsoil,andsoilsampleidentificatiorAnumbers.ThesoilsiteinformationOperatorineptitudeisalso,acauseoffailuretoobtainsignhelpstoassociateareasandsamplingsiteswiththephotographs,orelseitisnotalwayspossibletotellwhensoilsamplesthatarecollected.Ithasbeenfoundthatthepicturesaregoodones.Failuretoobtaingoodpicturesunlessphotographswithproperidentificationsaremade,occurseitherthroughunfamiliaritywiththecamera,im-itist_ossibletoconfusesimilarareasandsamplingsites,properchoiceoffilm,failuretoconsidercontrastsoflightSometimesareasandsamplingsitesarequitesimilaranddark,failuretocompensateforhighlightintensities,althoughinentirelydifferentgeographicalregions,improperfocus,dustyions,aswellasmanyotherfactors.If".mfamiliarwiththecameratobeusedonthefieldCameramalfunctionorscratchedne¢.ttivesartnottrip,thentakepictureswithala'ialrolloffilmbeforeuncommoninthedesert.Dustisaprimarysourceofthetn#.A,_terarrivalatthesamplingsiteisnotthetimetrouble.Thisisbecausemanydesertregionsarefre-tolearnhowtooperatethecamera.(Thisprecautionalsoquenflywindy,dusty,oraresubjecttodustand/orwindappliestoanyo_erequipmenttobcusedonthetrip,storms.Dustissometimesstirredupthroughactivitiessincesparepartsarenotavailable!)Intoomanyinstances,mthearea,andespeciallyatthesoilsite,andthisdustitisnotpracticaltoreturntotheareaandsamplingsiteseepsintoinstrumentsandequipment.Sometimesgoodineasethepictureswereimproperlytaken,orwerenotdistancepicturescannotbeobtainedb_useofinter-obtainedatall.IV.S

17 TERILIZATIONOFSAMPLINGEQUIPMENTANDCONTAI
TERILIZATIONOFSAMPLINGEQUIPMENTANDCONTAINERSForthepurposeofcollectingsoilsamplessuitableforandthensubjectingthemtos'erilization,eitherbyheat,microbiologicalresearchandanalyses,itisnecessarythatethyleneoxidegasmixtures,orothersterilants.Ithascertainsterilizationproceduresandaseptictechniquesbebeenfoundthatsterilizationofsmallsamplerscanbeused:(1)Thepreparationanduseofsterilesamplecon-achievedbyautoclaving(IP.0°Cfor1-3hours),ordrytainers;(.q)sterilizationofsamplersand/ordiggingtools;heat(180°Cfor8-10hr).(3)theuseofaseptictechniquestoavoidcontaminationduringprocurementanddislodgmentofthesampleunitEthyleneoxidesterilizationhasbeenusedsuccessfullyfromtheinsitusoft;(4)theuseofaseptictechniquesdur-forbothsamplecontainers(plastic-linedcanvassacks)ingplacementofdislodgedsamplesintocontainers;andandmetalsamplers.Usel_gethyleneoxide/88$Ucon-19,(5)precautionarymeasurestoprecludecontaminationoffor24-48hratroomtemperature.Ifpossible,sterilizethethesamplesduringsubsequenthandling,shipment,treat-sampler,digging,orcollectingdevicesandtools,e.g.,ment,processing,andstorage,shovel,pick,jackhammerblade,curvedtrowel,etc.,whileatth_samplingsite,andjustpriortocollectionofSterilesamplers(andd'.'ggingtools)shouldbeusedforthesoil.Ifavailable,useapropanetorchorcampstovecollectingpurposes.Inmostcases,thesesamplersshouldforsterilizationpurposes.Apropanetorchanditsfuelbecapableofbeingsterilizedandre-usedanumberofpackagearethemostconvenienttouse,butafieldoventimes,e.g.,metalshovels.Insomeinstances,asamplerorportableautoclavecanalsobeusedforsmallsamplers.maybedisposableandpreviouslysterilizedandpackaged,e.g.,variousplasticitems.IfonlyafewsamplesaretoIfacampstoveisused,besurethatnocarbonfrombecollected,anditisnotdesirabletocarrysterilizationpartiallycombustedfuelaeclmmlatesonthesamplerdur-equipmentintothefield,thensmallhandshovelsorotheringthestei.iizationprocedure.Alsobecertaintoallowsmallsamplerseznbesterilizedinthelaboratorypriorsufficienttimeforsterilizedsamplerstocool.(Ahotshoveltodeparturetothesamplit,gsite.''"-_,,u*"*'-,,,_microorganisms,alterstheorga

18 nicmatter,andotherwisechangessoilpropert
nicmatter,andotherwisechangessoilproperties.)AvoidcontaminationTheseitemscanbepreparedinthelaboratorybyofthesamplersduringthecoolingperiod,anddonotlaywrappingtheminsewra_layersofheavyaluminumfoil,themonthesoilunlessitisthesamekindofsoiltobe91966014571-012 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908collected.(Discardtheheatedsoil.)Re-usetheheat-samplerwiththesamekir,dofsoilthatistobecollected.sterilizablesamplersforsuccessivecollectionsofsoilThispxocedureinvolvesshovingthesampler,e.g.,shovel,samples,andfollowthesameproceduresasoutlinedvigorouslyintothesoil,andtakingcarenottousethisabovewit},regardtosterilizationandcooling,contaminatedsoilaspar_ofthecollectedsample.Ifnosterileequipmentisavailableforsampling,thenTherinsingprocedureisalsoadvisableforanysampleranalternateprocedurecanbefollowed,soastoreducewhethersterileornot.Rinsingcanberecommendedfor-contamination.Inthisregexd,besurethatthereisnofastercoolingofthesa'nplerfollowingheatsterilizationadherentmaterialonthesamplerfrompreviousinvesti-atthesamplingsite,anditalsoinsurestheremovalorgations.(Checkespetqallyfororganics.)Alsocheckfordilutionanddispersionofair-bornemicroorganismsoranymaterialwhichmayhaveaccumulatedonthesam-dustparticleswhichmayhavecollectedonasamplerdur-plingequipmentduringtransporttothefield.Rinsetheingthecoolingperiod.V.SOILSAMPLECOLLECTIONPriortosamplecolleclat,n,checktobesurethatallfortheJPLDesertMicrofloraProgram,sterilesacks,equipmentnecessaryforsamplingandpackagingofwhichwillholdabout10kgofso_,willbeprovidedbyramplesisconve,ientlyavailableandreadyforuse.JPLffsufflcientpriorneticeisreceivedfromthecollector.Labelthe.samplecontainerswithappropriateirfforma-Fillthe:ackswithrepresentativesamplesofsoilfror,-,thetionastolocationofthesar,_plingsite(usuallynamedsamedepthwithinthesite.Donotpackthesackw_l_,afternearestgeographicalfeato_,_,town,etc.),dateofsoft.Besuretoleavesomeemptyspaceinthesa,_kffsampling,depthofsampletobecollected(approximatelythesoiliswet,becatlssetheincreasedpressurefromthesurface1in.,1-43in.,1ft,gft,3ft,etc.),sampleswellingsoilandmi_obialrespirationcanspli

19 tthesack.number,andifdesired,thecollecto
tthesack.number,andifdesired,thecollector'sname.Includesimilarinformation,oratleastthesamplenumber,onItisnotnecessarytohomogenizeormixthesamplesoilmoisturetins.inthesack,ortosieveit(unlessthisisdesired).MixingandsievingcanbeperformedmoresatisfactorilyduringAsafirststepinsampleprocurement,collectthesoiltheprocessingofthesoilsamplesinthelaboratory(thesamplingunit)fromapproximatelythesurface1in.wheremoretimeisavailable,andprocessingconditions(2.5cm),orfromashallowerdepth(indicatethisdepthcanbemorefavorablycontrolled.onthesamplecontainer).Insomecases,aneasilydis-lodgedsoilsurfacecrustcanbeobtained,suchassaltAfterthesackhasbeenfilledwithsoil,securelytiecrusts,"rain"orclaycrusts,oralgalorlichencrusts.theneckofthesackwiththedrawstxing,andbecertainHowever,inotherinstances,becauseofapebblyor-_tonysurface,thismaterialmustberemoved(oritcanbethatthesoilwillnotleakoutduringsubsequenttrans-collected,ifdesired),beforeencounteringthesoil.port,shipment,andhandling.(Thisisnotonlyapre-cautiontoexcludecontaminationofthesample,butitBymeansofthesterilesampler,fillthesamplecon-isalsoarequirementoftheU.S.D.A.PlantQuarantinetainerasnearlyfullaspractical,orisconvenienttohandleBureauwithregardtosoiltransportandshipping.)Ifundermostcircumstances,itmaybedesirabletorinsethesoilistobeshippedtotheJPLSoilS_enceLabora-thesamplecontainerwithsoilbeforefillingitwiththetory,besuretotieaJPLaddres_'agtotheneckofthesack.Severalsmallersackscanbeputintolargersacks,sample(discardthissoil).Besuretocollectenoughsam-ple.Itismuchmorepreferabletocollecttoomuche.g.,cementsacksorburlapbags,forshippingpurposes.sampleratherthantoolittle.Attimes,nosterilesacksmaybeavailable.Othersam-Formostpurposes,previouslysterilized,strong,leak-plecontainers,suchasmetalcans.canbeutilized,andproof,pmstic-lined,canvas,nylon-stitchedsamplesacksthesecontainerscanthenbeheat-sterilizedatthecanbeutilizedsatisfaccorily.Ifsamplesaretobecollectedsamplingsite.Rust-res_tantcontainersarepreferable101966014571-013 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908tootherkinds.Becertainthatthesamplecontainermoistureproofelectric

20 altapesecurelyandtightlyaroundmaterialsd
altapesecurelyandtightlyaroundmaterialsdonot_,ntributecontaminatingmatel_al,e.g.,theinterfacebetweenthelipofthefilledtinandthelid.preservantoil,_a:torydust,etc.,tothec_llectedsoilsample.Bottlc¢canbeused,butaresubjecttobreakageLabelandidentifythetinwiflacorrespondinginforma-duringroughhandling,transportandsidpment.Plastictionoranidentifyingnumberwhichhasalreadybeencontainers,suchasunreinforced,orunlinedplasticsacks,writtenonthesamplesack.Afelt-t-:pmarkingpenwithunlessofsufficientstrength,arenotusuallysatisfactory,moisture-proofinkcanbeusedforthispurposeAswasandtheytendtosplitattheseams,notedforsamplescollectedinsacks,avoidplaciaganytirtsindirectsunlightorheat,becausethismaybakeWhensterilecontainer_arenotusedforthesamples,outmoisture,stimulatemicrobialactivity,orotherwisethenthisshouldbedulynotedonthecontainerandinresultinadversepositivepressureeffectswithintheanotebook.Ifitisdesiredtodeere_,secontaminationofsamplecontainers.Ifnoothershadeisavailable,placesamplesbynonsterilecontainers,thengnsethecontainersthesamFlesintheshadeofthetransportationvehicle.anumberoftimeswiththesan'._k._ndcfsoilthatv411becollected.Indicateonthenonsterilesam_:,lecontainerthatInordertoobtainadditionalsamplesofsoilatthesiteitwas"notsterile,"and"rinsed."Aftercollectionofthefromlowerdepthsofthesoil"profile."removesuccessi,:esamples,placetheminashadedorprotectedarea,soaslayersofsoil(Fig.10),andrepeattheproced,,resgivennotto"bake"thesoilintheSun.aboveinregardtosterilizationandcooling,samplingandl_beling,etc.AdditionalprecautionsmustbetakenFollowingcollectionofthebulkofthesoilsampleunitsoasnottocontaminatelowerdepthsofsoilwithsurfacefromthesurface,asecondsampleshouldthenbetakenlayers,ifc6ntaminationshouldoccur,removeanyofthewithastandardsoftmoisturetin.Ifenoughsoilmoistureloosecontaminatingmaterial,plussomeofthecontami-tinsareavailable,itisadvisabletotakemorethanonenatedinsitusurface,andtakesoilsamplesonlyfromasampleforaveragingresults.Thesamplestakenwiththenewlyexposedanduncontaminatedsurface.soilmoisturetinsareintendedprimarilyfcr_ilmoisturedeterminations

21 .However,L¢thissampleisproperlytaken,For
.However,L¢thissampleisproperlytaken,FortheDesertMicrofloraProgram,asecopdsamplingitcanalsobeu;edtodeterminesoilbulkdensity,anditunitisusuallytakenatadepthofapproximat.:".yl-a3in.willprovideforareasonableesthnateofthevoidrelation-(2.5-15cm).Asoilmoisturetinsampleistakenfromtheshipsortotalporosity,middleofthisdepth.Foradditionaldepthsamples,againrepeattheaboveproceduresatapproximately1-ft(30-cm)Totakethissample,useeitherasoftmoisturetinintervals.Soilsamplingunitsorsoilmoisturetinsamplessampler,orffthisislacldng,usethesoiltinitselfasacanalsobetakenfromanyotherdepthsinthesoilatsampler.Theprocedurefortakingthesample,_ththewhichmoistureordensitydifferencesmaybenoticeable.soilmoisturetinisasfollows:Placetheopenendofthetinonthesoilsurface,andgentlyforceitintotheFollowingthecollectionofsoilsample._,therecordingsoilwitharockingmotion,soastocompletelyfillthetin,ofobservationsandmeasurements,thetakingofphoto-butdonotcompactthesoilsample,l;Jsertashovelundergraphs,andwhateverotheroperationsarenecessaryattheburiedlipofthetin.Ifitisnotpossibletousethisthesite,collectandcheckoffallsamplesandequipment,proceduretoobtainasampleinthesoilmoisturetin,etc.,aswasdoneatthebeginningofthefieldtrip.Re-becauseofrocksorhardsoil,thenplacedislodgedmovealldiscardedmaterialsfromaroundthesamplingmaterialintheft.,..,andmakenoteofthis.(Mthoughasite.Burythematsomedistancefromthesite,orelsesoilmoisturedeterminationcanbeperformedonthisdiscardthematthenextpublicrefusecollectioncontainer.material,otherprocedurescanbeused_oobtaiuvaluesforbulkdensityandporosity.)Ifamapisavailable,thentrytopinpointthelocationofthesamplingsitewithreferencetodistancesfromde-Afterce,refulinversion,andplacingoftheproperlyscribednaturalfeatures,to,._as,markcdhighways,etc.filledtinintheuprightposition,proceedtocarefullyIfpublishedgeologicaltopographicmapsorsoilsurveyscrapeoffexcesssoilwhichisabovethelipofthetin.mapsareavailable,thenusethese,orelseusehighway,Alsoremoveanysoilparticlesadheringtotheoutsideoftrail,orothermaps.Ifpublishedmapsarelacking,thenthetin.Donotpermitanyorganicmatter,sucha

22 srootletsdrawasketchoftheareaandthesampl
srootletsdrawasketchoftheareaandthesamplingsite,noteatohangoverthelipofthetin.Finally,placethelidfirmlyfewprominentlandmarks,andpinpointthelocationofonthesoilmoisturetin,andwrapseverallayersofthesiteasclearlyaspossible.111966014571-014 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908Vl.SOILSAMPLETRANSPORTANDSHIPMENTSoampletransportandshipmentareimporta:ltfac-HawaiiandAlaska,aswellasPuertoRico,VirginIslands,_,,rswtlicharenotalwaysunderthecontrolofthecol-Guam,andotherU.S.territoriesandpossessions.lector.Thisisespeciallytruewhensampleshavebeencollectedinremotelocations,andmustthenbeshippedTheSoilScienceLaboratoryatJPLshouldbenotifiedviacommoncarriertotheLaboratory.Itshouldbenotedifsamplesarenottobehand-carriedtotheI.aboratory.thatpriorwrittenauthorizationmustbeobtainedfromNotificationshouldbereceivedastowhenthesamplestheU.S.DepartmentofAgricultu*•QuarantineDivisionwereshipped,fromwheretheywereshipped,themethodforinportofforeignsoils.Stateorlocalgovernmentofshipment(air,ship,air-diplomaticpouch,etc.),theagenciessometimesha_eadditionalregulationswithre-approximateweightofcombinedsamples,thekindofgardtosoiltransport,shipment,anddispositionofsoilcontainers,thenumberofindividualpackagesofsoil,sampleswithinorbetweenstatesorcounties,orcombinationsofpackages,andanestimateastotheprobablelengthcfshippingtime.:'TheSoilScienceIfsoilsamplecollectionsaremadeoutsidetheconti-LaboratoryatJPLisalsoobligatedtonotifytheLosnentalU.S.A,ayellowS-37soilimportationauthorizationAngelesCountyAgriculturalQuarantineBureauofpermitmustbesecurelyattachedtoeachsamplecon-shipmentandarrivalofsoil,whetherfromoutsidethetaL-_:ofsoilbeforeshipment.FortheDesertMicrofloracontinentalU.S.A.orfromoutsidetheStateofCalifornia.Program,priorpermissionhasbeenobtainedbytheJPLSoilScienceLaboratoryfromtheU.S.D.A.PlantQuar-AllpossibleprecautionsshouldbetakentopreventantineDivisiontoimport,soilsfromcountrieswhichhaveopeningandoff-sitecontaminationofsa:nplesbetweendeserts.(Alistofthesecountriesandacop)"ofimporttheirtimeofshipmentandarrivalatJPL(includingregulationsandtheS-37formscanbeprovidedtosufficie

23 nttimetonotify]PLShippingDepar*maentper-
nttimetonotify]PLShippingDepar*maentper-collectorswhointendtoobtainsoilsoutsideofthecon-sonnelthattbevarenottoopenthesoi!samplecon-tinentalU.S.A.fortheJPLDesertMierofloraProgram.)tainers).Ifconvenifnt,andin!urgequantity,sendthesoilWithoutavisibleS-37folm.theU.S.DepartmentofsamplescollectviaRailwa}E_p:ess.orbyairifsmallerAgricultureisobligatedtosterilizethesampleswhetherquantitiesarecollectedsoilsorplantmaterials,followingtheirarrivalataU.S.portofentryfromaforeigncountry.TheS-37formmust'Ifpossible,telephonetheJPLSo;.lScienceLaboratoryatAreaCodealsobeattachedtosamplesarrivingfromtheStatesof213-354-3339,AttentionDr.RoyCameron,aboutsoftshipment.VII.SOILSAMPLEHANDLING,PROCESSING,ANDSTORAGESamplehandlingandprocessingcanbemanagedbestcoIltainer,ormixedforvariousanalyticalpurposes,arebypersonnelintheLaboratorywhowilltakeprecau-retainedintheoriginalsamplecontainersuntilreadytionarymeasuresdependinguponthekindofsoil,amountforuse.ofsample,conditionofthesoil(whetherwetordry),andthetypesofanalysesorotherpurposesforwhichFordryingpurposes,wetordampsoilsamplesarethesamplesmaybeused.Ifthesampleswereair-dryspreadbymeansofasterilescoopinathinlayer(approx-whencollected,thenthebulkofthesampleisretainedimately2cmorless)onatraycoveredwithsterile,intheoriginalsamplecontainer.However,wetordamp"hcavy,duty"aluminumfoil.Traysofsoilarethenplacedsoilsamplesaredriedassoonaspossibleaftertheirinacloseddryingchamberatroomtemperature,andarrivalattheJPLSoilScienceLaboratory.Samplesofexposedtoaverygentleflowoffilteredair.Followingsoilinsoilmoisturetinsare_lsodriedimmediatelyfol-theair-dryingofthesoilsamples,whichusuallytakeslowingtheirairivalattheLaboratory.Othersamples,severaldays,theyareremovedfromthechamber,a,adunlesstheymustbeinspected,transferredtoanotherrepackaged,withmixing,underahood.Thesesamples121966014571-015 JPLTECHNICAL.REPORTNO.32-908arecommonlyrepackagedintotheiroriginalcontainers,andprocessi'.AgintheLaboratory.ThisincludestheuseRepresentativealiquotsarethenwithdrawnfromtheofsterilizab!esi_._vesandscoops,andalsosterilemortarsszmplecontainersforsu_

24 ;_equentanalysesorstudyput-andpestlesifi
;_equentanalysesorstudyput-andpestlesifitisnecessarytoobtainapowderedspeci-poses.Aseptictechniquesaceusedatalltimesfortilemen.MortzrsandpestlesaresterilizedinanovenorbyhandlingandprocessingofsolN.flaming.Thesievesweredes;.gnedandfabricatedofstainlesssteelaP,dthescreensweresilver-solderedandAliquot_ofsoilsampleunitsarepreparedprimarilyspot-weldedtothesievecasings,sothattheycouldwith-forfourkindsofanalyses:(1)physical,(2)physiochem-standsterilizationbytheintenseheatofabunsenburnericalandmineralogical,(3)chemical,and(4)microbio-orpropa,4etorch.logical.Theseanalysesrequirethepreparationofeithersievedorpowderedsoilsamples.TheprocessingoftheseThefinalprocessingprocedureusuallyresultsinfoursamplesisconductedunderahood,soastoreducein-aliquotsofthesoilsamplingunit:(1)Coarsematerialsabove2-mmdiameter,(2)materiallessthan2-mmdiam-fluxesandoutfluxesofcontamination.Ifavailable,alarge,dry-boxcanalsobeusedforprocessingofsoileter.(3)aseparate,s_,erilizedbottleofsievedsoilirl-samples,tendedformicrobiologicalanalysesandresearch,and(4)soilparticleslessthan2-turndiameterwhichhavebeensubsequentlypowderedwithmortarandpestleandAllofthesamplesarepassedthrougha2-mm(No.10arelessthan105microns(No.150mesh).mesh)sieve,unlessthesoilsampleparticlesarealreadyoflessthan2-mmdiameter.Allofthesoilsamplemate-Allsoilsamplesarefinallystored,eitherintheoriginalria!of2-mmdiameterorlessconstitutewhatisphysicallyplastic-lined,canvassamplesacks,wh;chhavebeensavedandchemically"soil"intermsofcertainsoilproperties,forthatpurpose,orareputintovarioussizesofscrew-e.g.,particlesizedistribution,moistureholdingability,capbottles.However,largerquantitiesofsomesoilsareionexchangecapacity,etc.Thefractionofmaterialabovestoredmpreviouslysterilizedmetalban.',ls.Allsample2mm_s.gmetimesretainedforresearchpurposes;other-containersareclosed,toexcludecontaminantsfromwiseitisdiscarded,laboratoryair.Storagetemperaturesarecommonlybe-tween20and25°C.BarrelsofsoilarekeptunderaMaterialsformicrobiologicalanalyses(2mmorless)protectivecovering,andare,therefore,notdirectlyex-receiveadditionalcareful

25 treatmentinordertoeliminateposedtoheatfr
treatmentinordertoeliminateposedtoheatfromtheSun;otherwise,theyaresubjectorminimize;._ntaminationofasampleduringhandlingtoambienttemperatures.VIII.JPLSOILSAMPLEDISPERSALArecordofsoilprocessingiskeptattheJPLSoilSubjecttoapprovalbyboththeU.S.DepartmentofScienceLaboratory.ThisrecordincludesinformationonAgriculturePlantQuarantineDivisionandtheStateofthesoir,areaandsamplingsiteandthequantityandvol-CaliforniaBureauofPlantQuaranti_soilscanbere-umeofsamplesobtained.Arecordisalsokeptonhan-movedfromtheJPLSoilScienceLabora.ory.However,dlingandprocessingofthesoil,andastowhetherornotremovalofsoilsfromthisLaboratoryissubjecttotheiraliquotsofthesoilsamplingunithavebeensievedavadabilitystatusandconditionsimposeduponalland/orpowdered.17orcertainpurposes,soilsamplescol-laboratoriesworkingwith_oilsintheStateofCalifornia.lectedprimarilyfortheDesertMicrofloraProgramandotherbioscienceprogramsattheJetPropulsionLabora-Atthepresenttime,theJPLSoilScienceLaboratory,torycanbesuppliedto.herindividualsandagencies,throughNASAfundsprovidedfortheDesertMicro.floraProgram,bearsthecostofsoilsamplecollectior_,trans-Informationiskeptonthenameoftherequestor,hisport,shipping,handling,processing,storage,anddis-organizationoraffiliation,hisresearchneeds,thekindoftributionofsamplestootherindividualsoragencies.soil,quantityofsoil,anditsprocessing,andthedateNASA-supportedprogramsrequiringsoilsforresearchofremovalofsoilfromtheJPLSoilScienceLaboratory.orstudypurposeswillbesuppliedinsofaraspossibleon131966014571-016 JDLTECHNICALRIEPOF_TNO.32-908apriol;.tybasis.Referev.cenumbersonsoilsandrelatedsuitsofanalysesorstudiesonthesesoils.UponneargeologicmaterialsintheDesertSoilCollectionwillnotexhaustionofagivensampleofsoil,theremainingsamplebechanged,andtherefore,canbeusedtoidentifysoils(approximately100g)willberetainedasamuseumobtainedfromtheLaboratorywheneverreportingre-specimen.REFERENCES1.Jenny,H.,FactorsofSoilFormation,New'fork:McGraw--HillBookCo.,Inc.,1941.2.Jenny,H.,"DerivationofState.radorEquationsofSoilsandEcosystems,"SoilScienceSocietyofAmericaPreceedings,Vol.25,1961,p

26 p.385--388.3.Cline,M.,"PrinciplesofSoilS
p.385--388.3.Cline,M.,"PrinciplesofSoilSampling,"SoilScience,Vol.58,1944,pp.275--288.4.AmericanSocietyto,"TestingMateriels,ProceduresforTestingSoils,Philadelphia:ASTM,1958.5.Hiigard,E.W.,Sr,F,s,TheirFormation,Properties,Composition,andRelationstoClimateandP!a,,itGrewthintheHumidandAridRegions,NewYork:TheMacMillanCo.,1906.6.ForestService,HandbeokonSoils,U,S.DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,Woshlngton,D.C.:U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice,1961.7.SoilSurveyStaff,SoilSurveyM_nual,AgricultureHandbookNo.18,AgricultureRese,archAdmislistration,U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,Washington,D.C.:U.S.PrintingOffice,19,51.8.Jackson,M.L.,Sc_lChemicalAnalysis,EnglewoodCliffs,NewJersey:Prentice-Hall,Inc.,1958.9.Pipe.,,C.,SoilandPlantAnalysis,NewYork:Intersc[encePublishers,Inc.,1950.10.Richards,L.A.,Editor,Diagnosi_andImprovementofSalineandAlkaliSoils,AgricultureHandbeokNo.60,U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,Washington,D.C.:U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice,1954.11.SoilSurveyStaff,SoilClassification,AComprehensiveSystem,7thApproximation,Washington,D.C..U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice,1960.12.Clarke,G.R.,TheStudyofSoilintheField,Oxford.attheClarendonPress,1957.13.Vink,A.P.,Aspectsdep6dologieappliqu6e,EditionsdelaBaconnibre,Neuchatel,Switzerland,1963.!4.Petersen,R.,andCalvin,L.,"Sampling,"inBlack,C.A.,Editor-ln-Chlef,MethodsofSoilAnalysis,PartI,Madison,Wisconsin.AmericanSocietyofAgronomy,Inc.,1965,pp.54-72.15.Cameron,R.E,"SoilChemistryandSampling,"inBiologyandtheExplorationofMars,Washinglon,D.C.:NationalScienceFoundation,SpaceScienceBoard(inpress).141966014571-017 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908APPENDIXASeqeenceofStepsforCollectingSoilSamp|esinDesertAreas1.Checkvehicle,equipmentandsuppliespriortodeparturetothefield(Fig.A-l).2."Survey"suitableareasforpossiblesamplingsites(Figs.A-2andA-3).3.Takephotosofthearea,andmakenotesonobservations(seeAppendixB;Figs.B-I-B-5).4.Inspectandselectsuitablesoilsite.Takeadditionalphotosofpertinentareaandsitefeatures,andrecordobservations(Fig.A-3).5.Makepertinentenvironmentalandinsitusoilobservationsandmeasure-ments(Figs.A-4-A-9).6.Prep

27 areandarrangeequipmentforsoilsamplingope
areandarrangeequipmentforsoilsamplingoperations(Figs.A-l,A-10,andA-11).7.Makesignforidentificationpurposes(Fig.A-12).8.Sterilizeandcool/rinsesoftsamplers,diggingdevices,etc.(Fig.A-10).Adequatelylabelsoilsamplecontainers(Fig.A-11).9.Collectsoilsurfacesamplesfromdepthofafewcm(Fig.A-12).10.Collectcorrespondingsoftmoisturetinsamples(Figs.A-1G,A-13,andA-14).Besurethatallsoilmoisturetinsamplesareadequatelypackagedandlabeled(Fig.A-11).11.Repeatsterilization,cooling,andsamplingprocedures,soastoobtainsoilsampleunitsfromdeeperdepthsofsoil"profile."Takesamplesfromlevelsof1--6in.,1ft,2ft,3ft,butnotmorethan3ftindepth,unlessother-wisedesired(Fig.A-12).Donotcontaminatedeeperlayersofsoilwithsurfacematerials.12.Storecollectedsamplesinprotectedarea,e.g.,undervehicle,awayfromdirectsunlightandheat.13.Followingthecollectionofsoilsamples,takeadditionalphotosofthesamplingsiteshowingexposedso,l"profile"andverticallyplacedmeterstickandidentificationsigninposition(Fig.A-12).14.Makefinalnotes,andindicatelocationofsamplingsiteonmap(Fig.A-15).15.Collectandcheckallsamplesandequipment(Fig.A-l).Leavetheareaandsamplingsiteinasgoodconditionaspossible,andremovealldiscardedmaterials,trash,etc.lt_Attachaddresslabels,andalsoimportform,ifnecessary(Fig.A-16).Trans-portandshipsoilsamplestotheLaboratory.NotifypertinentAgenciesandpersonnelinregardtoshipmentofsamples.151966014571-018 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908Fig.A-1.Four-wheeldrivevehicleandmiscellaneousfieldequipmentlaidoutforinspectionpriortodeparturetodesertareas161966014571-019 JPLTECHNICAl.REPORTNO.32-908Fig.A-3.Inspectionandselectionofsoilsamplingsite,observationsofmeteorologicalconditions,scatteredvegetation,andothernaturalfeatures171966014571-020 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908181966014571-021 JPLTECHNICAL.REPORTNO.32-g0819s'1966014571-022 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908Fig./4-7.Slingpsychrometer(inmotion)forobtaln'ngwet-bulbanddry-bulbairtemperatures,in©rdertocalculalerelativehumidityanddewpoint//C5/__iFig.A-8.Portablehandanemometer_rmeasurementofwindvelocil'#atsamplingsite201966014571-023 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-9

28 08Fig.A-9.Ruggedprecisionaltimeterformea
08Fig.A-9.Ruggedprecisionaltimeterformeasurementofelevationofsamplingsite211966014571-024 JPLTECHNIC.-_.LREPORTNO.32-908i,i'___Fig.A-|O.Steriliz,ztionofsamplingshovelwilhpropane"[9_ULy2i_('_/_torch;shovel(bo,_omright)isbeingcooledfollowingsterilizationprocedureandpriortOsamplecollec_ion.______-_"_Fig.A-11.Top:stedlesamplesar_beingfilledwithdis-IoC,edsoilfromsamplingsite(careistakennottocontaminatethesamp;e'd_ringtheprocessoffillingthesack);bottomleft:properlyfilled,labeled,andtiedsamplesackwithattachedaddresslabel(andS-37soilimpo_tauthorizationform,ifnecessary);bottomright:properlytapedandsealedsoilmoisturetincontainingthesamekindofsoilasinthesack221966014571-025 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908_GTAVF-DESERT"WIKIEUPIARIZONAIIgJULY19651po23f1966014571-026 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908241966014571-027 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908Fig.A-13.Procedureforcollectingsamplr_withsoilmoisturetinZ51966014571-028 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-909261966014571-029 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-308Fig.A-15.LocatingsoilsamplingsiteonmapforfuturereferenceTO:JETPROPULSIONLABORATORYCALIFORNIAINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGY4800OakGroveDrivePouNIlena_Celif_'nioATTEN:DR.ROYCAMERONSOILSCIENCELABORATORYBUILDING77U.8.O[PARTMIrNlrOFAGRICUI.TuIqlAGmCULTUIqA¢.RIrmRAIICMIIQRVI¢I[IBILA41iTq_AR&NTINiOIVIJIONWJMN41NI'rONillD.CS-37'•IMPOaTATIONAUTNORIZIIDllaterildecllmlmdindispscksleis_20.1912.-,,,,d,¢(,_''_;_VTideplbekuecoms_mSOILSAMPLESFuRRILfLASI,PQPeru21C_PIE_"JIly1940Fig,A-16.Top:addr_.slabelforshipmentofsoilsamplestoJPLSoilScienceLaboratory;bottom:U.S.D.A.S-37formforsoilimpodationauthorizatien271966014571-030 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO,32-908APPENDIXBSoilSampleInformationSheetandAccompanyingPhotographsPhotographsofsite,area,soilsurface,andexposedSoilNos.14-16atWhiteMt.Summit(elev.14,245It),Whit,_Mr.ResearchStation,WhiteMt.Range:InyoNationalForest,California,aregiveninFigs.B-l-B-4.FigureB-5showsaSoilSampleInformationSheetforthislocation.Fig.B-1.Frozenloessialsoilbeneathandbetween4,_-_."roughstonesatsummitsoilsite":'_'_4,;Fig.B-2.Algal-lichengrowthonsoil,andcolorfulcrustoselichensonrocks;so

29 ilcrustssubjecttodiurnalfreeze-thawcy¢lo
ilcrustssubjecttodiurnalfreeze-thawcy¢los281966014571-031 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908(,,/ivFig.B-3.ViewtowardNevadaandsurrounding':_'"mountainpeaksasseenfromsoilsiteatWhiteMt.S,JmmitR'*2'•Fig.B-4.Collectingsurfacesoilcrustsfrompatchofsoilbetweenrocks;rockywindbreakatdght291966014571-032 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908SOILSAMPLEINFORMATIONSHEErDATE:August7,1962Location(Country,stateorprovince,desertregion,etc.):California.Approximately4.5milesnorthwestofBarcroftLabnratory;WhiteMountainSummit,WhiteMt.ResearchStation,WhiteMt.Range,/nyo_;ationalForest.Topographyofarea:Rough,precipitous,barrenrockymountains(Photo3).Positionandslopeofsite:i00ft.northwestofSummit1_boratory(Photo)4)atedgeofwest-facingprecipice(Photo3).Erosion:SevereElevation:14,245ft.ParentMaterial:Quartz.plagioclaserocksDrainage:ExcellentmClimateandweather:Polar;sub-glaclaldesertNearlyalwayscoldandwindy.Snag-coveredex6ep_forsomeweeksintheshortsmmner.Hail.snow,andrainnotuncommon,especiallyintheafternoon.NaturalCover(vegetation):Noneatsoilsite.Lichensonrocksandsoil;algaeonsoil.SeverallowplantsofPolemoniumsp.;severalshortgrasses.Descriptionofsoil/geologicmaterials:MicroreliefofsurfaceSharprockswithfewsmallpatchesofb_.'u_oliStructure:Azonal:,;_'rozenloessText_Are:Ston_sand_and_cla_loamsColor:Brown(air-dryormoist_Other:Alsal-lichensollcrusts_l_oto2)Sub-surfacesoilfrozen(Photoi).Surfacesoilsubjecttodiurnalfreeze-thawcycles.SamplesTaken:�9Aseptic:xNotAseptic:Soil#Depth#ofSamplesSoilMoistureTins14Surface1/2"_"2i_1/2to6"4216I'iiBarometricpressare,_54to_56mmHg.Data:Environmental(micrometeorological):Nearlyalwayswindytcold,stor_Wind:5to�75m.D.h_(gaugefailed)C_oudbov'er:Low_fast-movin6cumulousTemperature:25to_7OF(air,_')_umidity:17to99_R.H.19to93u_"_soIAsurface).....SoilTests:Physical:xChemical:xMicrobiological:x(atSummi¢Lab.JOther:X-Ray:IEA}IRInSit.._._._uu:Temperature,moisture,relativehumidity,oxygen_color,reflectlvity,pH,_,unconfinedcompressivestrength,density,infiltrationrate.Collector:R.Cameron/F.Morelli/G.BlankOrganization:JetPropulsionLaboratoryWhiteMt._Callfo

30 rniaMapReferences:GeologicalSurvey:1917S
rniaMapReferences:GeologicalSurvey:1917SoilSurvey:No_eOther:Photographs(Area,site,exposedsoilstructure,etc.):SeePhotosithru4._Addit_o_._l__icturestakenduringsubsequentcollectionofsamples.Views_axenor_snAaKevaJ_l.ey,OwensValley,SierraNevadaRange,Wh_geMtoRemarks:Dangerousarea.Rypoxianoticeable;altitudeeickneeeccemonunleupreconditi_ingunderte_enatloweraltitudes.Food,water_f_el,_clothingnecessary.Four-wheeldrivevehicleande_pa_edmountaindriveralsoneceeeary.StmmitI£becemti_mavailable.Fig.B-5.Soilsampleinformationsheet3O1966014571-033 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908APPENDIXCSuggestedMinimumEquipmentListforSoilSampleCollecting1.Transportationvehicleadequatelyinspectedandequippedpriortofieldde-parture(Fig.A-l).Afour-wheeldrivevehicleispreferable.Includesparetires,extragasoline,oil,stoutrope,somebalingwire,anaxe,vehicletools,emer-gencyHares,andallotherusualvehicleequipment.2.Cameras(preferablytwo).Takeonecameraforblackandwhitefilmandasecondforcolornegatives_ccolorslides.Alsoincludelightmeter,flashunit,andclese-uplenses,ffavailable.Fih,,shouldnotbehigh-speed,andshouldbeadequatelyprotectedintinsorsacks.3.Meterstickand/orothermeasuringdevice,clipboard,andpaperforidenti-ficationsign(Fig.A-12).4.qterilized,plastic-lined,canvassamplesacks(Fig.A-11),orotherst_cilesamplecontainers."Includeaminimumoffivesamplesackspersoilsamplingsiteofapproxirnattly1meterdepth.Cementsacksorlargeburlapbagscanbeusedtoholdseveral---"......Iosack_III_,L[_Iotit11l_./.I._.s,5.Soilmoisturetins(atleastthesameq,mntityassamplesacks)(Figs.A-13a-A-13g).Usesoilmoisturetinsamplerffavaib,ble(Figs.A-14a-A-14c).Includemoistureprooftape(Fig.A-13g)zndknife.6.Addresslabels,twine,andS-37soi!importationauthorizationpermits,ifnecessary(Fig.A-16).7.Soilsamplersanddig_'ngtools:sterilizable,smallandlargeshovels(Figs.A-1andA-10),geologicalhammerwithpickhead(Fig.A-l),largepick,mattock,crowbar,andotherdiggingandsampiic.gequipment.8.Sterilizingequipmentsuchaspropanetorch(Fij.A-10)orportablecampstove,andsttflicientfuelsupply.9.Moistureproof,felt-Upmarkingpens,otherpens,pencils,ruler,andnotebook

31 s.10.Miscellaneoustools,e.g.,pliers,wire
s.10.Miscellaneoustools,e.g.,pliers,wire-cutter,hammer,wrenches,tongs,etc.11.Maps(Fig.A-15)(especiallytopographic),watcll,stopwatch,steelmeasuringtape,andpacecounter.12.Flashlights,"radarlights,"andsufficientbatteries,orlampsandfuel(Fig.A-l).13.Variousinstrumentsforenvironmentalandsoilsitemeasurements:thermora-eters(Figs.A-5andA-6),slingpsychrometer(Fig.A-7),smallpHmeter(Fig.A-4),handanemometer(Fig.A-8),soilcolorcharts,clinometer,PaulinAltimeter(Fig.A-9),aneroidbarometer,etc.Alsoincludesufficientdistilledwatersupplyinsturdy,rustproofcontair.ers(Fig.A-l).14.Variouspersonalitems:includeheresuchitemsasfood,water,appropriateclothing(especiallyahat),chapstiek,sunburnlot,:on,sunglasses,shoptowels,afirstaidkit(includesnakebitekit),adesertsurvivalmanual,gunand*Soilmor_'umtins(approx.$1.20/doz.)andsample_cks,plastic-linfd(approx.$1/sack),_:,wellasmanyotherReinsofsoilequipmentareavailablefromSoiltest,Inc.,2205LeeSt.,Evanston,Illinois.311966014571-034 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908ammunir;on,eatingandwashingutensils,soapandpans,knifeandhatchet,knapsackground-cover,sleepingbag,campstoolandtable,etc.Itishighlysuggestedthatatleasttwopersonsingoodphysicalconditionshouldbechosenfordesertfieldtrips.Keeppeopleinformedofyourmovements,andthetimeyouexpecttosperdinremoteareas.Beadequatelypreperedfordesertfieldtripsintorough,remoteareas.Variousdiffcultiesforpersonnelandeqtfipmentareencounteredandarenotuncommon.APPENDIXDNomenclatureadobe-astructuraltermappliedtosoilswhichformdeepactivity.,orconditionsofparentmaterial,reliefolcracksandbreakintoirregular,cuboidalorpolygonaldrainage,thatpreventthedevelopmentoftypicalsoilblocksupondryiLg..profilecharacteristics.SeearidisoLsandent/so/s.algal-lichensoilerust-asoilcrustformedonthesurfacebadland-nearlyorpartlybarren,rough,brokenlandofaridaa:dsemiaridsoilswhichcanbemoreorlesssL-'onglydissectedby.streamsordrainagechannels.easilyseparat_-_lfromthesairfaeeofthesoilandcon-Theyaremostcommoninaridandsemiaridregions,tainsalgaeinvariotlsstagesofpa_asitizationorlicheni-wherewaterhascutchannelsthroughsoftgeologicrationb

32 yfungi.Sees_lcrust,materi.,dssuchasclays
yfungi.Sees_lcrust,materi.,dssuchasclaysandsoftshales,andincludingalkalisoil-genexally,ahighly.alkalinesoilcontainingalessweatherresistantsandstonesandlimestones.highpercentageofavailablesodium,blackalkali-atermappliedtoalkalisoilscontainingaallu,Aalsoils(entisolsorsecondary._oils)-anazonalpreponderanceofverytoxicsodiumcarbonateandgroupofsoils,developedfromtransportedandrela-sodiumchloridesalts.Theblackcoloriscommonlyduetivelyrecentlydepositedmaterial(alluvium)character-tedissolvedanddispersedorganicmatter.izedbyaweakmod_cation(ornone)oftheorginalcalcareoussoil-asoilwhichcontainsasignificantamountmaterialbyso_.l-formingprocesses,ofcarbonates(usuallyCaCOs)andeffervesceswhenalluvium-finematerial,suchassand,mud,orothertestedwithweak(0.1N)HCI.sedimentxdepositedonlandbystreams.ealiche-amoreorlesscementeddepositofcalciumcar-aridclimate-(a)adryclimatecharacteristicofhot,coldbonate(CaCO.0orofmixedcalciumandmagnesiumortemperatedesertandsemidesertregionsir_whichcarbonates(MgCO_,),characteristScofsoilsofdesertprecipitationeffectiveness,wateravailability,orevapo-andsemiaridregionswhichlacksufficientleachingrationratearesuchthatasparsevegetationofdesertrainfall.plantscanexistor_helandisbarren,(b)aclimatewherethelimitsofprecipitationvarywidelyaccordingeemente.tion-aprocesswherebysoilbecomeshardandtotemperature,withanupperlimitforcoolregionsofdensethroughtheaccumulationofmineralssuchas10in.,andfortropicalregionsofasmuchas20in.silica,iron,manganese,salts,e.g.,calciumandmagne-siumcarbonates,andclay.aridisols-soilsofdryplaces,commonlylight-colored,mineralsoilswhicharelowinoiganicmatterandeitherday-(a)asoilseparateconsistingofparticlesof0.002lackorhaveweakdiagnostichorizons.Thesesoilsaremmorlessinequivalent.(b)asoiltexturalclass,(c)commoninaridandsemiaridlandslackingafavorablesoilmaterialthatcontains40$ormoreclay,45tmoisture-temperatureregimeanddependentbiota,sand,and40'$silt.azonalsoils-anygroupofsoilsla,'kingwell-developedelaypan-ahard,densesoillayerunderlyingthesoilprofilecharacteristics,eitherbecauseoftheiryouthsurface.Itisespeciallyhardwh

33 endry,anditisplastic(shortgeologictimepe
endry,anditisplastic(shortgeologictimeperiod),aridclimate,lackofbioticorstiffwhenwet.Alsocalledhardpan.321966014571-035 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908coneretion--anodularorinegularconcentrationofsedi-dune-amoundorridgeofloosematerial,usuaUysand,mentaryrocksandtufts.Itisdevelopedbythelocalizedwhichhasbeenpiledupbythewind.depositionofmaterialfromsolution,generallyaroundecosystem-thebioticcommunity,includingallthecom-acentralnucleus,andcanbefoundasaweather-ponentorganismstogetherwiththeabioticenviron-resistantbodyinsomesoils,e.g.,limeconcretion.ment,forminganinteractingsvstem.consolidatedsoilmaterial-soilmaterialmadesolidbyedaphie-(a)oforpertainingtothesoil,(b)resultingfromcementationorotLerprocesses,fromapreviousfluidorinfluencedbyfactorsinl_,erentinthesoilorotherorlooselyaggregatedc-.ndition,substrate,ratherthanbycl;maticfactors.crustose-resemblingacrust,orincrustation.Ahardenedentisols-seealluvialsoils.externallayerwhichisfoundincertainsoilandrocklichens,especiallyinaridandsemiaridregions,environment-allexternalconditionsthatmavactuponanorganismorsoilandwhichinfluenceitsdevelop-decalcifiedsoil-asodwhichhashadthecalciumcar-ment.bonateremovedfromthesoilbyleaching.deepsod-generally,asoilthathasadepthgreaterthanerosion--(a)thewearingawayofthelandsurfacebvrun-1metertorockorotherstronglycontrastiagmaterialningwater,wind,ice,orothergeologicagents,includ-inggravity,(b)detachmentandmovementofsoilordegradedsoil-achangeofonekindofsoilintoamorerockbywater,wind,ice,orgravity•highlyleacl-.edone.escarpment-asteepfaceabruptlyterminatingh.lghlandsdehiscence-(a)theburstingofcertaindry"fruitsatorfrequentlypresentedbytheabn_ptterminationofmaturity,(b)theopeninganddischargeofpollenfromstratifiedrocks.theanther(sac-likeorganonseed-producingplants),(c)theunfurlingofleaves,evapotranspiration--thelossofwaterfromasoilbydesalinizedsoil-asoilwhichhashadsalts,especiallyevaporationandplanttranspiration.sodiumcompounds,removedbyleaching,flaccidcacti-weakorlimpcacti(variousplantsofthedesert,erust-ahardpan,claypan,calichelayerorothercactusfamily),whichexhibits

34 ignsofwater!os_nrbindingmaterial..'xpose
ignsofwater!os_nrbindingmaterial..'xposedatthesoil-atmosphereinter-desicca3onofplantparts.faceindesertregions,flocculatedsoil-asoilwhichhastheindividualgrainsordesertpavement-apebbly,stoney,rocky,orsimilarsur-particlesaggregatedintosmallgroupsorgranules.facelayerofcoarsematerialfoundindesertregionsfloodplain-thene_r!y_a_landsalongstreamsorriversaftertheremovaloffinematerial•Materialsarefre-thatoverflowduringfloods.quentlysmoothedandpolishedbywinderosion,andbrownedorblackenedwhencontainingsufficientoxi-friablesoil-soilthatiseasilycrumbledinthefingers.dizedironandmanganesecompot,nds,i.e.,desertgentlyslopir,gland-landwithanaverageslopevaryingvarnish.between3and8_.desertsoils-agroupofsoilswhichareazonal,intrazonal,orzonal,foundinhot,cold,ortemperateregions,gleysoil-asoildevelopedunderconditionsofpoordrainageandresultinginreductionofironandoi.-herfrequentlylight-colored,well-oxidized,sometimescon-elementsandingraycolorsandmottles.Uncommonintainingsaltdepos,.'ts,anddevelopingunderaridcon-desertsoils,exceptasarelictorinnonaridmicr:)-ditionsandscantorabsentmacrovegetation.environments.desertvarnish-aglossysheenorcoatingonstonesandgravelindesertregions.Alsoseedesertpavement,hardpan-ahard,densesoillayerunderlyingthesoilsurface.Itisalsosynonymouswithclaypanorotherdispersedsoil-(a)asoilwhichhashadthecompoundcementedlayersofsoilsuchascaliche,particlesoraggregatesbrokenupintotheindividualcomponentparticles,suchasbysodiumindesertsoils,humus-thewell-decomposed,moreorlessstablepartof(b)distributedorsuspendedfineparticles,suchasclay,organicmatterinthesoilwhichhaslostitsoriginr,linorthroughoutadispersionmedium,suchaswater,structureandhasnotvetbeenreducedtosimpleend-drysands-anazonalgroupofsoilsconsistingofwell-products.drai_aedrelativelycohesionlesssandydepositsinwhichimpervioussoil-aso;:througt_whichwater,air,orrootstypicalsoilprofilecharacteristicshavenotdeveloped,penetrateslowlyornotatall.33r'1966014571-036 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908,influx-againofmatteiorenergyfromoutsideassignedditions,broughtaboutbythemodificationofgeneralboundaries,suc

35 hasanecosystem,e.g.,solarradiation,clima
hasanecosystem,e.g.,solarradiation,climaticconditionsbylocaldifferencesinelevationmoistureprecipitation,orsedimentationofdust.andexposure.inheritedsoilcharacteristic-anycharacteristicofsoilthatmicrorelief-minorsurfaceconfigurationsorsmall-scale,isduedirectlyto.thenatureoftheparentmatecialaslocaldifferencesintopography,includingmounds,c_ntrastedtothosepartlyorwhollyduetotheswales,orpitsthatareonlyafewcentimeterstodeci-processesofsoilformation,metersindiameterandwith•'_evationdifferencesofintr_zonalsoiis--anygroupofsoilswithmoreorlesssevera',centimetersuptooneormoremeters.well-developedsoilcharacteristicsthatreflectthemineralsoil-ageneraltermusedinreferencetoanydominatinginfluenceofsomelocalfactorofrelief,soilcomposedchieflyofm;neralmatter;especiallyparentmaterial,orageoverthenormaleffectofthecharacteristicofaridandsemia6dsoils.climateandvegetation,nodule-asmall,moreorlessroundedbodygenerallyKrotovina(crotovina)-amineralaccretionordepositofsomewhatharderthantheenclosingsoil,sediment,ororganicmatterformedbythefillingofachannelwayorrockmatrix.formeranimalburrow.Theburrowisusuallyfoundoutflux-lossesofmatterorenergyfromwithinassignedfilledbymaterialdifferentfromthatofthesoilsur-boundaries,suchasanecosystem,e.g.,heatradiation,roundingit.waterrunoff,orsolidscarriedoffbyerosion.lacustrinedeposit-materialdepositedinlakewaterandpans-horizonsorlayersofsoilthatarestronglycom-laterexposedeitherbyloweringofthewaterlevelorpacted,induratedorveryhighinclaycontent.Seebyelevationoftheland.caliche,cIaypan,andhardpan.landforms-multitudinousnaturalfeaturesthattakenparentmaterial-theunconsolidatedmassfromwhichthecollectivelymakeuptheEarth'ssurface.Thesefeaturessoilprofiledevelops.arecharacterizedaccordingtosize,shape,anglesofslopeandorientation,regardlessoforiginofdevelop-parentreek-therockfromwhichparentmaterialsarement,e.g.,hills,vaileys,mountains,canyons,playas,formed.Seeparentmaterial.alluvialfans,etc.pedologi,_t-asoilscientist,especiallyonewhoiscon-leachedsoil-soilfr(_mwhichthesolublesaltshavebeeneernedwiththelawsoforigin,formation,andgee-remo

36 vedbythepercolationofwaterthroughthesoil
vedbythepercolationofwaterthroughthesoil.graphicdistributionofthesoilasabodyinnature.loam-soilmaterialthatcontains7to27_gclay,28to50gpeneplaln-alandsurfacereducedbyerosionalmosttosilt,:-md52_gsand.baseievelsothatmostofitisapproximatelyaplain.loess-materialtransportedanddepositedbywindandpermafrost-(a)permanentlyfrozenmaterialunderlyingconsistingofpredominatelysilt-sizedparticles,thesolumorupperandmostweatheredpartofthesoilprofile,(b)apere,aniallyfrozensoil.macrobiota-organismsvisiblebythenakedeyeandwhichdonotneedamicroscopefordetectionpurposes,pledmont--lyingorformedatthebaseofmountains.ApiedmontalluvialplainisformedbythecoalescenceSeemacrove[_etation,ofalluvialfans.macrovegetatlon-plantswhicharevisibletothenakedeyeandwhichdonotneedamicroscopefordetectionplain-alargereliefformorregionofgeneraluniformpurposes,e.g.,shrubs,trees,grasses,andvariousflower-slope,comparativelylevel,ofconsiderableextent,andingannualsandperennials,notbrokenbymarkedelevationsordepressions.maturesoil-asoilwithwell-developedcharacteristicsplaya-(a)theshore,strand,beachorbankofriver,producedbythenaturalprocessesofsoilformationandgenerallysandyandsometimessalty,(b)thesballowcentralbasinofadesertplain,inwhichwatergathersinequilibriumwiththeenvironment.afterarainandevaporates.microcllmate-(a)theclimate/demperature-moisture-gasregimeandrelatedhctors),;urroundingasinglesoilplayalake-broad,shallowsheetsofwaterwhichquicklyparticle,bacterium,orpopulationofmicroorganismsgatheranda_mostasquicklyevaporate,leavingdryormoistmudflatsorplayastomarktheirsites.onasoilparticle,(b)theclimate:_,tthesoilsurface-atmosphereinterfaceexlendingintotheatmor.pheretoporespace(voids)-thetotalspacenotoccupiedbyseilapproximately1meterormore,(c)localclimaticcon-particlesina.bulkvolumeofsoil.341966014571-037 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908relief-theelevationsorinequalitiesofalandsurface,soilbulkdensity(apparentdensity,volumeweight)-theconsideredcollectively,massorweightofoven-dry(105°C)soilperunitrhlzosphere-thatportionofthesoildirectlyaffectedbyvolume,includingporespace.plantroots,soilchara

37 eteristic-afeatureofasoilthatcanbeobserv
eteristic-afeatureofasoilthatcanbeobservedrollingland-landwhichhascompoundslopesof9toand/ormeasuredanddeterminedinthefieldorinthe15_.laboratoryonsoilsamples,e.g.,texture,structure,ironcontent,etc.Alsoseesoilproperty.rootzone-thepartofthesoilthatisinvadedbyplantroots,soilclimate(solclime)-themoistureandtemperatureconditionsexistinginthesoil.roughbrokenland-landwithverysteeptopographyandsoilconsistence-therelativemutualattractionofthenumerousintermittentdrainagechannelsbutcom-monlycoveredbyvegetation,particlesinthewholesoilmassortheirresistancetoseparationordeformation,e.g.,friable,soft,hard,rubbleland-landareaswith90gormoreofthesurfacecemented,etc.coveredwithstonesandboulders.soilcreep-thedowl,wardmassmovementofslopingsoilrunoff-thatportionoftheprecipitationonanareawhichwhichisusuallyslowandirregular.isdischargedfromtheareathroughstreamchannels.soilerust-abrittlelayerofhardsoilformedonthesur-sallnization-theprocessofaccumulationofsaltsinsoil.faceofmanysoilswhendry.saltysoil-agenerictermappliedtosoilshavingchar-soildrainage-therapidityandextentofremovalofwateracteristicswhicharecausedbyexlmsuretoexcessivefromthesoilbyrunoffandflowthroughthesoiltoamountsofsolublesalts,undergroundspaces.sand-(a)asoilparticlebetween0.05and2.00mminsoilfertility-thequalityofasoilthatenablesittopro-diar_aeter,(b)asoiltexturalclass,(c)soilmaterialthatvidecompoundsinadequateamountsandinpropercontains&Sgormoreofsand;percentageofsilt,plusbalance,forthegrowthofspecificplants,whenother1.5timesthepercentageofclay,shallnotexceed15.growthfactorssuchaslight,moisture,temperature,sandysoil-asoilcontainingalargeamountofsand.andthephysicalconditionofthesoilarefavorable.scabland-landcharacterizedbynumerousoutcropsofsoilgenesis-themodeoforiginofthesoil,referringlavarockorscoria,andincludinglandhavingnumer-particularlytotheprocessesresponsibleforthedevelop-ousspotsofbarren,saltysoilasisfoundinaridandmentofthesolumfromtheunconsolidatedparentsemiaridregions,material.secondgrowth-neworcontinuedgrowthbyplantsfol-soilhorizon-alayerofsoilorsoilmaterialapproximatelylowinga

38 ninterruptionofthegrowthperiodbyfire,par
ninterruptionofthegrowthperiodbyfire,paralleltothelandsurfaceanddifferingfromadjacentflood,hail,drought,landslide,oranimaldamage,relatedlayersbydegreesofphysical,physicochemical,secondarysoils-seealluvialsoils,chemicalandmicrobioticproperties.soilkind-acollectionofsoilsthatarealikeinspecifiedsflt-(a)asoilseparateconsistingofparticlesbetweencombinationsofcharacteristics.0.05and0.002mminequivalentdiameter,(b)asoiltexturalclass,(c)soilmaterialthatcontains8(Ygormoresoilmap--amapshowingthedistributionofkindsofsoilsiltand12gclay.orothersoilmappingunitsinrelationtotheprominentphysicalandculturalfeaturesoftheEarth'ssurface.singlegrain.-e_chgraininasoilconsideredbyitself,asinastructurelessdunesand.soilmicrofauna-thatpartoftheanimalpopulationwithinandonthesoilwhichconsistsofindividualstoosoil-anaturallyflefivedbodyexistingasadynamicopensmalltobeclearlydistingaishedwithouttheuseofsystem.Itisaproductofff_eenvironment,andonthisamicroscope.Itincludesprimarilyprotozoaandplanetitiscomposedofsubsystemsofaphysical,,'._maiodes.chemical,andbioticnature.Ithasbeendevelopedsoilmicroflora-thatpartoftheplantpopulationwithinunderthecombinedinfluencesofclimate,time,min-andonthesoilwhichconsistsofindividualstoosmalleralogy,topography,andbiota,aswellasotherfactors.tobeclearlydistinguishedwithouttheuseofamicro-soilaggregate-asinglemassorclusterofsoilconsistingscope.Itincludesprimarilybacteria,actinomycetes.ofmanysoilpart':clesheldtogether,e.g.,granule,fungi,andalgae.351966014571-038 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908soilmonolith-r,mo_,ntedspecimenofasoilprofileorsoiltexture-therelativeproportionsofthevariousgroupsverticalexposureofsoiltakenfromacut.h.abankorofindividualsoilgrains.fromasoftpitdtyginthe_,:ld.solum-theupperpartofthesoilprofile,abovetheparentsoilmorphology-thephysicalconstitutionoftheso;1material,inwhichtheprocesseso_soilformationare,includbigthetexture,structure,porosity,consistence,takingplace.andccJorofthevarioussoilhorizons,theirthickness,steepland-landhavingslopesrangingfrom30to45_.andarrangementinthesoilprofile.stonel{ne-alayerwithinthesoilpr

39 ofileconsistingofsoilmottling-spotsorblo
ofileconsistingofsoilmottling-spotsorblotchesofdifferentcolororstones,commonlydepositedbystone-carryingfloodshade.;ofcolorinthesoilinterspersedwiththewaters.dominantcolor.stratified-composedof,orarrangedin,strataorlayers,soilorganicmatter-materialsinsoilwhichareliving,orasstratifiedalluvium.Thoselayersinsoilsthatarearederivedfromplantsoranimals,andinvariousproducedbyprocessesofsoilformationarecalledstagesofdecomposition,horizons,whilethoseinheritedfromthesoilmaterialsoilpopulation-thegroupoforganismsthatareindige-arecalledstrata.nousornormallyliveinthesoil.structurelesssoil-asoilshowingnoobservableaggre-seiiporosity-thevolumepercentageofthetotalbulkofgationornodefiniteandorderlyarrangementofsoilnotoccupiedbysolidparticles,secondarysoilparticlesorunitsalongnaturallinesofweakness.soilproductivity-anagriculturaltermforthepresentcapabilityofakindofsoilforproducingaspecifiedsubsoil-(a)anypartofthesoilbeneaththesoilsurfaceorplantorsequenceofplantsunderadefinedsetofbelowtheimmediatesoil-atmosphereinterface,(b)managementpractices,thatpartofthesolumorupperpartofthesoilprofilesoilprofile-averticalsectionofthesoilthroughallitsjustabovetheparentmaterial,inwhichtheprocesseshorizonsandextendingintotheparentmaterial,ofsoilformationaretakingplace,i.e.,inagriculture,itisthatpartofthesolumbelowplowdepth(approxi-soilproperty-atermcommonlyusedsynoPymouslywithmately12in.).soilcharacteristics,exceptinabroadersense,i.e.,soilsurfacesoft-(a)thatpartofthesoilattheimmediatesoil-physical,chemical,ormicrobiologicalproperties,atmosphereinterfacetoadepthofseveralcentimeters,soilsclence-thatsciencedealingwithsoilsasanatural(b)agriculturally,itisthatpartofthearablesoilcom-bodyorresoltrceandthepropertiesofsoilsforvariousmonlystirredbytillageimplementstoanequivalentpurposes,depthof5to8in.soilseparates-mineralparticles,"_2.0mmineq_aivale,ttalus-fragmentsofrockandsoilmaterialcollectedatthediameter,rangingbetweenspecifiedsizelirrJts.Seefootofcliffsorsteepslopes,chieflyasaresultofgravi-clay,silt,andsand.tationalforces.terrace(geologieal)-afiatorundulatingplain,co

40 m-soilspeeificity-asoilwhichislimitedtop
m-soilspeeificity-asoilwhichislimitedtoparticularsetofcharacteristicsorconditions,monlyrathernarrowandusuallywithasteepfront,commonlyborderingexistingorpreviousrivers,lakes,soilstructure-thecombinationorarrangementofprimaryorseas.soilparticlesintosecondaryparticles,unitsorpeds.till(glaeiPl)-adepositofunstratifiedearth,sand,gravel,Secondaryunitsmaybe,butusuallyarenet,arrar_gedandboulderstransportedbyglaciers.inthesoilprofileinsuchamannerastogiveadistinc-tivecharacteristicpattern,transpiration-lossofwatervaporfromtheleavesandstemsoflivingplantstotheatmosphere.soilsubhorizon-ahorizonordistinctivelayerofsoiloccurringtosomedepthbeneaththesoilsurface,transportedsoilmaterials-parentmaterialsofsoilsthathavebeenmovedfromtheplaceoftheiroriginandsoilsurvey-thesystematicexamination,description,redepositedduringtheweatheringprocessitselforclassification,andmappingofsoilsinanarea.duringsomephaseofthat.process,and_,,.chconsistof,orareweatheredfrom,unconsolidatedformations.soiltexturalbanding-the:occurrenceofasoilbandorseparatedenotedbyitsdifferenceintexturefromthetuff(tufa)-arockcomposedoffinerkindsofvolcanicadjacentsoillayersorhorizons,detritus,usuallymoreorlessstratifiedandinvarious361966014571-039 JPLTECHNICALREPORTNO.32-908statesofconsolidation.Incalcareousdeposits(traver-cacti,shrubs,smallfloweringannual_mdperennialtine),itmaybereferredtoas"calcareoustufa."plants,crustoselichens,etc.unconsolidatedsollmaterial-soilmaterialinaformorxerophytic(xerophilous)-seexeric.stateoflooseaggregation.young(immature)soil-Ca)animperfectlydevelopedsoilverysteepland-landorslopesofmorethan455.intelTnSofsoilcharacteristicsandhorizons,(b)asoilvoids-seeporespace,havingaprofilewithsl/ghtlycompactsubsoilhorizons.weathering-thephysicalandchemicaldisintegrationandzonalsoils-anygroupofsoilshavingwell-developedsoftdecompositionofrocksandminerals,characteristicsthatreflecttheinfluenceoftheactivexeric(xerophytlc)-arid,ordeficientinmoisture.Vege-factorsofsoftgenesis,especiallyclimateandlivingrationcharacteristicofdesertregions;thornybrush,organisms(p_narilyvegetatio

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