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South AsiaGulf Migratory CorridorSouth Asias long historical and cult

Moreover the Asianworkers from Asia particularly South Asia had given a stiff competitionto the workers from West Asia In the last three decades GCCcountries have massively cut the migration from Ara

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Document on Subject : "South AsiaGulf Migratory CorridorSouth Asias long historical and cult"— Transcript:

1 South Asia–Gulf Migratory Corridor:South
South Asia–Gulf Migratory Corridor:South Asia’s long historical and cultural links with the Gulf goesback to ancient times when West Asian ports were a key element inworkers from South Asian countries, particularly India, to the Gulf. Atpresent, out of 15 million expatriates in the Gulf region South Asians Of these, Indians are the largest group. Moreover, the Asianworkers from Asia, particularly South Asia, had given a s

2 tiff competitionto the workers from West
tiff competitionto the workers from West Asia. In the last three decades, GCCcountries have massively cut the migration from Arab region and Thus the Asian community has The South Asian community has made a remarkableof GCC countries. Interestingly, the ‘Asianisation’ of migrant labourTable 1 indicates the unparalleled flow of South Asian migrant workersto GCC region from 1,069,761 in 2005 to 1,530,222 in 2008.Table 1: Outf

3 low of Migrant Workers from South Asia t
low of Migrant Workers from South Asia to the YearIndiaNepalSri Lanka 2005454,628127,810207,08988,230192,004 2006618,286172,837307,620128,306170,049 2007770,510278,631483,757182,870188,365 2008818,315419,842643,424169,510215,7932009538,090407,077N. A.152,272226,299Source:in the Gulf and its impact on South Asia Migration”, in Ibrahim Sirkeci,, The World Bank,Washington, DC. In Oman, until 1970, commerce was dominated by Hin

4 du merchant Among other Gulf countries t
du merchant Among other Gulf countries the TrucialStates Sheikhdoms (UAE) comprising Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah,Ras-al-Khaimah, Umm-al-Quaiwain, Ajman and Fujairah had extensivetrade relations with India during the late nineteenth and early twentieth Dubai served as the major centre of Indo–UAE trade. In These merchant communities, however, dwindled after theSecond World War, and more decisively after the independence of Pre

5 sently, Indian population Indian communi
sently, Indian population Indian communitiesPetroleum Company, a leading oil company. A majority of these migrantsstate followed by Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The The economicturmoil followed by partition, poverty, religious affiliation, geographicalproximity and volatile political situation led to a large outflow of migrantsSaudi Arabia, though the numbers fluctuates time and again. Themigration, and majorit

6 y of the expatriates from Pakistan are m
y of the expatriates from Pakistan are males.across the country as majority of the migrants to the Gulf are fromPunjab province followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, North West In 2008, afrom US $1.1 billion in 2000–01 to US $6.33 billion in 2008–09 toUS $9.23 2011–2012. Table 1 shows the upward flow of PakistaniBangladesh is one of the top 10 remittances recipient countries inother South Asian countries. Interestingly, the count

7 ry which started At present, majority of
ry which started At present, majority of the Bangladeshimigrants are stationed in GCC region. Moreover, Saudi Arabia hasBetween 2000 and 2011, US $ 21.42 billion was remitted from Saudi substantially. At present out of the total migrants nearly 50 per centare female. Table 1 displays the uninterrupted and steep flow of SriLanka, 82 per cent were working in Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar andMalaysia. Moreover, Saudi Arabia alone a

8 ccommodates 31 per centdevelopment of So
ccommodates 31 per centdevelopment of South Asia. The remittances flow to the South Asian GCC countries are the main source ofremittances to South Asia, as India alone received US $29 billion in Remittances from GCC countries have been However, due to the economiccrisis there was a slowdown of remittances flow to the South Asianregion in 2009, but it resumed to normal by 2011. Remittancesparticularly poverty reduction of th

9 e South Asian countries. In hisresearch
e South Asian countries. In hisresearch on the impact of migration in Pakistan, Arif noted, ‘The socialchildren’s education, enhancing housing condition, eliminating childlabour, empowering women of the migrant household’.Table 3 gives a clear picture of the enormous amount of remittancescontinues to be the top recipient of remittances with US $70.0 billion is major concern for the recipient counties. Toblock the inroads o

10 f informal remittances links, South Asia
f informal remittances links, South Asian countrieshave opened branches of major banks in GCC region, and also provideThe South Asian countries have formulated many financial schemes toattract the remittances such as Non Resident Account (NRI Account)in India, Non Resident Foreign Currency in Bangladesh, ForeignAccount in Sri Lanka. The deposit schemes are designed to attractsending countries have instituted deposit schemes

11 in both local andAsian migratory system
in both local andAsian migratory system. At the same time, the absence of an effectivebanking system in South Asia and the social networks among thechannels for remittances transfer. However MTO networks are theTable.4 : Inward Remittances to South Asian Countries fromMigrant Workers, 2000–09 IndiaSri Lanka US $ (Millions) 200012,8901,0751,9681111,166 200114,2731,4612,1051471,185 200215,7363,5542,8586781,309 200320,9993,96

12 43,1927711,438 200418,7503,9453,5848231,
43,1927711,438 200418,7503,9453,5848231,590 200522,1254,2804,3141,2121,991 200628,3345,1215,4281,4532,185 200737,2175,9986,5621,7342,527 200851,5817,0398,9952,7272,947 2009 *3,0102,8922009 +2,8123,308 Table 5: Remittances Flow to Bangladesh and Pakistan from2008200920082009167.4154.2147.8157.0949.5993.9426.9427.7Oman243337.4264.4278.5324.8366.3283.6375.42,733.63,194.31,403.21690.6UAE1,739.51,958.11,289.42011Source: Ibrahim

13 Sirkeci (2012), Jeffrey H Cohen and Dili
Sirkeci (2012), Jeffrey H Cohen and Dilip Ratha (eds.), Washington DC, The World BankOf the total remittances to each country, in 2012, data shows thatBangladesh. In 2012, India’s total remittances received from the GCCfrom Saudi Arabia, 2,673.42 million from Kuwait, 2,373.21 million Remittances are one of the stable forms of external The trend ofremittances in 2012 showed that South Asia received largest sharefrom UAE and

14 Saudi Arabia, India alone received US $
Saudi Arabia, India alone received US $14,555 millionfrom UAE in 2012. The World Bank and CDS studies predict that thehas not hindered the volume of remittances to South Asia. In factUS $70 billion in 2011, and state of Kerala receives the largest share on the remittances flow. The economic fluctuation did not affect thenumber of migrant workers from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait is likely tohave an impact on the flow of remitta

15 nces in future.Economic and Occupational
nces in future.Economic and Occupational Profile of the South Asian Migrantswere from Arab region, India and Pakistan. In the beginning, majorityindustry, particularly refineries. However, the establishment of hospitalsin the region by the Americans, particularly in Kuwait, also promptedmanufacturing, trade and construction. However, in Kuwait and SaudiIn the 1990s, demand was shifted in favour of care industry,force hasn’t

16 declined either. Since 1990s, the parti
declined either. Since 1990s, the participation of theinexplicably high in these sectors. Consequently, service sector,like security, assistants and domestic workers are predominantly filledwith expatriate, especially migrant workers from Asia. Though GCCdecreasing the labour flow. The covert and overt restriction of local uneducated, low-skilled and semi-skilled labourers. However, by latefor the skilled category. The hig

17 h technological development and thetechn
h technological development and thetechnocrats from India. However, significant portion of Indian A recentPresently, a substantial number of migrant workers from SouthAsia in GCC countries is in the construction sector. Majority of theSouth Asian migrants in GCC countries are semi-skilled or unskilled Since 1990s, the IT boom The majority of the Pakistani workers The statistics on Bangladeshi immigrantssections. Rita Afsar’

18 s study on Bangladeshi migrants pointed
s study on Bangladeshi migrants pointed that hungerconstruction labourers, cleaners and domestic workers. The averageA study conducted by Williams et. al. (2010) shows that the vast monarchies. The social networks comprise of family, friends andprospective migrants to the unknown destination countries. An All India Interestingly, migrants trust and rely more on friendsPresently, the cost of visa is extremely high compared

19 to previouscost of migration. The minimu
to previouscost of migration. The minimum cost of migration in India throughinformation, the final implementation of migration, such as arrangingvisa, tickets and choosing the job is done by private recruiting agencies.Unfortunately, spurious recruiting agencies are on the increase in South In recent times the overseas ministries offraudulent practices. For instance, the Ministry of Overseas IndianRita Afsar in her work on

20 Bangladeshi immigrants pointed that (Ba
Bangladeshi immigrants pointed that (Baldwin, 2011).participation of the nationals in the workforce and brought a new formdomestic workers. South Asian women are mostly employed as noted that the ‘army of house maids’ representsthe feminization of migration in South Asia. Historically there are threestreams of women migration from South Asia—firstly to the GCC The first two streamsconsisted of low-skilled and semi-skilled

21 workers, while migratorymigrants had eme
workers, while migratorymigrants had emerged as the largest group in the GCC region. In 2009, Sri Lanka has a long tradition of participation of women inplantation work, garment factory and tea industry. Therefore, it wasFactors that prompted South Asian women to migrate were mainlypoverty, hunger, debt traps, oppressive social system, marital discords, In India, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra are the major At the

22 same time, Kerala has high level of fema
same time, Kerala has high level of female migration, Percot pointed that in Kerala a nursingthe Western world, for more freedom and fly from the shackles of theThe South Asian countries except Sri Lanka have approached the categorized the local business establishments into Blue, Green, Yellowlocalization ratios, Yellow falling in the intermediate range and Red therewarded and Yellow is given more time to implement the chan

23 ges,Nitaqat Law.Indians. According to th
ges,Nitaqat Law.Indians. According to the Labour Ministry of Saudi Arabia nearly6.5 million foreign workers are employed in the private sector. Thethe thousands of migrant households in India. Saudi Arabia has declared However, migration experts like Irudaya Rajan are In 2004 too the Saudiavailable in the construction sector and manufacturing industry, andon. Already domestic workers from Sri Lanka and Philippines arework i

24 n these areas. At the same time, the fin
n these areas. At the same time, the financial sector, banking,IT, health, education and corporate sector would also face severecountries, Saudi Arabia deferred the implementation of the Nitaqat to integrate into the IT and high tech professions rather than theirformation of the South Asian community, particularly the migratorystrategies, identity, socio-economic mobility, sense of belonging andconnection with the home coun

25 try of the second generation South Asian
try of the second generation South AsianThe strategic and economic implications of Asianisation of migrantthe emerging Gulf–South Asia strategic relations. The unprecedentedsurely a blessing in disguise for many of the South Asian countries asremittances constitute the largest external financial flow. The recentthe steady flow of migrants from the South Asian region. Education,dependent on the South Asian workers, thus the

26 recent attempts madeprivate sector jobs.
recent attempts madeprivate sector jobs. The South Asia–Gulf migration corridor will emergein the foreseeable future as a vital component in the South Asia–Gulfstrategic relations. At the same time the rise of unemployment amongthe young nationals and also the inflow of migrant workers from otherAsians in the job market.The apolitical and passive approach of the South Asian workersadditional impetus to the South Asia–Gulf m

27 igratory process, and flow Kapiszewski,
igratory process, and flow Kapiszewski, 2006: p. 5 Silva and Naufal, 2012: pp. 381–382 Kapiszewski, 2006: p. 10 Ozaki, 2012: p. 12 Rajan and Narayana : 2012, p. 70 2013: p. 7 Pradhan, 2009: pp. 34–37 Allen, 1981: pp. 40–42 Chandha, 2008: p. 60 Fuccaro, 2009: pp. 111–112 Natrajan, 2013 : pp. 14–19 Annual Report, MOIA, 2012 Seccombe and Lawless, 1986: pp. 550–552 Claude, 1999: p. 890 Ozaki, 2012: p. 19 Jain, 2008: pp. 170–

28 72 Arif, 2009: pp. 16–19 Ibid: 23 Rakkee
72 Arif, 2009: pp. 16–19 Ibid: 23 Rakkee and Kumar, 2012: p. 36Pakistan Today BMET, 2010: p. 7 Rahman, 2012: p. 215 Ozaki, 2012: p. 29 Sharma, 2012: pp. 137–140 Mohapatra et al. 2012: p. 27 Kelegama, 2011: p. 5 Shah, 2000: p. 74 Rajan and Narayana, 2012: p. 80 Ibid: p. 79 Oishi, 2005: p. 111 Afsar, 2009: pp. 28–30 Thieme,2006: pp. 20–22 Ozaki, 2012: p. 31 Rakkee and Kumar, 2012: p. 56 Gamburd, 2010: p. 16 Baldwin, 2011:

29 p. 4 Ozaki, 2012: p. 25 Gamburd,2010:
p. 4 Ozaki, 2012: p. 25 Gamburd,2010: p. 9 Rakkee and Kumar, 2012: pp. 52–54 SLBFE, 2011 Gamburd, 2010: p. 10 Rajan and Sukendran, 2010: p. 185 Percot, 2006: p. 55 Ibid: p. 60 Bindulakshmi, 2010: p. 169 Kabeer, 2007: pp. 27–29, 2011 Gamburd,2010: p. 15 MOIA, 2012The Economic Times Basheer, 2013: p. 5 Ibid: p. 5 Sanandakumar, 2013: p. 4 Bread Winners– Domestic Workers”, in Middle East Institute (ed.)

30 View Points: Migration and the Gulf, Was
View Points: Migration and the Gulf, Washington, DC, MiddleGraner, Elvira and Ganesh Gurung (2003) “Arabko Lahure: Looking atNepali Labour Migrants to Arabian Countries”, the Nepalese Studies, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 295–325Gupta, Poonam and Karan Singh (2012) “Trends and Correlates ofRemittances to India”, in Ibrahim Sirkeci, Jeffrey H Cohen and, Washington DC: The World Bank,, United Arab Emirates, Gulf Research Centre, June

31 — — (2008) “Globalization and Indian Dia
— — (2008) “Globalization and Indian Diaspora in West Asia and NorthAfrica: Some Policy Implications”, in Anwar Alam (ed.) and West Asia in the Era of GlobalisationKabeer, Laila (2007) ‘Footloose’ Female Labour: TransnationalMigration, Social Protection and Citizenship in the AsiaWorking Paper on Women’s Rights and Citizenship, IDRC, CanadaKanchana, Radhika (2012) “Qatar’s ‘White-collar’ Indians”, No. 8,e-migrinter, Franceh

32 ttp://
ttp://, Andrzej (2006) “Arab Versus Asian Migrant Workers inUnited Nations Expert Group Meeting onKelegama, Saman et al. (eds.) (2011) (2011) “Gaddama paves way for the return of the Percot, Marie (2006) “Indian Nurses in the Gulf: Two GenerationsSouth Asia Research, Vol. 26 No. 1,Pradhan, Samir (2009) “India’s Economic and Political Perspec

33 tive inthe Gulf: A Gulf Perspective”, In
tive inthe Gulf: A Gulf Perspective”, India’s Growing Role in the Gulf:Implications for the Region and United States, United ArabJournal of Development StudiesGulf and Its Impact on South Asian Migration”, in Ibrahim Sirkeci,Washington DC: The World BankGovernance and Labour Migration: Indian Migration ReportRajan, S Irudaya and K C Zacharia (eds) (2012) Kerala’s DemographicFuture: Issues and Policy Option, New Delhi: Acad

34 emic FoundationRamachandran, Sudha (2013
emic FoundationRamachandran, Sudha (2013) “Saudi’s Nitaqat Law: Trouble for Indian, 25 AprilSanandakumar, S (2013) “After Saudi Arabia’s Nitaqat, it is Kuwait’sThe Economic TimesSeccombe, I J and R I Lawless (1986) “Foreign Workers Dependencein the Gulf and the International Oil Companies 1910–50”,, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 548–74Shah, M Nasra (2000) “Relative Success of Male Workers in the Host, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 59–78Sharma

35 , Jeevan Raj (2012) “Nepal: Migration Hi
, Jeevan Raj (2012) “Nepal: Migration History and Trends”, in, Washington DC: The World Bank, pp. 133–37 © Ginu Zacharia Oommen, form without the written permission of the author. The findings,Society, in whole or part thereof.Nehru Memorial Museum and LibraryTeen Murti HouseNew Delhi-110011 Page setting & Printed by : A.D. Print Studio, 1749 B/6, Govind PuriExtn. Kalkaji, New Delhi - 110019. E-mail : studio.adprint@gmail.c