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*o+ to cite ,o p-ete isse .o e i/o tio bot this tic-e Jo  -'s ho ep e i e - c.o  Scieti/ic I/o tio S ste Re - cNet+o k o/ Scieti/ic Jo  -s / o L ti A e ic  the , ibbe , Sp i  Po t -P oject c e ic o-p o/it, ee-ope e the ope ccess iiti tie Ecosiste s ec sos  opec iosISSN: 2007-9028ISSN: 2007-90Iesti ció Pos o Ecosite- i  opI SN:e 2e0 7eN9o8 -s  iNc0 o cte-oi cJit e0 ászec-Ai e i2ó2 Tc oiN0 ope-S c2 7Isbe á2pcNtecbbNi t  , 9 Dcbi PocNb*  bzi seD-scN: pii: e+i cbe  2eobzi zzoczoc Ti,se-se22bi.c2 * iso 2e2 c9 e+isoc e2 AeN/ h e/ '' Tc*-So9o2b .R'k ++/ LL'-LhRj Ai 2tct o iz Sob e.c ti cpc2se D iss ti I Ai2b9cs * Je29 cteDáI: 'R/';'L<=i c/ch ''/'Rk' SAcNcpNi  : zbb+:==DDD/ itcN*s/e 9=c bsoNe/ec>t?L58<5R { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "https://www.docslides.com/slides/870788/NAN_o__to_cite__o_p_ete_iss__x000E_e__o_e_i", "description": "_o__to_cite__o_p_ete_iss__x000E_e__o_e_i__x001D__o____x000B_tio__x001D____x000B_bo__x000E_t_this___x000B__tic_e_Jo__x000", "width": "1276" }

2 einformationonwaterqualityforMexicos
einformationonwaterqualityforMexicosbeefcattleranches.Theobjectiveofthisstudywastoevaluatedrinkingwaterqualityforbeefcattleinthecow-calfoperationthroughcalculationofawaterqualityindex(WQI)thatrelateswaterphysical-chemicalcompositionwithcommoncattledrinkingwatersources.Thestudywasconductedin25cattleranchesofthecow-calfsysteminsevenmunicipalitiesofChihuahua,Mexico.Inallcattleranches,watersampleswerecollectedfromthemainwatersources,andphysicalandchemicalparameterswereanalyzed.StatisticalanalysesweredonethroughKruskal-Wallistest,consideringwatersources(WS)asasourceofvariation.TheWQIwascalculatedconsideringtheparameterscloselyrelatedtoanimalhealthandproductivityandfollowingstandardprocedures.MostparametersshowedhighvariationamongWS.TheonlyparametersinuencedbyWSwerepH,As(p0.05)andCo(p0.01).TheparametersthatsurpassedtheoptimumlevelforcattledrinkingwereturbidityforallWSandMnforearthentankandspring/riverwater.Groundwatershowedthebestqualitywitha50.34WQI,correspondingtogoodclass.Earthentankwateralsocorrespondedtogoodclasswitha98.8WQI,whilespring/riverwaterwasclassiedaspoorwaterforcattlewitha114.47WQI.Keywords:Beefcattle,earthentanks,groundwater,river,springRESUMEN.ExistepocainformaciónsobrelacalidaddelaguaenlosranchosganaderosdeMéxico.Elobjetivofueevaluarlacalidaddelaguaquebebeelganadomedianteelcálculodeuníndicedecalidaddeagua(ICA)querelacionasucomposiciónfísico-químicaconlostiposdeabrevaderostradicionales.Elestudiosellevóacaboen25ran-chosdelsistemavaca-críadesietemunicipiosdelestadodeChihuahua.Encadaranchosetomaronmuestrasdeaguaparadeterminarsucomposiciónfísico-química.LosdatosobtenidosfueronsometidosaunapruebadeKruskal-Wallis,considerandolostiposdeabrevadero(TA)comofactordeestudio.ElICAfuecalculadoconbaseenlosparámetrosrelacionadosconlasaludyproductividaddelganadoysiguiendoprocedimientosestandarizados.LamayoríadelosparámetrosmostraronunaaltavariabilidadconrespectoaTA.LosúnicosparámetrosquesevieroninuenciadosporTAfueronpHyAs(p0.05)yCo(p0.01).LosparámetrosquesobrepasaronlosnivelesóptimosparaconsumoanimalfueronlaturbidezentodoslosTAyelMnenpresonesymanantialesy/oríos.ElaguadepozomostrólamejorcalidadconunICAde50.34elcualcorrespondeaunacalicacióndebuena.ElaguadepresonestambiénobtuvounacalicacióndebuenaconunICAde98.8.Elaguademanantialy/oríofuecalicadacomopobreconunICAde114.47.Palabrasclave:Aguadepozo,ganadobovinodecarne,manantial,presones,ríoDOI:10.19136/era.a4n11.1071www.ujat.mx/era331 Saucedo-Teránetal.BeefcattledrinkingwaterqualityEcosist.Recur.Agropec.4(11):331-340,2017INTRODUCTIONWateristhemainbodyconstituentofanimalsandabasiccomponentinthefunctioningandmaintenanceoftheirphysiologicalprocesses.Itrepresentsupto74%ofsofttissueandparticipatesintheirvitalprocesses(Speakmanetal.2001).Waterisfundamentalinsalivaproductionforfoodmasticationandswallowing,wastesecretion,bodytemperatureregulation,tissuelubrication,milkpro-duction,min

3 eralbalance,pHmaintenance,andner-voussys
eralbalance,pHmaintenance,andner-voussystembuering(MississippiStateUniversity2008).Aspartofanimalfeeding,wateristhesim-plestnutrientbutthehighestinvolumeforanygivenanimal.Animalscanwithstandlongperiodsoftimewithoutfood,buttheycanonlywithstandafewdayswithoutwater.Therefore,wateravailabilityinbothquantityandqualitynotonlyrepresentsaproductivityfactor,butalsoasignofrespectforanimalsandtheirrightstohaveahealthyandcom-fortable(Lardneretal.2005).Waterqualityincattleranchesisinuencedbynaturalandanthropogenicfactorsandcanbein-ternalandexternal.Internalfactorscanbegeomor-phology,rangetypeandcondition,watersources,cattlemanagement,andrustingofmachineryandfacilities(Favaetal.2002).Inshrub-lands,domi-nantsoilsaresedimentaryandcalcareous,sowa-termaybealkalinewithhighsaltcontentandmetalssuchasaluminum.Conversely,soilsingrass-landsarevolcanic,alluvial,neutralorlightlyacid,andlowinsalts(COTECOCA1978).Intermsofplantcover,thereisaninverserelationshipbe-tweenbasalcoverandsoilerosionbywater(Havs-tadetal.2007,Quiñones-Veraetal.2009),whichmeanshighersoilparticlesandsaltsonstock-waterdevelopmentssuchasstreams,rivers,tanks,anddams(Holguínetal.2006).Waterqualityisalsocloselyrelatedtocattlemanagement.Itiscommonthatcattlegointopondsanddamswhendrinking,causingsedimentmovementandwatercontamina-tionbycattleurineandmanure(Shereretal.1988).Conversely,thisrarelyhappenswhenusingwatertroughs(Surberetal.2003).Inrelationtoexter-nalfactors,wateratcattleranchescanbeaectedbyanthropogenicactivitiesthatpotentiallygen-eratecontaminantsincludingurbanwastes,mine-metallurgic,andagricultureactivities(Korenekovaetal.2002,LukowskiandWater2011).Despitethekeyroleofwaterinlivestockgrowthandreproduction,thereislittleinformationonwaterquality,notonlyforcattleranchesbutalsoforanylivestockenterprise.Noresearchwasfoundonwaterqualityforcattleranchesunderex-tensiveconditionsinnorthMexico.Thismightberelevantsincecattleranchesreceivewaterrunofromurbansourcesandotherpotentialcontami-natingsourceslikeminingandagriculture.Theseanthropogenicactivitiesrepresentpotentialcon-taminationforanimalwatersources.However,itisunknownwhetherwaterrunohasaneectonwa-terqualityofgroundwater,tanks,springsandriversthatowthroughcattleranches.Theobjectiveofthisstudywastoevaluatedrinkingwaterqualityforbeefcattleinthecow-calfoperationthroughcalculationofawaterqualityindexthatrelateswaterphysical-chemicalcompositionwithcommondrinkingwatersourcesofcattleranchesinsouthernChihuahua,Mexico.MATERIALSANDMETHODSThestudywascarriedoutat25cattleranchesofthecow-calfsystemlocatedinsevenmunici-palitiesofChihuahua,Mexico.Orographyoftheranchesvariesfromvalleystohillsandlowmoun-tains.Climateofthisregionisdrytemperate,withtemperaturesrangingfrom-12Cto32C,andmeanannualprecipitationof450mm.Vegetationvariesfromgrasslandsandshrub-landsinthevalleystowoodlandsinthemountains,includingseveraltreeandtree-likespeciessuchaspine(Pinusspp),Ju

4 niperusdeppeanaandoak(Quercusspp).Mainve
niperusdeppeanaandoak(Quercusspp).Mainvegetationtypeswherecattleranchesarelocatedincludemesquite(Prosopisglandulosa)shrubland,creosotebush(Larreatridentata)shrubland,oak-bunchgrass,andshortgrassprairie(COTECOCA1978).Anthropogenicactivitiesrepresentingpoten-tialforwatercontaminationincattleranchestakeplaceinallstudiedmunicipalities.Miningactivitieswww.ujat.mx/era332DOI:10.19136/era.a4n11.1071 Saucedo-Teránetal.BeefcattledrinkingwaterqualityEcosist.Recur.Agropec.4(11):331-340,2017arethemostcommoninHidalgodelParral,SantaBarbara,andSanFranciscodelOromunicipalities,withgold,silver,lead,copper,zinc,uorite,andbaritemining.Also,irrigatedagricultureinAllende,Coronado,andMatamoros,andforestryinSanFranciscodelOroandHuejotitanmunicipalitiesareimportanteconomicactivities(INEGI2009a,b).Inallcattleranches,watersourcesforcattlewereidentiedandsampleswerecollectedtodeter-minetheirqualitybasedontheirphysicalandchem-icalvariables,metalsandmetalloids.Thewatersourcesweregroundwater,earthentankandspring-river.Atotalof43watersamples,1.0Leach,weretakeninplasticbottles.Ineachranch,asampleofeachavailablewatersourcewastaken.Fromthe43samples,28camefromgroundwaterandninefromearthentanks(eightfromnon-fencedtankswherecattlegotintothewater,andonefromafencedearthentank).Theothersixwatersamplescamefrompermanentstreams(fourfromspringsandtwofromlowowrivers).Watersamplesfromgroundwaterweretakenatwatertroughs.Theearthentankwatersamplesweretakenfromthewaterbodysedge.Inthewaterspringsandrivers,watersamplesweretakendirectlyfromthesiteswherecattleregularlydrinkwater.Noneofthewa-terspringsorriverswerefenced,socattlegotintowaterfordrinking,withpossiblecontaminationofwaterbysoilerosion,runo,andcattleurineandfeces.Watersampleswerecollectedfrommarchtoapril2011,duringthedryseason.Proximityofranchestopotentialcontaminationsourceswasalsorecorded.Tworancheswereclose(5km)towastewatersources,fourclosetominingwastes(5km),oneclosetoirrigatedcrops,twoclosetodry-landcrops,andtherestwerefar&#x-308;(5km)frompotentialcontaminationsources.Aftercollection,watersampleswereplacedinanice-chestandtrans-portedtolaboratoryandkeptrefrigeratedat4Cun-tilphysicalandchemicalanalysis.WatersamplingandmanagementwereperformedunderMexicanregulations(SECOFI1980).Estimatedparameterswerepotentialofhy-drogen(pH),electricalconductivity(EC),dissolvedoxygen(DO),turbidity(TUR),totalsuspendedsolids(TSS),totaldissolvedsolids(TDS),metalsandmetalloids(As,Cd,Co,Cr,Cu,Mg,Mn,Ni,Pb,Se,andZn).PotentialofhydrogenandECwereestimatedwithaHannaInstrumentsR modelHI-98130multiparametrictester(SE2011,SECOFI2000).DOwasestimatedthroughSE(2001a).A60mlaliquotwasplacedinacoveredrecipient,and5dropsofAreactiveandvedropsofBreactivewereadded;therecipientwasclosed,stirredandlefttostanduntilsedimentationofthema-terial,whichtookabout2min.Then,10dropsofreactiveCwereaddedtotherecipient,coveredandstirredagain.Whenthesampleturnedtolightyellow,DOconcentrati

5 onwasmeasuredinaHannaInstrumentsR modelH
onwasmeasuredinaHannaInstrumentsR modelHI-9146oximeter.Toesti-mateTUR,aHannaInstrumentsR modelH193703turbiditymeter(SE2001b)wasused.Solidcontents(TS,TSS,andTDS)wereestimatedaccordingtotheMexicanregulation(SE2015).Totalsolidswereanalyzedthroughdehydration(110Cfor24h)ofa50mlaliquotinaporcelainbowl,andweightedbydierenceatambienttemperature.TotaldissolvedsolidswereestimatedaccordingtotheSE(2015)method,usinga50mlaliquotpassedthroughavacuumpumpwithalterinaBuchnerfunnel.Oncetheltrationprocessended,lterpaperwasplacedinastoveat60Cfor24h.Afterthat,l-terpaperwasdriedatambienttemperature,andweighed.TotaldissolvedsolidswerecalculatedbyweightdierencebetweenTSandTSS.MetalandmetalloidswerequantiedusingtheSE(2001c)Mexicanregulation.Digestionprocesswasper-formedwitha100mlaliquotand5mlofnitricaciduntilcompletion.Then,thedigestedaliquotwaslteredandtri-distilledwateraddeduptotheorigi-nalvolume.ConcentrationofmetalsandmetalloidswasdonewithanICPOpticalEmissionSpectropho-tometer(PerkinElmerR model8300).DatawereanalyzedwithKruskall-Wallisnon-parametrictest,sincedatadidnotcomplywithnormalityassump-tionrequiredforparametrictests(Bautistaetal.2009).Pb,Mn,CuandCdwereexcludedfromthisanalysis,becauseofheteroscedasticity.Theone-wayKruskall-Wallistestwasperformed(SAS2008)withwatersourceassourceofvariation.DOI:10.19136/era.a4n11.1071www.ujat.mx/era333 Saucedo-Teránetal.BeefcattledrinkingwaterqualityEcosist.Recur.Agropec.4(11):331-340,2017Waterqualityindex(WQI)wasdeterminedconsideringtheparameterscloselyrelatedtoanimalhealthandproductivity,accordingtoAlobaidyetal.(2010),andconstructedinvesteps:Aspecicweight(Wi)ona1to4scalewasgiventotheselectedparameters,basedontheirim-portanceaswaterqualityindicatorsforcattle.Avalueofonewasgiventolessimportantparame-tersandfourtomoreimportantparameters(Table1).ValuesofWicorrespondtostandardvaluesre-portedfromresearcharticlesandobtainedfromex-pertsthroughpanelsessions(Wright2007,Olkowski2009,Almeidaetal.2012,Gharibietal.2012,Curran2014).Relativeweightofeachparameterwasesti-matedthroughthefollowingequation:Pi=Wi Pni=1WiWhere:Pi=Relativeweightofeachparameter,Wi=Specicweightofeachparameter(1-4),n=Numberofparameters(1-n).Qualityratingwascalculatedthroughthefollowingequation:qi=Ci OiX100Where:qi=QualityRating,Ci=Chemicalconcentrationofeachparameter,Oi=Optimumvalueforeachparameter(Table2).ValuesofOiwereassignedbasedonseveralreports(Carson2000,CCME2005,SEDUE1989,FAO1994,Higginsetal.2008).Thewatersub-qualityindex(Si)wasobtainedforeachparameter:Si=piqiThewaterqualityindex(WQI)wasestimatedthroughthesummationoftheSiforeachparameter:WQI=Pi=1nSiTheWQIobtainedforeachwatersourcewasqualiedbasedontheclassicationproposedbySahuandSikdar(2008).Accordingtothem,aWQIlessthan50correspondstoexcellentqualitywater;aWQIfrom50to100togoodwater;aWQIfrom100to200topoorwater;aWQIfrom200to300toverypoorwaterandaWQIabove300towaterun

6 suitablefordrinking.RESULTSValuesforWias
suitablefordrinking.RESULTSValuesforWiassignedtothestudiedvariablesareshownatTable1.Arsenic,Cd,Cr,Ni,andPbreceivedavalueof4sincetheyhaveahighimpactoncattlehealthandproductivity.Fourvariables(EC,TUR,TSS,TDS,andCo)wereas-signedavalueof3.Copper,Mg,andMnreceivedavalueof2,andnally,SeandZnreceivedavalueof1becauseoftheirlowimportanceascattlewaterqualityindicators.Table3showsphysicalandchemicalcompo-sitionofdrinkingwaterforcattleinthestudyarea.TheonlyparametersinuencedbywatersourcewerepH,As(p0.05)andCo(p0.01).Therestofthemeansareonlydierentindescriptiveterms.HighestpHvaluecorrespondedtogroundwaterandearthentankwaterwith7.9,anddecreasedto7.3inspring/riverwater.ValuesforAsandCoshowedthatbothparameterswerehigherinearthentankthaningroundwaterandspring/riverwatersources.MeanvaluesforECwerefrom322inearthentankto509Scm�2ingroundwater.GroundwatershowedlowerTURwith16.9NTUcomparedtotheotherwatersources,andalwayswashigherthantherangeandoptimumlimitsforallwatersources.However,inourstudy,TSSweresimilarandvariedfrom166mgL�1ingroundwaterto128mgL�1inspring/riverwater.TDSvalueswere417.7,504.4and643.3mgL�1forriver/spring,groundwaterandearthentank,respectively,andwerewithinrangeandoptimumlimits.ConcentrationofDOwassimilaramongwatersources,varyingfrom7.5to7.9mgL�1.Metalandmetalloidconcentrationfellwithinoptimumrange,exceptMnforearthentankandspring/riverwaters(0.45and0.85mgL�1,respectively)thatexceededrangeandoptimumva-lues.www.ujat.mx/era334DOI:10.19136/era.a4n11.1071 Saucedo-Teránetal.BeefcattledrinkingwaterqualityEcosist.Recur.Agropec.4(11):331-340,2017Table1.ValuesofWiandcattlehealthandperformanceimplicationsoftheparametersusedtodetermineWQIinnorthernMexico'scow-calfsystem. ParameterUnitsWiImplications pH-Alterationofcattlewaterintake,health,andperformance.ECScm�13Alterationofcattlehealth.TURNTU3Alterationofwaterintake.TSSmgL�13Alterationofcattlewaterintake,health,andperformance.TDSmgL�13Alterationofcattlewaterintake,health,andperformance.DOmgL�1Lowconcentrationsindicatetoxiccontaminants(NO3,NH3andPO4).AsmgL�14Toxicity.CdmgL�14Toxicity.ComgL�13Alterationofcattlehealth,occasionallytoxic.CrmgL�14Toxicity.CumgL�12Alterationofcattlehealth,occasionallytoxic.MgmgL�12Alterationofcattlehealth,occasionallytoxic.MnmgL�12Alterationofcattlehealth.NimgL�14Toxicity.PbmgL�14Toxicity.SemgL�11Alterationofcattlehealth,occasionallytoxic.ZnmgL�11Alterationofcattlehealth,occasionallytoxic. NotincludedintheWQIestimation.Table2.Permissiblemaximum/minimumlimits,optimumrangeandoptimumvalue(Oi)ofthephysicalandchemicalvariables,heavymetalsandmetalloidsforbeefcattledrinkingwateraccordingtodierentreferences. Permissiblemaximum/minimumlimits ParameterHigginsSEDUECarsonCCMEFAOOptimumOptimumetal.,(2008)(1989)(2000)(2005)(1994)rangevalue(Oi) pH*5-9--6-96-86-97.5EC---500-15001000TUR-----3-43.5TSS1000-3000----1000-30002000TDS10

7 00-30001000--30001000-30002000DO*-6---6-
00-30001000--30001000-30002000DO*-6---6-87As0.20.20.20.20.0250-0.20.1Cd0.050.020.050.050.080.02-0.080.05Co0.5-1110.5-10.75Cr1-110.050.05-10.5Cu0.50.50.50.50.50.50.5Mg---400-400400Mn0.5--0.05-0.050.05Ni---1110.5Pb0.1-0.10.10.10.10.05Se0.05-0.050.050.050.050.05Zn24-25245024-5037 NotincludedintheWQIestimation.AsshowninTable3,groundwatershowedbestqualitywitha50.34WQI,correspondingtogoodclass.Earthentankwateralsocorrespondedtogoodclasswitha98.8WQI,whilespring/riverwaterwasclassiedaspoorwaterforcattlewitha114.47WQI.Thoseparametersthatsurpassedopti-mumlevelforcattledrinkingwereTURforallwatersourcesandMnforearthentankandspring/riverwaters.Noneofhighimportance(Wi=4)parame-tershadhigherconcentrationsthanoptimum.DISCUSSIONMethodologyusedforWQIestimationisde-signedforthoseparameterswhosebenecialeectonwaterqualityisinverselyrelatedtotheircon-centration(Alobaidyetal.2010).Therefore,inthecalculationofWQI,DOwasnotincludedbe-causethisparameterfollowsadirectrelationshiptowaterquality.Similarly,pHwasnotincludedsincethisvariableaectswaterqualityunderbothDOI:10.19136/era.a4n11.1071www.ujat.mx/era335 Saucedo-Teránetal.BeefcattledrinkingwaterqualityEcosist.Recur.Agropec.4(11):331-340,2017Table3.Waterphysicalandchemicalparameters(meanSE)andWQIvaluesinnorthernMexico'scattlecow-calfoperationaccordingtowatersource. WaterSource ParameterUnitsGroundwaterEarthenTankSpring/River(n=28)(n=9)(n=6) pH-7.90.17.90.27.30.1ECScm-250913532285403101TURNTU16.93.126.67.526.58.4TSSmgL-1165.814.3139.625.3127.739.7TDSmgL-1504.4145.4643.3367.8417.7117.6DO*mgL-17.90.27.50.57.90.5AsmgL-10.0120.0030.0230.0060.0120.002CdmgL-10.0020.0010.0070.0070.0010.001ComgL-10.0020.0010.010.0060.0020.001CrmgL-10.1040.0120.1130.0230.1230.029CumgL-10.0250.0040.0450.0190.0280.01MgmgL-17.61.36.21.511.12.3MnmgL-10.0150.0030.450.2010.850.828NimgL-10.0970.0240.1360.0660.2160.13PbmgL-10.0060.0010.0230.0090.0060.002SemgL-10.0060.0010.0080.0060.010.004ZnmgL-10.1510.0360.170.070.1590.086 WQI-50.3498.8114.47 NotincludedintheWQIestimation.lowandhighvalues.Intermsofpermissiblelimits,pHvaluesinthethreewatersourceswerewithintheoptimumrange(6-9)andonlyspring/riverwa-terwasslightlybelowoptimumvalueof7.5(Table2).ValuesforpHinourstudyaresimilartothoseofBrewetal.(2011)whomentionedthatwaterpHvarieswithwatersourcewithinthesameranch,from7.0ingroundwaterto7.4inearthentankwa-ter.TheECvaluesobtainedinourstudyaresimilartothosefoundbyBanoeng-Yakuboetal.(2009)andfallwithinrangeandoptimumvaluespecica-tions.AccordingtoMukhtaretal.(2009),ECisanindicatorofdissolvedsaltsinwaterandisacom-monprobleminaridregions.Probably,theselowECvaluesmaybeexplainedbythefactthatmostoftheranches(15/25)arenotconnedtoaridre-gions.Maintoxic

8 eectsofECincludeabdominalpain,nasal
eectsofECincludeabdominalpain,nasalandnervousdisorders(Curran2014).TURisanindicatorofwatercleannessandmaybecorrelatedtoTSS,dependingonthekindofwatersource(Almeidaetal.2012).Inground-water,animportantfactorforTURincreasingisalgaepresence(RasbyandWaltz2011),althoughwindmaygeneratedust,increasingTURandTSS.TSSvalueswerehigherthanthosereportedinotherstudies(Surberetal.2003)butdidnotexceedtherangeandoptimumvaluesforcattledrinkingwater.Shereretal.(1988)mentionedthatwaterTSScon-centrationincreaseswhencattlegetintowatertodrink.TSSgeneratefromrunoduringintenseraininsoilswithlowplantcover(Havstadetal.2007,Quiñones-Veraetal.2009,Hone-Jayetal.2013).TDSvaluesweresimilaramongwatersources.TDSconcentrationvariesnaturallywithsaltrunofromsoilthatgoesintosurfacewater.Inthecaseofgroundwater,TDSisdirectlyaectedbyhydro-geochemicalpropertiesoftheaquifers(Thivyaetal.2014,Mosley2015).DomesticwastewaterdischargeandcattlemismanagementcontributetotheincreaseofTDSinsurfacewater(Surberetal.2003,Rajankaretal.2011).AlthoughMnshowedahigherthanoptimumconcentrationinearthentanksandspring/riversources,cattlein-toxicationbythismetalinwaterisrare.Highin-takeofMncausesanemiaanddigestivedisorders(Olkowski2009).SourcesofMninwaterarenatu-ralsoil-borne,cattlefeed,andwastewaterfromur-bancenters(Sommers1977,Blanco-Penedoetal.2009).ResultsofWQIobtainedinthisstudyarewww.ujat.mx/era336DOI:10.19136/era.a4n11.1071 Saucedo-Teránetal.BeefcattledrinkingwaterqualityEcosist.Recur.Agropec.4(11):331-340,2017similartootherstudieswherethesamemethodologywasused(Banoeng-Yakuboetal.2009,Alobaidyetal.2010,Gharibietal.2012,Thivyaetal.2014).TheseauthorsreportedthatthemostinuencingparametersintheWQIwereheavymetalsandTDSconcentration.Dierencesinwatersourcesob-servedinthisstudyconcurwithotherinvestiga-tions.InastudymadeinOregon,Mineretal.(1992)determinedthatcattleprefergroundwateroeredinawatertroughratherthanspring/riverorearthentankwater.Similarly,yearlingsteersdrinkinggroundwatergained23%moreweightthanthosedrinkingearthentankwaterinAlberta,Canada,duetoahigherTSSconcentrationinearthentankwater(Surberetal.2003).CONCLUSIONSCattledrinkingwaterinthecow-calfsysteminsouthernChihuahua,Mexicoisgoodforground-waterandearthentank,andpoorforspring/rivers.WaterqualityparametersthatnegativelyinuencedWQIwereturbidityandManganeseconcentration.Toobtainreliabledataabouttheeectsofwateronanimalhealth,itwouldbenecessarytoincludeotherdiagnosticvariables,inadditiontothewaterqualityindicatorsusedinthisstudy.LITERATURECITEDAlmeidaC,GonzálezSO,MalleaM,GonzálezP(2012)Arecreationalwaterqualityindexusingchemical,physicalandmicrobiologicalparameters.EnvironmentalScienceandPollutionResearch19:3400-3411.AlobaidyAHMJ,HaiderA,BahramM(2010)ApplicationofwaterqualityindexforassessmentofDokanLakeEcosystem,KurdistanRegion,Iraq.JournalofWaterResourcesProtection2:792-798.Banoeng-YakuboB,YidanaSM,EmmanuelN,AkabzaaT,AsieduD(2009)Anal

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