Download presentation
1 -

RaabLLooneyAPNGeisRHoenleDRosenRGenzelurExtraterrestriscD85741Garchin


raabmpempgdehttp//-lsmpe-garcPropertiesFIFILSseealsoisathannelspectrometerwhichallowssimultaneousobservationsinthewelengthbands42-110mand110-210Thekeytothe3Dimagingcapabilityisanimageslicersystemineac

lucy's Recent Documents

When to Patients who experience any of the  symptoms should  r more in
When to Patients who experience any of the symptoms should r more in

149149149149149149149149149149at Berkeley Outpatient CenterOverview Services is one of several specialty services available at the Berkeley Outpatient Center Our work with referring providers to ensu

published 0K
The Homes At Deer Mountain
The Homes At Deer Mountain

Balance SheetDec 31 17ASSETSCurrent AssetsChecking/SavingsEscrow Account-218910320000Money Market Account-417226255591Reserve Account-72721802290Total Checking/Savings38846784Accounts ReceivableAccoun

published 0K
Dominance and Monopolization
Dominance and Monopolization

Marcel Canoy Patrick Rey Eric van Damme1 Introduction Mixed feelings A firm is in a dominant position if it has the ability to behave independently from its comAmbiguous welfare consequences The mixed

published 0K
Case 112cv01261SAB   Document 19   Filed 021913   Page 1 of 1
Case 112cv01261SAB Document 19 Filed 021913 Page 1 of 1

1Pond North LLP450 Sansome Street12th FloorSan Francisco CA 9411112345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728EDWARD F DONOHUE SBN 112730CHRISTOPHER J BORDERS SBN 135901edonohuehinshawlawcomcborders

published 0K
University of Birmingham Research Archive etheses repository The inte
University of Birmingham Research Archive etheses repository The inte

Theories of in Islamic law with special reference to the school of law and their DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY COREMetadata citation and similar papers at coreacukProvided by University of Birmingham Researc

published 0K
Annual Work Programme
Annual Work Programme

2October 2020ESMA20-95-127320212Contents1Foreword and general context422021 planned resources83Work Programme 2021931Promoting supervisory convergence9311Central Counterparties9312Market Integrity1031

published 0K
AnIMPORTANTNOTICEattheendofthisdatasheetaddressesavailabilitywarrantyc
AnIMPORTANTNOTICEattheendofthisdatasheetaddressesavailabilitywarrantyc

intellectualpropertymattersandotherimportantdisclaimersPRODUCTIONDATALM124-NLM224-NLM2902-NLM324-NSNOSC16DMARCH2000REVISEDJANUARY2015LMx24-NLM2902-NLow-PowerQuad-OperationalAmplifiers11Features1Intern

published 0K
Data from the
Data from the

Serifis 13 NATIONAL HEALTH SUiWEY Number 11 SurgicalOperationsin shirt-stayHospals lhitedStates-1968 Statistics are presented on the volume and classes of based on data abstracted from a national sam

published 0K
Download Section

Download - The PPT/PDF document "" is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.






Document on Subject : "RaabLLooneyAPNGeisRHoenleDRosenRGenzelurExtraterrestriscD85741Garchin"— Transcript:

1 Raab,L.LooneyA.PN.Geis,R.Hoenle,D.RosenR
Raab,L.LooneyA.PN.Geis,R.Hoenle,D.RosenR.GenzelurExtraterrestriscD-85741Garching,GermanepresenttheopticalsystemoftheField-ImagingFar-InfraredLineSpectrometer(FIFILS)fortheSOFIAairbornewdi ractiontegral eldspectroscopyinelengthrange42to210microns.oparallelwelengthc(42-110micronsand110-210microns)spectrograph.spectralresolutionvariesintherangeofR=1400-6500,dependingonobservingwTheopticalcomponentsintheimagesliceriscomprisedofseveralmirrorswithphysicaldimensionsontheorderofafewtensofwmodelinguponexpectedperformanceebeenscalardi ractionanalysiscarriedoutcommercialsoftagehasbeencon rmedbyafullectorialanalysis,showingnegligibledependenceofthedi ractione ectsonthepolarizationpropertiesoftheelectromagnetic eld.tegralFieldImaging,Spectrometer,Far-Infrared,imageslicer,FIR,FIFILS,FIFI,SOFIA,di ractionuponbothspectralelocitareobtainedPracticallyeverytypespectrometersu ersypesspectrometersertopreferentiallychoosetoofthethreedimensionalquanforalongslitspectrometerarangeofonespatialandonespectralcoordinatesatagivenspatialcoordinateandforaFerotspectrometerarangeoftspatialcoordinatesatagivenwelengthcoordinate.spectrometersspectrometersts,becauseoftheircomparativelyeasydesign.oaccesstherespectivemissingdimension,theobservspectrometersspectrometersource,orspectrallyscanaFerotspectrometeracrossthewelengthcoordinatesofinInadditiontodecreaseofobservingeciencyerofentohangethepointingorscantheerot,t

2 heobservingconditions(e.g.seeingorpointi
heobservingconditions(e.g.seeingorpointingerrors)ortalresponsivitymaydrift,addingsystematicnoisetothedatacube.InthispaperwepresenttheopticaldesignofthetheFar-InfraredField-ImagingLineSpectrometer(FIFILS)utilizinganimageslicertechniqueforthe rsttimeintheBesidesitsobviousstrengthofobtainingacompletedatacubeinonesingleobservation,the3Dimagingtechniquealsoproduceshighlyreliabledatasetsduetotheparallelandsimultaneousdataacquisition.Scalingimageslicingtechniquessuccessfullydemonstratedinthenearinfrared,hutilize atmirrorsystemsisnotwithoutproblems:conservationofenergydictatesthattheproductofcollectingareaandacceptedsolidangleoftheopticsisdirectlyproportionaltothesquareofthewelength,making atmirrorimageslicersprohibitivelylargeforlongwelengthapplications.Alargeconcerninthedesignofafar-infraredimageslicingsystemisunadi ractione ects,sincesomeoftheemploedmirrorsarenotlargerthanafewtensoftheobservingwUtmostcareinanalyzingtheconsequencesofdi ractione ectsmustthereforebeentakentoaoidanydegradationoftheinstrumentcapabilities. raab@mpe.mpg.de;http:// -ls.mpe-garc PropertiesFIFILS(seealso)isathannelspectrometerwhichallowssimultaneousobservationsinthewelengthbands42-110mand110-210Thekeytothe3Dimagingcapabilityisanimageslicersystemineachband,thatrearrangesthetodimensional55pixel eldalonga25(+4)1pseudo-slit(Fig.1)whichcanbeeasilyfedintoagratingspectrometer.Noticethedeliberate1pixelgapbeteenthe5

3 individualsliceseliminatingcross-talkbet
individualsliceseliminatingcross-talkbetspatialpixelsthatarenotadjacentinthe2-dimensional eldofviewlikepixelIandIIinFig.1.Ineachannel,alargeformat2516pixeldetectorarrayisutilized.       Figure1.AdetailshowingthebasicdesignpremisefortheFIFILSimageslicer.Theopticsmustslicetherowsofthe55pixel eldofviewintoa251pixelpseudo-slit.Thegapsintheslitareaddedtoreducecross-talkbett eldpixels(e.g.pixelsIandII).InFig.2wepresentaschematicoerviewoftheFIFILSopticallaoutinblockformat.The rstopticalcomponenintheopticalpathisanadjustabledichroicbeamsplitterwhichre ectsincominginfraredradiationintotheFIFILSostatandpassesthevisibleandnear-infraredradiationtoaCCDguidercamera.There ectedbeamenterstheacuumvesselviaathinpolypropylenewindoThefollowingentranceopticsiscooledto77Kinordertominimizekgroundradiation.TheentranceopticsconsistsofaK-mirrorassemblythatissituatedclosetothefocusoftheSOFIAtelescopeusedtocompensateforskyrotationduringintegrationandanellipticalRe-imagingmirror,whicrefocusestheergingbeamtotheSlicermirrors.Re-imagingmirroralsocreatesapupiltwherethebeamenterstheactualspectrometerpartoftheinstrumentwhichiscooledto4K,formingaLyot-StoptominimizeAseconddichroicbeamsplitterclosetotheLyot-Stopre ectslongwelengthradiation(110-210andtransmitsshortwelengthradiation(42-110m)thusseparatingtheBlueandRedbandoftheinstrumenTheblueandredchannelsofthespectrometersaredes

4 ignedsimilar,butarenotexactcopiesofeacho
ignedsimilar,butarenotexactcopiesofeachother:theBluehannelhaspixelsafactorof2smalleronthebeamismagni edofthreemirrorsbeforeenteringtheslicerassemAsshohematicallyinmajordrivingdesigngoalofimageslicerblyisopticallyre-arrangethetodimensional eldofviewintoaonedimensionalpseudo-slitthatcanbefedintoastandardlongslitspectrometer.InFIFILStheslicersystemiscomprisedofthreesetsofmirrorsingroupsof5(Fig.3).The rststacof5mirrors(Slicermirrors;R2a-R2e)areslightlytiltedwithrespecttothecenterslice,andspatiallyfan-outeacwofthetodimensional eldofview.TheSlicermirrorshaesphericalsurfacesthatimagethepupilontothesecondsetofmirrors(Capturemirrors;R3a-R3e)intheslicersystem.Inthenextstep,theCapturemirrors,designedason-axissphericalbiconics,refocusthebeamontothelastmirrorinthesetof3slicersystemmirrors(Slitmirrors;R4a-R4e),formingtheonedimensionalpseudo-slit.TheSlitmirrorsagainaresphericalmirrorsthatareangledsucthatthe5pupilsarevirtuallyre-imagedtoasinglepupil,whichisthenimagedontothedi ractiongratingsbanamorphiccollimators.SincethegratingsaremountedinLittrowcon guration,thesamecollimatorsarecanbeusedtorefocusthedispersedbeamattheoutput.InanidealLittrowmountedsystem,theinputandoutputbeams    *"#+ *"#+ Asimpli edschematicoerviewoftheFIFILSoptics.Calibrationopticsandinysourcescanbehedintothepathviaa ip-mirrortoprovide at- eldingofthedetectorpixels. /,  Figure3.Closeupvie

5 woftheslicermirrorcomponentsfortheRedcha
woftheslicermirrorcomponentsfortheRedchannelwithonlytheraysofthecentralsliceTheBluechannelissimilar. !  # % #&) %#" Figure4.TheFIFILSopticalsystem.coincide,whichisimpracticalforarealsystem,sotheopticsaredesignedwitha1.8ergencebeteenincomingandoutgoingbeam.spectralspectrometers,spectrumaccommodatethedetectorarraydimensionsinthespectralaswellasinthespatialdirection.Theexitopticsalsoformaadistanceof240mmoftheogetherwithconesattachedintofindividualpixelthataredesignedtoacceptlightfromonlyasolidanglede nedythisThisarrangemenformsahighlyecientstratsuppressionsystem.Fig.4showsa3D-representationoftheoerallopticallaTheRedchannelislocatedintheupper,theBluechannelintheloerpartoftheimage.TheopticaldesignoftheentireFIFILSopticshasbeenperformedusingthesoftarepacageZeemaxV.10.selectedresultsofthisraytraceanalysisarepresentedinthissection.Asmentionedbefore,theFIFILSimageslicercreatesthepseudo-slitfocusontheSlitmirrors.AsshowninFig.5,thereissigni cantcurvatureofthepseudo-slitcomponenre ectradiationoutincomingbeamplane,opticallycorrespondingtoarotationaroundopticalaxisandawnoftheSincethedi ractiongratingsarealsotiltedwithrespecttothemainbeam,theyalsodisplayanoutputwelengthdependentslitcurvTheimageslicersaredesignedinytocounteractandcompletelycanceltheexpectedgratingslitcurvatureatapproximately60mand160Fig.6showshowthisdesignsuccessfullyeliminatesanyslitcurvatureon

6 theReddetectoratawelengthof160pseudo-sli
theReddetectoratawelengthof160pseudo-slitsisrequired. 1"" Figure5.ulationoftheSOFIAtelescopere-imagedfocusontheSlitmirrors.Thisisexactlyequivttothetryslitofalong-slitspectrometer. Figure6.The nalimagingofthedispersedbeamatawelengthof160minthelongwelengthcperformance,importancomponenhand,practicalconstraintssuchasgeometry,limitedinstrumentsize,andstratconcernsusuallydonotallospectralresolutionandlightlossthroughoutintheinstrument,detailedmodelingofdi ractione ectshaebeenperformedusingthesoftarepacageGLADVersion4.5.Inaddition,afullvectorialanalysishasbeencarriedouttockforpolarizationdependentdi ractione ects.DetailedanalysiswasperformedofboththeRedandBluechannels,butastheyareverysimilar,onlytheRedchanneldi ractione ectsarediscussedinthefollowingsubsections.correspondingtlyintotheAirydiskofthetelescope,causingstrongdi ractionfromthatpointon.orthisanalysis,allopticsinfrontoftheslicersystem,includingtelescope,areassumedtobeadequatelyoersizedthatnodi ractionlossesareseenbeforetheslicermirrors.Fig.7showsthecalculateddi ractionpatternontherespectivemirrorsoftheslicersystem.Noticethesigni cancuttingoftheSlicermirrorintothedi ractionpatternofthetelescopeillustratedintheupperhalfofFig.7.Asadirectconsequence,thedi ractionpatternontheCapturemirrorsshowsstrongsidelobesinthedirectionperpendiculartothelongsideoftheSlicermirrors.ThesizeoftheCapturemirrorshasbeenchosentoconservethe rstsidelob

7 esof theinydistribution.Thecalculatedpat
esof theinydistribution.ThecalculatedpatternontheSlitmirrorsshowshowtheslicersystemhasbeensuccessfullydesignedsuchthatalmostall uximpingingontheSlicermirrorsisrefocusedwithoutsigni cantwideningofdi ractionpattern. Figure7.Thedi ractione ectsofthethreeslicermirrorsofthecentralsliceasestimatedbyusingascalarsolution.gratingsisspecialbecausespectralresolutionofthedi ractiongratings.Fig.8illustratestheinydistributiononthegratingattheextremeelengthsof110mand210m,togetherwiththebandcenterwelengthof160The gureshowshowtheilluminationandthereforealsothespectralresolutionofthegratingincreaseswithincreasingwelengthuntilthegratingisoerilluminatedatawelengtharound180FinallyFig.8alsoshowstheofallthecomdi ractionanalysisatthedetectorpixel.Thepixelsizeiswellsamplingthedi ractionpatternonthedetector.ullVectorialAnalysisThescalaranalysisdi ractionanalysishasanobviousde ciency:arealelectromagnetic eldcannotbeaccuratelydescribedasasimplescalar eld.orthecorrecttreatmentofanelectromagneticweacompletesetof3-dimensionalectorfunctionsdescribingthelocalcomponentoftheelectricandmagnetic eldvectorsisnecessaryimportante ectsthatmightplayamajorrole,suchaspolarizationdependencannotbeinscalaranalysis.probebetscalaranalysisbeenFig.9illustratestheresultsofthevectorialanalysis.Thescalaraswellasthevectorialanalysisarequalitativelyinperfectt,showingthatpolarizationdependenarenegligible.thesimplerximationwelldescri

8 besthee ectsoftheFIFILSoptics. Figure8.T
besthee ectsoftheFIFILSoptics. Figure8.Thedi ractione ectsintheRedchannelthatarisemainlyfromtheslicersystemonthegratingatthreeelengthsandonthecentralpixelofthedetectorat160Oneimportantresultsofthedi ractionanalysisisanestimationofthelightlossontheindividualopticalcomponenanditsrelativee ectontheoerallthroughputofthespectrometer.Fig.10illustratestheintegratedlightlossfromdi ractionaftereachmirrorsurface,normalizedto100%lightattheSlicermirrors.Astheanalysisshows,mostofthelightislostafterthecapturemirrorsoftheslicerassem,whicydesigncutsintothedi ractionpatternoftheSlicermirrors.Anothersigni cantsourceoflightlossisthe rstCollimatormirror,whichcouldnotylargerduetolimitedspaceintheinstrumenNonetheless,thelightlosscausedbydi ractionandvignettingareminimal(6%atmostoperatingwelengths)comparedtothetolargestcontributionsoftheoerallFIFILSthroughput,whicharethequantumecencyofthedetectors(30%)andthegratingseciency(medianecencySpectralAsmentionedbefore,di ractione ectsdirectlya ecttheilluminationofthedi ractiongratingsandconsequenspectralaperturespectralresponsecorrespondingthespatialdimensionsofadetectorpixel.Fig.11showsthespectralresolvingpoer,de nedastheFWHMofthespectralresponselineasafunctionoftheobservingwelengthtogetherwiththespectralresponselineat160toillustratetheslightdecreaseofthespectralresolutionduetothediscretepixelsampling. Thedi ractione ectsontheslicerandcapturemirrorscalc

9 ulatedusingthevectorialtreatmentontheOnt
ulatedusingthevectorialtreatmentontheOntheright,thedi erencesbeteentopolarizations.Thepolarizationdi erenceonthetopismostlikumericalroundingerrors,andthoseonthebottomarerealvariationsbutinsigni can  0 Figure10.Thelightlossthrutheopticsduetopuredi ractionandvignettinge ects.Notethatthelargestlossesarefromtheslicersystemandthe rstCollimatormirrors. Figure11.ThesimulatedresolutionofFIFILS,includingpixelsamplinge ects.beenelengthbands,eryusefultoolprobeastronomicalproblems.erun,far-infraredintegral elderenothnicallyfeasibleduetothelimitedsizeofthedetectorarraWiththeconstructionoflargeformatdetectors,wehaebeenabletodesignthe rstintegral eldinstrumentinthefar-infraredusinganoeldesignwithre ectiveslicermirrors.paperblyofytracinganalysisofemirrorspectrometer.MakinguseofthehighspatialresolutionandsensitivityonSOFIA,FIFILSwillprovideamajorstepardforfar-infraredspectroscopL.W.Looney,W.Raab,A.Ph,N.Geis,(2002)inpreparationA.Krabbe,L.Weitzel,H.Kroker,L.E.Tacconi-Garman,M.Cameron,N.Thatte,G.Samann,T.Boeker,R.Genzel,&.Drapatz,Proc.SPIE2475,InfraredDetectorsandInstrumentationforAstronom,A.M.Fed.,p.172,(1995).L.W.Looney,W.Raab,A.h,N.D.Rosenthal,R.Hoenle,R.Klein,Proc,Thisvolume(2002)LooneyProc,4014,p.156(2000)R.Honle,etal.(2004)inpreparationW.R.Smythe,Phys.Rev.,72,p.1066(1947)J.D.Jackson,ClassicalElectrodynamics,secondedition,JohnWiley&Sons,pp.432-438W.Raab,Ph.D.Thesis,Ludwig-MaximilianUniv