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OpenStaxCNXmodulem401121ChapultepecCastleLorenaGauthereauThisworkispr


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Document on Subject : "OpenStaxCNXmodulem401121ChapultepecCastleLorenaGauthereauThisworkispr"— Transcript:

1 OpenStax-CNXmodule:m401121ChapultepecCas
OpenStax-CNXmodule:m401121ChapultepecCastle*LorenaGauthereauThisworkisproducedbyOpenStax-CNXandlicensedundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionLicense3.0„AbstractThismoduleprovidesbackgroundonMexico'sChapultepecCastleinordertobringcultureintotheclassroom.ItisdesignedforthebeginninghighschoolorcollegeSpanishclassroom.Itincludesevaluationquestionsforbeforeandafterthereading.1Beforeyouread1.DoyouknowofanycastlesinNorthorSouthAmerica?2.WhatdoyouthinkthewordChapultepecmeans?3.WheredoyouthinkChapultepecislocated?4.LookatthepictureofChapultepecCastle.Whatdoyouthinkthebuildingfunctionedas?5.WhathaveyouheardaboutChapultepec?6.Whataresomefamousbuildingsintheworld?7.WhataresomehistoricalbuildingsintheUnitedStates?8.Whyaretheyimportant?Whatroledidtheyplayinhistory?9.Whatisonehistoricalbuildingthatyouwouldliketovisit?Why?ChapultepecCastle Figure1:ChapultepecCastle1 *Version1.2:Aug9,201111:29am-0500„http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/1Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/ttp://hdl.handle.net/1911/21790&#xh300;http://cnx.org/content/m40112/1.2/ OpenStax-CNXmodule:m4011222IntroductionChapultepec(ch-p ul't-pek')Castle(or,CastillodeChapultepec)sitsatopChapultepecHillinMexicoCity.ThewordChapultepecisaNáhuatl(thelanguagespokenbytheAztecs)wordmeaninggrasshopper'shill(inMexico,thecommonwordforgrasshopperischapulín).Thenamereferstothehill'sshape,whichresemblesagrasshopper.TheareasurroundingthecastleisknownastheBosquedeChapultepec(literallyChapultepecForest,butbetterknownasChapultepecParkinEnglish).ItisLatinAmerica'slargesturbanpark(about2.5squaremiles)(Cano).3Pre-HispanicImportanceChapultepecHillshowsanthropologicalevidenceofthepresenceofdierentpeoples,includingtheToltecandtheAztecs(Zavala).AftertheAztecsfoundedthecityofTenochtitl

2 an(modern-dayMexicoCity)in1325,Chapultep
an(modern-dayMexicoCity)in1325,ChapultepecHillwasconsideredtobeasacredplace.Throughoutthefollowingyears,Aztecrulersorderedseveralchangestothehillandforest(Cano).ÁrboldeMontezuma Figure2:"Montezuma'sTree2"onChapultepecHillIn1428,theAzteckingofTexcoco,Netzahualcóyotl,builtaretreatandimprovedtheforest'soraandfauna.Then,in1465,MontezumaIlhuicaminaorderedthathisimagebecarvedinrockatthebottomofthehillandtheconstructionoftheTlaxpanaaqueduct(Cano).In1507,MoctezumaXocoyotzinhadpoolscreatedtoraiseexoticshandserveaswaterstorage;heorderedthatplantsandtreesfromacrosstheempirebeplantedintheChapultepecforest.In1521,Cuauhtémoc3defendedChapultepecagainsttheSpaniards.HernánCortésthentookpossessionofChapultepec,givingCaptainJuliánJaramillothenorthernsection.In1530,aroyaldecreeruledthattheBosquedeChapultepecbelongedtoMexicoCity(Cano).4SpanishColonialPeriodDuringtheSpanishColonialperiod,ChapultepecHillwasstillconsideredtobeoneofthearea'smostbeautifulplaces,suitableforretreats.In1785,undertheruleofNewSpain'sViceroyBernardodeGálvez, 2Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://hdl.hand&#xh300;le.net/1911/217873LastAztecrulerhttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/1.2/ OpenStax-CNXmodule:m401123constructionbeganonacountryhouseatthetopofChapultepecHill.ThearchitectinchargewasLieutenantColoneloftheSpanishArmyandengineerFranciscoBambitelli.WhenBambitellihadtodeparttoHavana,Cuba,theCaptainoftheinfantryandengineerManuelAgustínMascarótookovertheproject(Museo).Despiterapidprogressontheproject,ViceroyBernardodeGálvezdiedin1786beforeitscompletion;itwasspeculatedthathewaspoisonedforactuallydesigningafortress,ratherthanacountryhouse,fromwherehecouldleadarevoltagainsttheSpanishCrown(Zavala).Asaresult,theCrownorderedahalttotheconstructionandattemptedtoauctionitoatthepriceof60thousandpesos(eventhoughtheyhadalrea

3 dyspentover300thousandpesosonitsconstruc
dyspentover300thousandpesosonitsconstructionuptothatpoint)(Zavala).Duetoalackofinterestinthebuilding,ViceroyJuanVicentedeGuemesPachecoyPadilla,the2ndCountofRevillagigedo,orderedthatthebuildingbeusedtohousetheKingdomofNewSpain'sGeneralArchive.Thisprojectalsofailed(Zavala).In1806,MexicoCity'smunicipalgovernmentnallypurchasedthebuildingandsurroundingforest(Zavala).Thebuildingremainedabandoned,however,duringMexico'sWarofIndependence.In1833,itbecametheMilitaryAcademy.Duetothestrategiclocationandfortress-likesurroundingsofthebuilding,ChapultepecCastleservedasamilitarypostduringtheMexicanAmericanWar(1846-1848)andstoodasMexicoCity'slastlineofdefenseagainsttheUSAmericanarmy.TheBattleofChapultepec(Sept.12-13,1847)wasthelastbattlebeforetheUScapturedMexicoCity,endingthewar(formoreonsignicantbattlesandbattleplanmapsoftheMexicanAmericanWar,includingtheBattleofChapultepec,seethemodule:MapsoftheMexicanAmericanWar4).5LosNiñosHéroes(TheBoyHeroes)MexicanlegendholdsthatduringtheBattleofChapultepec,sixbraveteenagecadetsrefusedtoabandontheirpostsanddieddefendingtheircountry.Theirnameswere:JuandelaBarrera,JuanEscutia,FranciscoMarquez,AgustinMelgar,FernandoMontesdeOca,andVicenteSuarez(Tuck).Thenalsurvivor,JuanEscutia,issaidtohavewrappedhimselfintheMexicanagandjumpedfromthecastlerooftopreventtheagfromfallingintoenemyhands.Sacriciodelosniñosheroes(SacricebytheBoyHeroes) Figure3:MuralinChapultepecCastlemuseumbyGabrielFlores(1970).6RoyalandPresidentialPalaceIn1864,duringtheFrancoMexicanWar(alsoknownastheFrenchIntervention),theFrench-imposedsovereigns,EmperorMaximilian(Maximiliano)5andEmpressCharlotte(Carlota)6,chosetoliveinthe 4Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://cnx.org/conten&#xh300;t/m38574/latest5Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://hdl.hand&#xh3

4 00;le.net/1911/218236Seetheleatttp:
00;le.net/1911/218236Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://hdl.hand&#xh300;le.net/1911/21813http://cnx.org/content/m40112/1.2/ OpenStax-CNXmodule:m401124castle.TheyhiredseveralAustrian,French,Belgian,andMexicanarchitectstoimprovethecastle'slivingconditions(Museo).InordertoconnectChapultepectoMexicoCity,EmperorMaximiliancommissionedthecreationofaboulevardnamedPaseodelaEmperatriz(theEmpress'Promenade).Today,thisboulevardisnamedPaseodelaReforma7(ReformPromenade).MaximilianandCarlotaalsohadvastimprovementsmadetothecastle'srooftopgarden(Museo).Chapultepecdiningroom Figure4:Maximilian'sandCharlotte'sdiningroominsideChapultepecCastleAfterthefalloftheSecondEmpireofMexicoin1867,thecastleremainedabandonedforalmosttenyears.In1876,itwasdesignatedastheAstronomical,Meteorological,andMagneticObservatory("AntecedentesHistóricas").TheObservatory,however,wasmovedtoadierentsitein1883andtheMilitaryCollegeonceagainhadaccesstothegrounds.Thecastlethenunderwentrenovationsinordertoserveasapresidentialpalaceforyearstocome("AntecedentesHistóricas").7ChapultepecCastleTodayChapultepecCastle'slastdesignationoccurredinFebruary1939,whenPresidentLázaroCárdenasorderedthecreationoftheNationalInstituteforAnthropologyandHistory,namingthecastleasthelocationoftheMuseoNacionaldeHistoria(NationalHistoryMuseum)("AntecedentesHistóricas").Today,apartofthecastlehousesvariousmuseumcollectionsandpart(knownastheAlcázarshowsotheelegantEuropeandecorandfurnitureofthecastle'sheyday. 7Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://hdl.hand&#xh300;le.net/1911/21809http://cnx.org/content/m40112/1.2/ OpenStax-CNXmodule:m401125ChapultepecCastleWestwing Figure5:WestwingfacadeandbalconyofChapultepecCastle8Afterreading1.WhatdoesthewordChapultepecmean?2.WhatsignicancedidChapultepechillhaveforindigenous

5 people?3.Whendidconstructionbeginontheca
people?3.Whendidconstructionbeginonthecastle?4.WhowasViceroyBernardodeGálvezandwhywasitspeculatedthathewaspoisoned?5.Whatsignicantbattleoccurredatthecastle?6.Whendidthecastlebecomearoyalpalace?7.WhydoyouthinkEmperorMaximilianandEmpressCharlottedecidedtoliveinChapultepec?8.Whattypesofimprovementsorfurnituredoyouthinktheyadded?9.Createatimelinethatchartsthecastle'shistory.10.WhydoyouthinkthatChapultepecCastleisnowanationalmuseum?9Furtherevaluation1.ChapultepecCastlealsoservedasapresidentialresidence.LookupthehistoryandimagesofthecastleandtheWhiteHouse.Howaretheysimilar?Howaretheydierent?WhatisMexico'scurrentpresidentialresidencenamed?HowdoesitcomparetoChapultepecCastle?HowdoesitcomparetotheWhiteHouse?2.WhoaresomeimportantUSnationalheroes?PickoneandbrieydescribewhyheorsheisimportanttoUShistory.DosomemoreresearchonMexico'sNiñosHéroes.Usethelinksinthebibliographytogetyoustarted.Howoldweretheseboys?Isthereamonumenttothem?Ifso,whereisitandwhatdoesitlooklike?HowaretheseheroessimilarordierenttotheUSheroyoujustdescribed?ResearchUSPresidentHarryTrumanandtheNiñosHéroes.Whatdoyouthinkabouthisactions?HowdoyouthinkthisaectedUS-Mexicorelations?3.LookatthevariousmodernmuralsthatcurrentlyhanginChapultepecCastle(ontheMuseoNa-cionaldeHistoriawebsite,clickParapequeñosynotanto,thenLosmuralesdelCastillo):http://www.mnh.inah.gob.mx/pequenosYnoTanto/PyNt_memoria.html8Isthereageneralthemetothesemurals?Whichoneisyourfavorite?Why?Chooseonemuralanddescribetheimage.Researchthemuralandsharewhatyoulearned:Whatdoesthismuralrepresent?Whydoyouthinkitwaschosentohanginthemuseum?WhatisitssignicancetoMexicannationalism?Howdoyouthinkartisusedtopromotenationalism?4.LookuptheotherfamousMexicanattractiononChapultepechill:theChapultepecZoo.Whyisthiszoofamous?Provideadescriptionofthezoo,itshi

6 story,andwhattypesofanimalslivethere. 8S
story,andwhattypesofanimalslivethere. 8Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://www.mnh.inah.gob.mx/pequenosYnoTanto/PyNt_memoria.h&#xh300;tmlhttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/1.2/ OpenStax-CNXmodule:m4011265.ExploretheMuseoNacionaldeHistoria9website.Takeavirtualtour(Clickon"VisitaVirtual"atthebottom)anddescribewhatareasyouviewed.Whatareasofthecastlewouldyouliketovisit?Why?10BibliographyAntecedentesHistóricasMuseoNacionaldeHistoria.http://www.mnh.inah.gob.mx/historia/hist_historicos.html10Cano,Olga.Historia.BosquedeChapultepec.http://www.chapultepec.org.mx/web2010/chapultepec/historia/historia.php11Losniñoshéroes.http://www.mexonline.com/history-ninosheroes.htm12Tuck,Jim.Mexico'sNiñosHeroes("heroicchildren"):realityormyth...October9,2008.Mexconnect.http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/313-mexico-s-ni%C3%B1os-heroes-heroic-children-reality-or-myth13ZavalayAlonso,Manuel(ed).Bosque,cerroycastillodeChapultepecArteseHistoriaMéxico.INAH.http://www.arts-history.mx/banco/?id_nota=2206200410561614 9Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://www.mnh.inah.gob.mx/index_2.h&#xh300;tml10Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://www.mnh.inah.gob.mx/historia/hist_historicos.html&#xh300;11Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://www.chapultepec.org.mx/web2010/chapultep&#xh300;ec/historia/historia.php12Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://www.mexonline.com/history-ninosheroes.h&#xh300;tm13Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/313-mexico-s-ni%C3%B1os-heroes-heroic-children-reality-or-m&#xh300;yth14Seetheleatttp://cnx.org/content/m40112/latest/http://www.arts-history.mx/banco/?id_nota=2&#xh300;2062004105616http://cnx.org/content/m40112/1.