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Accepted22August2020DOI101002/plr220095REGISTRATIONCultivarRegistrationofUCRioZapeheirloom-likedrybeanTravisParkerAntoniaPalkovicECharlesBrummerPaulGeptsDepofPlantSciences/MS1SectionofCropEcosystemSci

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1 Received:27May2020 Accepted:22August2020
Received:27May2020 Accepted:22August2020 DOI:10.1002/plr2.20095 REGISTRATION Cultivar Registrationof‘UCRioZape’heirloom-likedrybean TravisParker AntoniaPalkovic E.CharlesBrummer PaulGepts Dep.ofPlantSciences/MS1,Sectionof Crop&EcosystemSciences,Univ.of California,1ShieldsAve.,Davis,CA 95616-8780,USA Correspondence TravisParker,Dep.ofPlantSciences/MS1, SectionofCrop&EcosystemSciences,Univ. ofCalifornia,1ShieldsAve.,Davis,CA 95616-8780,USA. Email: trparker@ucdavis.edu Fundinginformation ClifBarFamilyFoundation,Lundberg FamilyFarms,theOrganicAgriculture Research&ExtensionInitiative,Grantno. 2015-51300-24157/ProjectAccessionno. 1007379;USDANationalInstituteofFood andAgriculture,andUSDA–WesternSARE, Awardno.2016-38640-25383,Subaward no.200592-448(Projectno.GW18-062 RegistrationbyCSSA. Abstract ‘UCRioZape’(Reg.no.CV-335,PI693471)isadrybean( Phaseolusvulgaris L.) developedbyrecurrentbackcrossingbetweenthelandraceRioZape(recurrentpar- ent)and‘Matterhorn’greatnorthernbean(donorparent).UCRioZapeisaBC 5 F 2:7 cultivarthattracesapproximately98%ofitsancestrytoRioZapebutdemonstrates resistanceto Beancommonmosaicvirus duetointrogressionofthe I gene.UCRio Zapealsohasyields19%higherthanitsheirloomparent.Italsomaintainsculinary qualitycomparabletoitsheirloomparent.Allfieldevaluationswereconductedon certifiedorganicland.UCRioZapewillservegrowersandconsumersinterestedin heirloom-likebeanthatcanbeproducedefficientlyandeconomically. 1 INTRODUCTION ‘UCRioZape’(Reg.no.CV-335,PI693471)isaBC 5 F 2:7 dry bean( Phaseolusvulgaris L.)cultivardevelopedbyrecurrent backcrossingbetweenthelandraceRioZape(recurrentpar- ent)and‘Matterhorn’greatnorthernbean(donorparent,PI 604228;Kelly,Hosfield,Varner,Uebersax,&Taylor, 1999 ). ThecultivarhasthepedigreeRioZape*6/Matterhorn.The purpleandblackstripedpatternofUCRioZapeissimilar tothatoftheheirloomrecurrentparent(Figure 1 ).Heirloom genotypesofcommonbean,suchasRioZape,havehighmar- ketvalueduetoareputationforhighculinaryqualityand desirableseedcoatpatterns(Brouwer,Winkler,Atterberry, Jones,&Miles, 2016 ;Walters,Brick,&Ogg, 2011 ).Heir- loomtypesarenotwelldefined,buttypicallyaredescribed asoldervarietiesthathaveexistedforatleast50yr,orwhich Abbreviations: BCMV, Beancommonmosaicvirus ;BCMNV, Bean commonmosaicnecrosisvirus . © 2020TheAuthors.JournalofPlantRegistrations © 2020CropScienceSocietyofAmerica havebeenpassedbetweengenerations(Brouweretal., 2016 , DeMuth, 1998 ).Thisispartlyoverlappingwiththeideaof landraces,whicharetraditionalgenotypesthathavebeen selectedforadaptationtoaspecificregion.Heirloomtypes andlandracesarenotrestrainedtothephenotypicrequire- mentsofmajorcommercialmarketclassesandthusoften displaydiversityinappearanceandculinaryproperties.This providesauniquemarketopportunityforsmallerscaleniche growers,includingthoseintheorganicsector.Consumer- demandstudieshaveshownthatrestaurantmanagersandcon- sumersare,onaverage,willingtopaybetweenUS$10.52 and$17.60/kgforheirloomdrybeanproducedlocally andorganically(Swegarden,Sheaffer,&Michaels, 2016 ). LandraceswithseedpatternssimilartoRioZapehavebeen cultivatedinthesouthwesternUnitedStatesforthousandsof years(Kaplan, 1956 ).Despitetheseadvantages,RioZapeis susceptibleto Beancommonmosaicvirus (BCMV).Matter- horn,thedonorparentandsourceofBCMVresistance,was developedjointlybytheMichiganAgriculturalExperiment J.PlantRegist. 2020;1–6. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/plr2 1 2 PARKER ETAL . FIGURE1 SeedtypesofUCRioZapeandRioZapeareconsistent acrossgrowingenvironments StationandtheUSDA–ARSasahighyielding,typeIIinde- terminategreatnorthernbean(Kellyetal., 1999 ).Matter- horncarriesthedominant I alleleforBCMVresistance,which alsoprovideshypersensitiveresistanceatafieldlevelagainst thecloselyrelated Beancommonmosaicnecrosisvirus . (BCMNV).Hypersensitivedeathofindividualplantswith I canoccurifaphidstransmitthenecroticBCMNVstrains

2 from asusceptibleplant(without I -mediat
from asusceptibleplant(without I -mediatedresistance),but I pre- ventsreplicationandspreadofthevirusthroughthefield (Feng,Poplawsky,Nikolaeva,Myers,&Karasev, 2014 ).Bean breedingprogramsinNorthAmericademandBCMVresis- tanceinallnewlydevelopedcultivars(Haley,Afanador,& Kelly, 1994 ;Miklas,Kelly,Beebe,&Blair, 2006 ),asBCMV israpidlyspreadmechanically,byseed,andbyaphidsin susceptiblegenotypes(Schwartz&Pastor-Corrales, 1989 ). Beancommonmosaicvirus isproblematicforseedproduc- tion,wheretheseroutesoftransmissioncanleadtoheavy virusloadsinsusceptibleseedstocks.Manysmallerscalepro- ducersofheirloomgenotypessaveseedforplantinginsub- sequentseasons,andbyplantingBCMV-resistantcultivars, theycanavoidtheneedtorogueinfectedindividuals. RioZapeandMatterhornarebothdescendedfromtheMid- dleAmericancommonbeangenepoolandhavetypeSphase- olin(Gepts,Osborn,Rashka,&Bliss, 1986 ;Kamietal., 1995 ; Parker,Palkovic,&Gepts, 2015 ).Matterhornwaschosenas adonorinparttoeliminatethepotentialforhybridinvia- bility,whichisencounteredoccasionallyininter-gene-pool crosses(Gepts&Bliss, 1985 ;Kelly, 1988 , 2018 ;Koinange& Gepts, 1992 ;Hannahetal., 2007 ).RioZape,therecurrentpar- entofUCRioZape,isnotprotectedbyplantvarietyprotec- tion(databaseavailableat https://apps.ams.usda.gov/CMS/ CropSearch.aspx )orutilitypatents(databaseavailableat http: //patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-adv.htm )andisthere- foresuitableasaparentforrecurrentbackcrossing. UCRioZapeisintendedforproductioninrelativelydry climates,suchasthesouthwesternUnitedStates.Currently, fewspecialtyheirloom-likecultivarscombinehighculinary qualitywithhighyieldsandBCMVresistance.UCRioZape willhelpfillthismarketdemand. 2 METHODS TheinitialcrossesbetweenRioZapeandMatterhornwere madein2014.Thiswasimmediatelyfollowedbyfivefurther roundsofbackcrossing.Individualsthatwereheterozygous resistanttoBCMVineachgenerationwereselectedaspar- ents,basedonviralinoculationsinthegreenhouseandscreen- ingwithaCAPSmarker(Belloetal., 2014 ).Viralinocula- tionswereconductedwiththenon-necrotictypestrain(NL 1,Drijfhout, 1978 )ofBCMVat7dafterplanting.Inocu- lumwasa1:10mixtureof(a)BCMV-infectedleaftissueand (b)a0.01MpotassiumphosphatebuffersolutionatpH7.4. Theseingredientswerecombinedinamortarwithapprox- imately5mgofCeliteandcrushedusingapestle.Asmall amountofCelitewasdustedontothefirstsimpleleavesof emergingplants,andtheinoculumwasgentlyrubbedintothe leaveswiththepestle.Symptomswereevidentinsusceptible plantswithin2wkandwereverystrongaboutamonthafter inoculations.Plantsthatwereresistantbasedoninoculations andCAPSmarkerscreeningswereusedasparentsforfur- therbackcrossing.TheBC 5 F 1 progenywereself-pollinated, andhomozygousresistantindividualswereidentifiedusing thecodominantCAPSmarker.UCRioZapeisdescended fromonehomozygousresistantbackcrossedindividualthat wasbulkharvestedinallsubsequentgenerations.UCRio Zapeanditsheirloomparentwerenevergrowninadjacent plotsduringon-farmtrials.Instead,atleastone(andusu- allyseveral)plotsofphenotypicallydifferentcultivarswere plantedbetweenthem.Thisgreatlyreducesthechanceof seedmixtureduringharvestandalsoreducesthechanceof cross-pollinationbetweenthetwo.Breederseedwasgrown inasinglequarter-acreblockofaconventionallymanaged fieldfreeofBCMV-susceptibleplantsandwithlowpolli- natorabundance.Tofurtherensurethatnomajorseedmix- tureoccurredduringtrialing,15plantsweregrownfrom breederseedandinoculatedwithBCMV.Noneoftheseplants developedBCMVsymptoms,whereasthesusceptiblecontrol ‘ZuniGold’becameinfected. The2017–2019plantingsusedrandomizedcompleteblock designs.UCRioZapeandRioZapewereplantedineachof fourblocksatonelocationin2017.Theseplotswere2.3m 2 inareaandincluded30seedsplantedinto3mofrowspace. In2018and2019,eachofthethreefieldsitesconsistedof threeplotsofeachcultivar.Allplotswere9.3m 2 inarea PARKER ETAL . 3 andincluded120plantedseedsin12.2mofrowspace.Each

3 plotwas6.1minlength,1.5minwidth,andinclu
plotwas6.1minlength,1.5minwidth,andincludedtwo rowsspacedat0.75m.Thetrialswereconductedoncertified organicfarms,andGuard-NN 2 –fixingbacteriawereaddedto seedsbeforeplantingtoensureconsistentnodulation.Collab- oratingfarmerswereallexperiencedwithproducingcommon beanandwereaskedtopreparefieldsastheywouldnormally forthecrop.Thistypicallyconsistedofawintercovercrop andtheuseofcompostinspringbeforeplanting.Alltrials wereirrigatedbysurfacedrip,burieddrip,orfurrowirriga- tion.Theyieldofeachtypewascomparedbypaired t -testof blockdataforUCRioZapeanditsheirloomparent. TheculinarypropertiesofUCRioZapeandRioZapewere assessedtoensurethatnoreductioninflavororcookedvisual appearancewasassociatedwithitsdevelopment.Flavorand cookedvisualappearancedesirabilitywereeachevaluatedon a1–5scale(1 = inferior,5 = superior).Participantswerenot askedtoevaluatedesirabilityonanypredeterminedmetrics, norweretheygivenanytrainingonwhatthey“should”want inacultivar,asthesecouldserveasaformofbiasthatwould notordinarilybefoundinthetargetmarket.Allcookedsam- plesweregiventhree-digitnumericdescriptorsandarandom- izedordertoensureobjectivityintheevaluation.Theheir- loomandimprovedtypeswerealsocookedatthesametime inidenticalvessels,thenkeptataconsistenttemperatureusing awaterbath.Thetastetestswereconductedatasingleevent. Thirty-threeevaluatorsrespondedregardingtheflavorofboth types,while30respondedaboutthecookedvisualappearance ofboth.Apaired t -testwasusedtocomparetheperformance ofeachtype. 3 CHARACTERISTICS UCRioZapeproducesseedthatarenearlyidenticaltoitsheir- loomparent,withblackstripesonapurplebackground(Fig- ure 1 ).Inthefield,plantsarelargeandindeterminate,with atypeIIIbgrowthhabit(Singh, 1982 ),greenstems,andpur- pleflowers.Theaveragetimeto50%floweringwas44dafter plantingatDavisin2019,whereasplotsoftheheirloompar- entrequired68–82dtoreach50%flowering.UCRioZapeis afull-seasoncultivar,andrequiredatleast102dtoreachhar- vestablematurityatDavisin2019,whereasRioZapeneeded morethan108d.Seedcolorisconsistentbetweenlocations. Likeotherbeanswith C locus-basedstripeandspotpatterns (e.g.,pintoandcranberrytypes),asmallpercentageofUCRio Zapeseedsarereversecolored,withprimarilydarkpurpleor black,withlighterpurpleflecksontheseed(Bassett, 2007 ). Theseseedsarenotoff-typesbecausetheirprogenyrevert totheusualcolorcombinationofblackstripesonapurple background.Thus,thereisnoneedtoremovethesereverse- colortypesunlesstheplantsshowotheroff-typecharacteris- tics,basedongeneralexperiencewith C -controlledvariation inseedcolorpattern.Seedsdarkenaftermaturity,especially whenstoredunderwarmconditions.Thesubtledifferencein seedcolorbetweenUCRioZapeanditsheirloomparentin theDavis(2019harvest)andPescadero(2019harvest)seed lots(Figure 1 ,picturetakenshortlyafterharvest)istheresult ofthelatermaturityoftheheirloomtype,givingitlesstimeto darkenunderwarmfieldconditions.Notethatseedlotsfrom theSanJuanBautistafieldsiteofthepreviousyear(2018) havestabilizedtoasimilarcolor(Figure 1 ).Seedsthatmature atthesametimeandarestoredunderthesameconditionsare notdistinguishable,indicatingthatthe B geneforseedcolor, whichistightlylinkedto I ,isnotsegregatingbetweencul- tivars.The100-seedweightofUCRioZapeis47gcom- paredwith42gforRioZape.Nointentionalselectionforseed sizewasperformed,sothisdifferenceisprobablytheresultof BCMVresistance.Alternatively,therecouldbeanotherlocus linkedto I thatmayberesponsibleforthevariationinseed size. Inthemultilocationfieldtrials,UCRioZapehadaver- ageseedyieldsof1,504kg/hacomparedwithRioZape’s 1,260kg/ha.Thisrepresentsayieldimprovementof19%, whichisstatisticallysignificant( p = .018,pairedtwo-sample two-tailed t -test,Table 1 ).Althoughyielddatadeviatedsome- whatfromanormaldistribution( p = .01forbothtypes, Shapiro–Wilktest), t -testsarerobusttoevenfairlymajordevi- ationsfromnormality(Box, 1953 ;Edgell&Noon, 1984 ). UCRioZape’syie

4 ldimprovementrelativetoRioZape wasrelati
ldimprovementrelativetoRioZape wasrelativelyconsistentacrosslocations.Inwarmercli- matessuchasValleyCenter(Julyaveragehigh/lowtemper- atures = 33/15C)andDavis(Julyaverages = 34/14C), seedyieldsofUCRioZapeaveraged789kg/hacompared withRioZape’s638kg/ha.Thisisanincreaseof24%. UCRioZapealsooutperformedRioZapeintheinterme- diateclimateofSanJuanBautista(Julyaverages = 27/ 12C),whereityielded3,706kg/hacomparedwiththeheir- loom’s3,197kg/ha( + 16%).Similarly,thecoolestfieldsitein Pescadero(Julyaverages = 22/11C)averagedof2,876kg/ha forUCRioZapeagainstRioZape’s2,427kg/ha( + 19%).This yieldadvantagemakesUCRioZapeagoodalternativeto RioZapeacrossarangeofclimates.Despitethis,theoverall yieldperareaofbothUCRioZapeanditsheirloomparent arefarhigherincool-orintermediate-temperatureenviron- ments,withpooryieldstabilityinhigh-temperatureorganic environments.InthecoolerenvironmentsofPescaderoand SanJuanBautista,thecoefficientofvariationforplotyield was14%forUCRioZapeand16%foritsrecurrentparent. InthewarmenvironmentsofDavisandValleyCenter,this increasedto78%forUCRioZapeand121%fortherecur- rentparent.Inthesewarm-seasonenvironments,bothgeno- typesmaybenefitfromlonggrowingseasonsandmoderate terminaldrought,whichpromotesatransitiontoreproduc- tivegrowthandmaturation.Similarpatternsareseeninother raceDurangolandracesfromthesouthwesternUnitedStates. 4 PARKER ETAL . TABLE1 Yieldand Beancommonmosaicvirus (BCMV)comparisonbetweenUCRioZapeandRioZapebyyearandlocation YieldBCMVobserved a YearLocationUCRioZapeRioZapeUCRioZapeRioZape kgha  1 2017 Davis 984 1,155  + 2018Davis1820 + SanJuanBautista3,7063,197 + ValleyCenter190174 + 2019 Davis 1,170 239  + Pescadero 2,876 2,427 n.d. n.d. ValleyCenter 1,420 1,624  + Mean1,504 * 1,2600%100% a + indicatessymptomspresent;  indicatessymptomsabsent;n.d.indicatesnodata. *Indicatessignificantdifference( p .05),pairedtwo-tailed t -testofblockdata. TABLE2 FlavorandcookedappearancedesirabilityofRioZape andUCRioZape(1–5scale,where1indicatesinferiorand5indicates superior).SamplesfortastetestharvestedinDavis,CA,2018 ScoreRioZapeUCRioZape Flavor Mean 3.42 3.52 SD0.891.03 SE 0.15 0.18 n 3333 Paired t -test p value .67 Cookedappearance Mean 3.55 3.63 SD1.051.17 SE 0.19 0.21 n 3030 Paired t -test p value .74 Thetype‘Anasazi’,forexample,alsoshowsstrongvegetative growthuntilcool,dryconditionsinfallcauseastrongtransi- tiontomaturity(Hang,Silbernagel,&Miklas, 2003 ;Silber- nagel,Hang,&Miklas, 1998 ). NoUCRioZapeplantsdevelopedBCMVsymptomsatany fieldsiteinanyyear,whereasthediseasewasidentifiedinRio Zapeatallevaluatedlocations(Table 1 ).UCRioZapedidnot differfromitsheirloomparentinflavorandorcookedvisual appearance( p = .67and p = .74,respectively,pairedtwo- sample t -test,Table 2 ),indicatingnolossofculinaryquality duetointrogressionofthe I allele. Likeitsheirloomparent,UCRioZapeexpressesarela- tivelyvineytypeIIIgrowthhabit,Thistraitmayhelpwith weedsuppressionandprovidehigheryieldsundercertain conditionsbutmayalsobeproblematicinhumidareasorfor growersthatusedirectharvest.Undertheseconditions,itis recommendedtoevaluateUCRioZapeonarelativelysmall scalebeforeexpandingproduction. UCRioZapewasdevelopedusingbothgenotypicand phenotypicselection.Thisallowedthecombinationofthe strengthsofeachmethod(Beaver&Osorno, 2009 ).During successiveroundsofbackcrossing,forexample,phenotypic selectionensuredthatrecombinationdidnotoccurbetween thegeneticmarkerandthecausalgene.Similarly,thegenetic markerprovidedaredundantbackupforselectionsduring backcrossing.Afterbackcrossing,useoftheco-dominant markerallowedfortheidentificationofhomozygousresistant individuals,whichcouldnotbereadilydistinguishedfrom heterozygotesthroughphenotypicselectionalone.Thiscom- plementationofphenotypicandgenotypicscreeningislikely tobeawayforwardforbreedingindrybeanandothercr

5 ops. 4 AVAILABILITY Breederseedhasbeenpr
ops. 4 AVAILABILITY BreederseedhasbeenprovidedtotheUCDavisFounda- tionSeedProgram,whichwillproduceanddistributeseed forthiscultivar.Smallquantitiesofseedforbreedingand researchmaybeavailablethroughthecorrespondingauthor. SeedhasalsobeendepositedwiththeUSDA–ARSNational PlantGermplasmSystem,whereitwillbeavailableimmedi- atelyuponpublication. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS MikeandChrisReeskeplayedahugeroleinmanagingtri- alsattheirfarm(RiodelReyFarm),providingguidance, andprovidingfinancialsupportfortheproject.StevePeters, YolandaGuzman,AngelinaBahena,LauraRoser,ArielHer- rera,JosePimentel,NatalieHamada,EmilyYang,Matthew Bustamante,EmilyWhite,JuliaGonzales,PaigeAugello, VivianWu,NathalieGomez,AungNyein,andTalissade OliveiraFlorianicontributedtophenotypingandmanagement PARKER ETAL . 5 ofgreenhouseandfieldtrials.JimMuckandRaoulAdam- chakoftheUCDavisStudentFarmassistedinfarmmanage- ment.CollaboratingfarmsincludeRiodelReyFarms,Coke Farms,andFifthCrowFarms.Theprojectwasfundedby theClifBarFamilyFoundation,LundbergFamilyFarms,the OrganicAgricultureResearch&ExtensionInitiativeGrant no.2015-51300-24157/ProjectAccessionno.1007379from theUSDANationalInstituteofFoodandAgriculture,and USDA–WesternSAREAwardno.2016-38640-25383,Sub- awardno.200592-448(Projectno.GW18-062). AUTHORCONTRIBUTIONS TravisParker :Parentevaluation;Methodologyplanning; Crosses;Fieldtrialdesignandmanagement;Genotyping; Phenotyping;Internmentorship;Dataanalysisandselections; Manuscriptwriting;Fundingacquisition. AntoniaPalkovic : Parentevaluation;Fieldtrialdesignandmanagement;Intern mentorship. E.CharlesBrummer :Conceptualization;Fund- ingacquisition. PaulGepts :Conceptualization;Parenteval- uation;Methodologyplanning;Manuscriptwriting;Funding acquisition.Allauthorshavereadandapprovedthefinaldraft ofthemanuscript. CONFLICTOFINTEREST Theauthorsdeclarenoconflictsofinterest. ORCID TravisParker https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1233-7829 E.CharlesBrummer https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3621- 4516 PaulGepts https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1056-4665 REFERENCES Bassett,M.J.(2007).Geneticsofseedcoatcolorandpatternincommon bean. PlantBreedingReviews , 28 ,239–315. https://doi.org/10.1002/ 9780470168028.ch8 Beaver,J.S.,&Osorno,J.M.(2009).Achievementsandlimitations ofcontemporarycommonbeanbreedingusingconventionaland molecularapproaches. Euphytica , 168 (2),145–175. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s10681-009-9911-x Bello,M.H.,Moghaddam,S.M.,Massoudi,M.,McClean,P.E.,Cregan, P.B.,&Miklas,P.N.(2014).Applicationof insilico bulkedsegregant analysisforrapiddevelopmentofmarkerslinkedto Beancommon mosaicvirus resistanceincommonbean. BMCGenomics , 15 (1),903. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-903 Box,G.E.(1953).Non-normalityandtestsonvariances. Biometrika , 40 , 318–335. https://doi.org/10.2307/2333350 Brouwer,B.,Winkler,L.,Atterberry,K.,Jones,S.,&Miles,C.(2016). Exploringtheroleoflocalheirloomgermplasminexpandingwest- ernWashingtondrybeanproduction. AgroecologyandSustainable FoodSystems , 40 ,319–332. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683565.2015. 1138013 DeMuth,S.P.(1998). Vegetablesandfruits:Aguidetoheirloomvari- etiesandcommunity-basedstewardship . Vol.1:Annotatedbibliogra- phy (SpecialReferenceBriefsSeriesno.SRB98-05).Beltsville,MD: USDA–ARSAlternativeFarmingSystemsInformationCenter. Drijfhout,E.(1978). Geneticinteractionbetween Phaseolusvul- garis and Beancommonmosaicvirus withimplicationsfor strainidentificationandbreedingforresistance (Doctoraldis- sertation,AgriculturalCollegeofWageningen,theNetherlands). Retrievedfrom http://arsftfbean.uprm.edu/bic/wp-content/uploads/ 2018/04/Drijfhout-1978-Thesis-BCMV.pdf Edgell,S.E.,&Noon,S.M.(1984).Effectofviolationofnormalityon the t testofthecorrelationcoefficient. PsychologicalBulletin , 95 (3), 576–583. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.576 Feng,X.,Poplawsky,A.R.,Nikolaeva,O.V.,Myers,J.R.,&Karasev, A.V.(2014).Recombinantsof Bean

6 commonmosaicvirus (BCMV) andgeneticdeter
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