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Official Publication of Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Foo


Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciencenrrrrrr- n /0 - 1 / /2/1nrnrIsolation of Bacteria and Chemical Analysis of Selected Fadama Soils in Jega Local Government Area of Kebbi State

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1 Official Publication of Direct Research
Official Publication of Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science: Vol. 8, 2020, ISSN 2354-4147  Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science  \n  \r \r\r     \r\r\r  !""#$%" &&"'()* &   ) $+'()* & , -$% .   )+ !\n /$0  -$% 1 $!/ $  !""#$ !/ +$!%"#2/1!"   \n  \r\n\rIsolation of Bacteria and Chemical Analysis of Selected Fadama Soils in Jega Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria *Zakari, S. I., Ahmed, I., Augie, M. A., and Adegbite, M. A. Department of Soil Science, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria. *Corresponding Author E-mail: sheikhibnzakari@gmail.com Received 15 November 2020; Accepted 10 December, 2020 )34'),4 \n  \r \r   \r  \r  \r    \r\r \r \r \r   !\r "\r\r #  $\r\n  \r \r\r\r \r %&   \r!' \r \r \n   ( !$   \n \r!)*+  \r \n   ( ,-\r\r    \r \r .! \r $\r  !\n    \r \r\r/&0 .! \r\r\n )10+  \r  !\r      \r  \r\n\r 2\r    \n\r   \r -$ '  $.$\r\r\n\r \r   \r!\r\r\n    \r \r\n  \n\r \n\r    (\r\r\r\r  3  !5-6#!#      ' \r INTRODUCTION Fadama is a Hausa term used to qualify low-lying areas on depressions, or adjacent to a river or stream otherwise known as wetlands. Fadamas are rich agricultural areas and contain land and water resources that could easily be developed for irrigated farming (Singh, 1997b). Idoga (2006) considered Fadama as unique agricultural land which allows hydrolyte plants such as lowland rice to be grown in the rainy season while vegetables are grown in the dry. Wetlands are among the most important ecosystems on earth. They have been described as “The kidneys of the landscapes” because they function as the downstream receivers of water and waste from both natural and human sources (Isirimah, 2002). He further explained that wetlands water supply, ameliorates both flood and droughts by cleansing polluted waters, protect shorelines and recharge groundwater aquifers. Udo (2002) referred to wetland as a land that has supply of water through rainfall exceeding those losses by outflow, seepage and evepotranspiration. Ojanuga et al. (1996) considered wetland to be purely an ecological habit that is permanently or seasonally flooded for a considerable period of the year and normally support hydrophilic plants and animals. Wetlands are often associated with a low-lying topography. The soil is a home to a large proportion of the world’s genetic diversity. The linkages between soil organisms and soil functions are observed to be an incredibly complex. Those organisms include earthworms, nematodes, protozoa, fungi, bacteria and different arthropods. The interconnections and complexity of this soil ‘food web’ means any appraisal of soil function must necessarily take into account interactions with the living Official Publication of Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science: Vol. 8, 2020, ISSN 2354-4147 Zakari et al. 425 communities that exist within the soil (Burges and Raw, 1967). According to Isirimah, (2002) some authors have also preferred to call wetlands “Biological supermarkets”, because of the extensive food chain and rich biodiversity that they s

2 upport, as well as playing major roles i
upport, as well as playing major roles in the landscape by providing unique habitats for wide range of flora and fauna. Tropical Sub-Saharan Africa was reported to have a total of 200 million hectare of wetlands and about 30 million hectare or 1.5% of the wetlands are used for rain-fed low-land rice cultivation (Jou and Lowed, 1985). The occurrences of wetland soils (hydromorphic soils) in Nigeria have been associated with three land form types, namely; inland depressions, alluvial plains and coastal plains (Okusami and Rust, 1992). In the past, the trend world over has been towards the destruction of wetlands leading to significant losses. According to Udo, (2002) most of the wetlands in Sub-Saharan Africa are under-utilized. The deltas, flood plains, forested regions, small wetlands and inland valleys have not been adequately or extensively cultivated. Besides, only little attention has been given globally to the biodiversity and biological properties of wetland soils. Attempts were made by some researchers in Nigeria to assess the microbial isolates, properties, nutrient status, agricultural potentials and management of wetland soils in South Eastern Nigeria (Akpan-Idiok and Solomon 2004; Isirimah 2002; Udo 2002). However, there is little information on microbial studies in the Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria wetland soils. Therefore, this research is to identify the microorganisms (bacteria) as well as the soil chemical properties present in wetland soils Jega Local Government Area of Kebbi State of the Sudan-Savannah region of Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODSDescriptive of the study areaThe study was conducted at Fadama lands of three distinct villages around Jega namely Gindi, Kimba and Alelu in Kebbi State. However, Kebbi State is situated in the extreme North-west of Nigeria between (Lat. 12 11’ N and Long. 4 16’ E), in the Sudan Savannah. Mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures for the area is 40 and 15C, respectively, while annual rainfall ranged between 580 mm to 700mm (Arnborg, 1988). Relative humidity range is 21-47% in the dry season and 51-79% for rainy season. Sampling procedure Stratified sampling was used to collect soil samples from the wetlands located in three villages namely Gindi, Kimba and Alelu, each village serve as a stratum. Nine (9) samples were collected at each depth of 0-20cm using soil auger from each of the distinct locations to form a composite sample. Each composite was sub-sampled through conning and quartering and was labeled accordingly for analysis. Sample preparation Composite sample collected from the Fadama soils of each village was thoroughly mixed to make a representative of the three Fadama locations. Each subsampled soil was used for the determination of the chemical properties, while samples for microbial analyses were stored in a sterile container for analysis. Isolation, characterization and identification of bacteriaAll the materials for the analysis were sterilized appropriately by moist heat method. This were done as outlined by Adegbite et al. (2018), in which a known amount of each sample (10g) were thoroughly mixed in 100 ml sterile distilled water, which were diluted serially with aliquot (1.0ml) stepwise to dilution 10. Then 0.1ml aliquots from the diluted solution of the sample were transferred aseptically using a pipette into a sterile Petri dish. A known volume (15ml) of freshly prepared nutrient agar were poured, and swirled for thorough mixing and allowed to settle for bacterial isolation. The content were incubated aerobically for 48 hours at the temperature of 37°C, then the plate were examined for microbial growth and the colonies developed were counted (Zuberer, 1994). Pure cultures of bacteria were obtained by aseptically streaking representative colonies prepared using nutrient agar plates which were incubated at 28°C for 24 hours. Discrete bacterial colonies were sub-cultured on nutrient agar slant and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours to serve as pure stock cultures. Pure cultures were identified on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics in accordance

3 with the methods described by Zuberer, (
with the methods described by Zuberer, (1994) and Holt et al. 1994). Glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, galactose, maltose and mannose) fermentation test were carried out for species identification. Microbial biomass was determined by chloroform fumigation technique (Parkinson and Paul, 1982) using the relationship. Microbial Biomass = CO Fumigated Soil – CO in control soil K = 0.4 (killing efficiency) Soil pH was determined by the use of pH meter in 1:1 soil water ratio using glass electrode, organic carbon was determined using Walkley and Black method (1934), total nitrogen was determined by Macro-Kjeldal digestion method (AOAC, 1999), available phosphorous was Official Publication of Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science: Vol. 8, 2020, ISSN 2354-4147 Direct Res. J. Agric. Food Sci. 426 Table 1: Soil chemical properties of analyzed soil sampled during wet season. Locations pH O.C (%) N(g/kg) P(mg/kg) K (cmol/kg) Ca (cmol/kg) Mg (cmol/kg) Na (cmol/kg) CEC (cmol/kg) 1 5.53 1.33 0.20 1.02 1.00 1.41 0.66 0.19 3.26 2 5.54 1.39 0.10 0.96 0.91 1.49 0.74 0.36 3.49 3 4.51 1.40 0.19 1.12 0.94 1.48 0.76 0.30 3.48 4 5.29 1.36 0.68 0.70 0.95 1.37 0.67 0.39 3.39 SED 0.385 0.271 0.192 0.174 0.082 0.029 0.093 0.015 0.154 LSD ns ns ns ns ns * ns *** ns Key: 1-Allelu, 2-Gindi, 3-Kimba, 4-Jega, O.C.-organic carbon, N-nitrogen, P-phosphorus, K-potassium, Ca-calcium, Mg-Magnesium, Na-sodium, CEC-cation exchange capacity, SED-standard errors of difference and LSD-least significant difference.determined by Bray No. 1 method (Bray and Kurtz, 1945), sodium and Potassium was determined by the use of flame photometer, calcium and Magnesium was determined by EDTA titration methods and CEC was determined by Ammonium saturation method as described by Chapman (1965). Statistical analysisDescriptive statistics data summarization ANOVA was carried out to compare means for different locations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1 showed that the soil pH was not significant at p0.05. It was also observed that pH ranged between 4.51-5.53, with the least observd at Kimba and the highest at Allelu. The soil pH from the study sites was rated as strongly acidic-moderately acidic according to Esu, 1991 rating scale. This result agrees with the findings of Augie et al. (2020) for Kebbi State University Fadama Farm located at Jega with the pH values of 5.16.2 which is also similar to that obtained by Yacouba (1996) with pH mean value of 5.7 for River Rima Basin Soils in Sokoto. Results in (Table 1) showed that soil organic carbon was not significant at p0.05 from the selected sites. Organic carbon values ranged from 1.33-1.40%. The soils were found to have low organic carbon content based on the organic C value of &#x-11.;⍷1.0% (10 g kg-1) for low category rating Esu (1991). Low organic carbon content from the Fadama soils maybe as a result of constant usage of the soils throughout the year with plant residue also harvested and used to feed animals leaving the soil bare. Low soil organic C in this report is in line with the findings of Singh (1999a) which indicated organic C in the range of0.01-2.3g kg-1 for the Fadama soil in Kebbi State. It is also in harmony with the report of Webster and Wilson (1990) which showed low soil organic C (0.12%) for West African hydromorphic soils. In the same vein, Kozah (1997) observed low organic C value for soils of RafinYaki valley in Bedi village of Zuru local government area in Kebbi State. The low soil organic C observed here could be an indication the soil physical and condition such as structure, CEC and pH may be negatively affected. Total N content (Table 1) at different locations in Jega local government area of Kebbi state ranged from 0.10-0.68gkg-1. Based on soil fertility rating scale given by Esu (1991) for Nigerian soils, the soils of the study area ranked as low. This result is in tandem with the findings of Kozah (1997) who reported low values (0.001-0.650gkg-1) for total N from soils in RafinYaki valley in Bedi village of Zuru local government area of Kebbi State. Similarly,

4 Singh (1999a) noted that 12-65% of the F
Singh (1999a) noted that 12-65% of the Fadama soils in Kebbi State were found to have low total N content. He reported that it ranged between 0.1 and 0.2g kg-1. The low total N content in the soils may be attributed to removal of crop residue on farmlands and low application of organic residues for crop cultivation coupled with low vegetative cover for returning organic matter to the soil. There is therefore the urgent need to improve total N in the soil through the addition of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Phosphorus content of the soils in the study area is shown in (Table 1) with p observed not to be significant at p0.05. p ranged from 0.96 – 1.12mgkg-1 for the four locations which ranked as very low. The values for available P observed in this report is in agreement with the findings of Singh and Tsoho (2001) which indicated that available P values ranged from0.01-0.03 mg kg-1 and 0.1-0.07 g kg-1 for soils around River Rima in Sokoto and around Goronyo Dam, respectively. However they compared well with the findings of Singh (1999b) on available P value of 2.2 g kg-1 for the Fadama soils of Zamfara State. Available P values in the study area were found to be low considering the values for available P ratings given by Esu (1991) which set P values of less than 10 mg kg-1 in the low category rating for available P. Exchangeable Ca values as shown in table 1 was significant at p0.05.Ca ranged from 1.37-1.49cmol/kg. This is in variance with the result obtained by Singh, (1999a) who reported average value of 6.6cmolkg-1 for exchangeable Ca for soils of Kebbi State. The result of this study is in agreement with that obtained by Onyekwere and Ezenwa (2009) who reported exchangeable Ca values of 0.04-1.84cmolkg-1 for soils in Barikin Sale, Niger State. The Ca content of the study areas is low. Exchangeable Mg was not significant at p0.05 as Official Publication of Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science: Vol. 8, 2020, ISSN 2354-4147 Zakari et al. 427 Table 2: Heterotrophic Bacteria Count Locations Bacteria Count 1 6.4 x 10 - 2 2 6.0 x 10 - 2 3 5.6 x 10 - 2 4 5.0 x 10 - 2 Key: 1-Allelu, 2-Gindi, 3-Kimba, 4-Jega.  \n \r\n  \r  Figure 1: Frequency of occurrence of Bacterial isolates from wetland soil sample.shown in (Table 1). Mg values obtained from the four locations ranged from 0.66-0.76 cmolkg-1. The values for exchangeable Mg observed here were moderate based on the ratings of Adepetu et al. (1979). The finding is in accord with the report of Adeboye et al (2009) on moderate Mg content on the soils of GidanKwano Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State. Exchangeable K from (Table 1) was not significant at p0.05. Exchangeable K content of the Fadama soils at the study sites ranged between 0.91-1.0 cmolkg-1. While exchangeable Na was observed to be significant at p0.05 and range from 0.19-0.39cmolkg-1 (Table 1). Singh et al. (1997b) observed exchangeable K values of 0.05-0.22cmol kg-1 for K and oli Shela valley soils which were lower than the values in this finding. Also Graham and Singh (1997) reported exchangeable K mean value of 0.5cmolkg-1 in Wurno Irrigation Scheme. Onyekwere and Ezenwa (2009) reported low values for exchangeable Na for soils in Barikin Sale in Niger state. In a similar way, Sahabi et al. (2002) observed exchangeable Na values of 0.39, 0.53 and 0.51 cmol kg-1 for the Fadama soils of Kalambaina, Illela/More and the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto Fadama land respectively. The study site gave cation exchange capacity (CEC) values that ranged from 3.26-3.49 cmolkg-1 (Table 1). The CEC values reported in this finding were lower than the values of 4.92 cmolkg-1observed for soils in Kebbi State University Fadama soils in Jega local government area of kebbi state. Similarly, they were lower than 6.39-14.64cmolkg-1 reported by (Singh, 1997b) for Fadama soils in the Sokoto Rima Basin. However, the values were closer to the ones Official Publication of Direct Research Journa

5 l of Agriculture and Food Science: Vol.
l of Agriculture and Food Science: Vol. 8, 2020, ISSN 2354-4147 reported for West African soils (Jones and Wild, 1975) which indicated that they ranged from 3-8 cmolkg-1. Result of heterotrophic bacteria as shown in (Table 2) reveals that bacteria count from location 1 (Allelu) compared with other locations with location 4 (Jega) having the least bacteria count. Figure 1 shows the percentage occurrence of bacteria in Fadama soils in four locations namely Allelu, Jega, Gindi and Kimba. Result obtained shows that five bacterial organisms were isolated; Klebsiclla spp., StaphylococcusPseudomonas E. Coli and the corynebacterium.From the figure above, Klebsiclla spp. was observed to have the highest bacteria population of 40%, followed by staphylococcus (25%), Pseudomonas (19%), Coryne (10%) and E. coli (6%). This result is in agreement with Ameh and Kawo, 2017 and Sira et al.(2010) who also reported isolating Klebsiclla spp., Pseudomonas and E. coli, with Klebsicllaspp been the dominant bacteria. Conclusion This study shows that Fadama soils of the study area which has great potential for crop cultivation is low in fertility and will need to be improved through the addition of organic and inorganic fertilizer. REFERENCES Adeboye MKA, Osunde AO, Ezenwa MIS, Odofin AJ, Bala A (2009). Evaluation of fertility status and suitability of some soils for arable cropping in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science. 19 (2):16-118. Adegbite MA, Sanda AR, Ahmed I, Ibrahim M, Adegbite, AO (2018). Identification and Isolation of Fungi in Abattoir and Poultry Amended Plots in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savanna ; IJBCRR, 22(4): 1-13. Adepetu JA, Adebayo A, Aduagi EA, Alofa CO (1979). A preliminary survey of fertility status of some soils in Ondo State under traditional cultivation. Ife Journal ofAgriculture1:134-149. Akpan-Idiok AU, Solomon MG (2004). Bacterial Isolates of the Mangrove Swamp Soils in Cross River Estuary, South East Nigeria. Ameh AA, Kawo AH (2017). Enumeration, Isolation And Identification Of Bacteria And Fungi From Soil Contaminated With Petroleum Products Using Layer Chicken Droppings As An Amendment. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 10(1):219 – 225. Arnborg T (1988).Where Savanna Turns into Desert. Rural Development Studies No.24 Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Upsala, Sweden, p.150. AOAC International (formerly the Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (1999). Official Methods of Analysis. Arlington, VA: AOAC International. Augie MA, Adegbite MA, Sanda AR, Ahmed I, Ibrahim M, Zakari SI (2020). Soil Fertility Status of Jega Fadama Land, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Teaching and Research Farm. Greener Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Vol. 7(1), pp. 1-5. Bray RH, Kurtz LT (1945). Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Journal of Soil Science, 59:39-45. Burges A, Raw F (1967). Soil Biology; Academic Press USDA-NRCS-Soil Biology URL. Chapman HD (1965). Cation Exchange Capacity. In: Methods of soil analysis chemical and microbiological properties (ed) C.A Black, agronomy 9:891-901. Esu IE (1991). Detailed Soil Survey of NIHORT Farm at Bunkure, Kano Direct Res. J. Agric. Food Sci. 428 State, Nigeria. Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. hydromorphic soils from South Nigeria. P 185 in Kimble JM (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th. Idoga S (2006). Characteristics, classification and uses of Fadama soils in Makurdi metropolis, Benue State Nigeria. In: Idoga S, Ayuba SA, Agbede OO, Ojeniyi SO (eds.) Management of Fadama Soils for Environment Quality, Food Security and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 30th annual conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria, University of Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria, Pp. 32-27. Isirimah NO (2002). Understanding Terminology and their Functions for Effective Management of Wetlands of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Proceedings of 27th Annual Conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria. Pp. 254 – 267. Jones MJ, Wild A (1975). Soil

6 s of West African Savanna. Technical com
s of West African Savanna. Technical communication No. 55 Common Wealth Bureau of Soil, Harpende, England. Jou ASR, Lowe JA (1985).The wetland and rice in Sub-Saharan Africa. Proceedings of an international conference on wetland utilization for rice production in Sub- Saharan Africa, held at Ibadan, Nigeria, Pp.4-8. Kozah IT (1997). Physico-chemical properties of soils in RafinYaki River valley of Bedi village, Kebbi State, Nigeria. B.Sc. unpublished Project report, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigreria. Ojanuga AG, Lekwa G, AOkusami T (1996). Distribution, Classification and potentials of Wetland Soils of Nigeria. In: Monograph No. 2: Soil Science of Nigeria. Pp. 1 – 24. Okusami TA, Rust RH (1992). Occurrence, Characteristics and Classification of some hydromorphic soils from South Nigeria. P 185 in J.M Kimble (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th Intentional Soil Correlation Meeting (VII ISCOM): Characterization, Classification and Utilization of Wet Soil. USDA, Soil Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE. Onyekwere IN, Ezenwa MIS (2009). Characterization and classification of Barikin Sale Nigerian Southern Guinea savanna Fadama soils for sustainable rice production. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science 19 (2):45-51. Parkinson, D, Paul EA(1982). Microbial biomass, p. 821-830. In A. L. Page, R. H. Miller and D. R. Keeney (ed.), Methods of soil analysis, part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Agronomy Monograph no. 9, 2nd ed. American Society of Agronomy, Inc., and Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, Wis. Sahabi DM, Shehu RA, Ladan MJ, Garba B (2002). Levels of some alkalin and heavy metals in soils of some selected Fadama areas around Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 2: 381-387. Singh BR (1997b). Characteristics of Fadama soils in Sokoto Rima River Basin in Dundaye District, Sokoto State. In: B.R. Singh (edn.). Management of Soil Resources of Nigeria for Sustainable Agric. Production in the 21st Century. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria, held at Benin 21st25th Nov.,1999, Pp.147-152. Singh BR (1999a). Fertility and salinity/sodicity status of Fadama soils in North western Nigeria I: Kebbi State, Nigerian Journal of Basic and applied Sciences. Pp.1-14. Singh BR (1999b). Fertility and salinity/sodicity status of Fadama soils in Northwestern Nigeria. II Zamfara State, Nigerian journ. of Basic and Applied Science, Pp.1-14. Singh BR, Tsoho HK (2001). Fertility and salinity/sodicity studies of the Fadama soils in North-Western Nigeria III; in Sokoto State along the perennial surface water bodies. Nigerian Journal of Basic and applied Sciences, 10: pp.1216. Sira PP, Orathai R, Ratana K, Boonyarach S, Pastra C, Sumaeth, (2010). Biosurfactant production by psendomonasaeruginosa SP4 using sequence batch reactors: Effect of oil to glucose ration. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 49:185 -191. Udo EJ (2002). Nutrient Status and Agricultural Potentials of Wetlands Soils.Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria. P. 112 – 116. Walkley AI, Black (1934). Examination of the Retriggered Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter and a Proposal Modification Official Publication of Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science: Vol. 8, 2020, ISSN 2354-4147 Zakari et al. 429 Chronic Acid Titration Method. Soil Science 37, 29-38. Webster CC, Wilson PN (1990). Agriculture in the tropics. Second edn, ELBS/Longman, London, p.421. Yacouba M (1996). Physico-chemical and hydraulic properties of the Fadama soils in Sokoto Rima River Basin, Sokoto State, Nigeria. Unpublished M.Sc. Dissertation, Department of Soil Science and agricultural Engineering, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. Zuberer DA (1994). Recovery and enumeration of viable bacteria. In: R.W. Weaver, J.S. Angle and P.S. Bottomley, (Ed’s), Methods of Soil Analysis: Microbiological and Biochemical Properties. Part 2. SSSA Book Ser. 5, SSSA, Madison, WI, pp. 119-1