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State Water Resources Control Board


Division of Water QualityGAMA ProgramRevised November20191purpose of this groundwater information sheet is to provide general information regarding a specific constituent of concern COC The informati

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Document on Subject : "State Water Resources Control Board"— Transcript:

1 State Water Resources Control Board Di
State Water Resources Control Board Division of Water Quality GAMA Program Revised November , 20 1 9 1 purpose of this groundwater information sheet is to provide general information regarding a specific constituent of concern (COC). The i nformation provided herein relates to groundwater sources used for public drinking water , not water served at the t ap . GENERAL INFORMATION Constituent of Concern 1,4 D ioxane Synonyms 1,4 D iethylene di oxide , 1,4 D ioxacyclohexane, p - d ioxane, G lycol ethylene ether, D iethylene ether, D ioxan e Chemical Formula C 4 H 8 O 2 CAS No. 123 - 91 - 1 Storet No. A - 032 Summary The State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) has adopted a drinking water notification level (NL) of 1 microgram per liter ( g/L ) . 1 ,4 D ioxane is prima rily used as stabilizer and solvent . It is also a component of some cosmetics, detergents, and shampoos. The US Environmental Protection Agency ( US EPA ) classifies 1,4 D ioxane as a possible human carcinogen . 1,4 D ioxane is highly soluble in water. Exposure pathways include ingestion of drinking water, inhalation of vapors, and workplace contact. Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) have not been established for 1,4 D ioxane. Based on SWRCB data from 200 9 to 20 1 9 , 194 active and standby public water wells ( of 1,539 sampled ) had at least one detection of 1,4 D ioxane above the N L during this period . Most detections occurred in Los Angeles ( 162 ) and Orange ( 29 ) c ount ies . There were also two detections above the NL in Monterey and one in Santa Barbara counties . GROUNDWATER INFORMATION SHEET 1,4 Dioxane State Water Resources Control Board Division of Water Quality GAMA Program Revised November , 20 1 9 2 REGULATORY WATER QUALITY LEV EL S 1 1, 4 DIOXA

2 NE State and Federal MCLs have not b
NE State and Federal MCLs have not been established for this constituent . Type Agency Concentration Health Advisory Level, based on 1 in 10 - 6 cancer risk US EPA 2 0.35 g/L State N L 3 SWRCB - DDW 4 1 g/L Public Health Protective Concentration OEHHA 5 3 P g/L Source Removal (Response Level) SWRCB - DDW 4 3 5 J/ 1 These levels are generally related to drinking water. Other water quality levels may exist. For further information , see A Compilation of Water Quality G oals , 17 th Edition ( SWRCB 2016). 2 US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency 3 The N is only for the ingestion of drinking water, does not take in to consideration possible dermal or inhalation exposures resulting from typical household uses of water containing a specific constituent of concern. Prior to 2004, NLs wer e referred to as Action Levels in California. 4 SWRCB - DDW The California Department of Public Health Drinking Water Program was transferred to the State Water Resources Control Board, Division of Drinking Water in 2014. 5 OEHHA Office of Environmental Health Hazard assessment 1 ,4 DIOXANE DETECTIONS IN PUBLIC WATER WELLS SOURCES 6 Number of active and standby public water wells with 1,4 D ioxane 7 concentrations� 1 g/L 194 of 1,539 wells sampled. Top counties with active and standby public water wells with 1,4 Dioxane concentrations � 1 g/L. Los Angeles (162), Orange (29), Monterey (2), Santa Barbara (1) 6 W ater from public active and standby public ground water sources is typically treated to prevent exposure to chemical concen t rations above MCLs. Data from private domestic wells and wells with less than 15 service connections are not available. 7 Based on 20 0 9 - 201 9 public standby and active well (groundwater sources) data col

3 lected by the SWRCB. ANALYTICAL INFORM
lected by the SWRCB. ANALYTICAL INFORMATION Method Detection Limit Note EPA 5 22 0.02 0 - 0.036 g/L Drinking water Modified EPA 8260 0.5 - 10.0 J/ Groundwater, hazwaste Known Limitations to Anal y t i cal Methods Measurement of 1,4 D ioxane at the micrograms per liter level (g/L) can be difficult due to its high solubility in water. Public Drinking Water Testing Requirements Testing is required, although an MCL has not been established for this constituent. Notification is recommended by SWRCB if concentrations above 1 g/L are observed . State Water Resources Control Board Division of Water Quality GAMA Program Revised November , 20 1 9 3 1,4 DIOXANE OCCURRENCE A nthropogenic Sources 1,4 Dioxane is primarily used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents. It is also used as a solvent for a number of compounds including resins, oils, fats, waxes, and greases. 1,4 Dioxane is also found as a byproduct in cosmetics and shampoos . 1,4 Dioxan e is widely manufactured and distributed in the United States. Its occurrence as a byproduct in cosmetics is decreasing due to revised methodologies. Natural Sources 1,4 D ioxane is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally in the environment. History of Occurrence The compound has been manufactured since the 1950s. As of 2001, 22 different domestic suppliers have been identified for 1,4 Dioxane. Production of the chemical has fallen significantly from the nearly 15 million pound s produced in 1982, possibly because most uses of trichloroethane, to which it was added as a stabilizer, have been banned in this country. According to the Toxic Release Inventory for 20 1 7 , 6 0 , 7 53 pounds of 1,4 Dioxane were released to the air, 57 , 940 to surface water, 23,626 to land, and 42 0 , 771 pounds were transferred from the user to off - site disposal.

4 The occurrence of 1,4 Dioxane in the
The occurrence of 1,4 Dioxane in the environment is thought to be related to the disposal of c hemical solvents containing dioxane and from disposal of 1,4 D ioxane itself . Subsequent leaching of the chemicals from landfills has resulted in contamination of groundwater. Contaminant Transport Characteristics 1,4 D ioxane is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid at room temperature. It is miscible with water and highly mobile in soils , where it can rapidly migrate to groundwater. 1,4 Dioxane has been observed above notification levels in groundwater and public groundwater sources in Cal ifornia. State Water Resources Control Board Division of Water Quality GAMA Program Revised November , 20 1 9 4 REMEDIATION & TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES Some types of chemical treatment are highly effective in removing 1,4 D ioxane from water. Advanced oxidation processes, which use peroxide and U ltraviolet light (UV) or ozone, have been shown to destroy 1,4 D ioxane . Chlorination has also been found to be effective for the removal of 1,4 D ioxane . However, the byproducts that result from chlorination of 1,4 D ioxane are significantly more toxic than 1,4 D ioxane itself. Standard wastewater treatment methods and conventional activated sludge meth ods have proven to be ineffective . Air - stripping and granular activated charcoal do not remove 1,4 D ioxane from water. Experimental remediation techniques include the use of spec ialized bacteria in bioreactors under specific conditions and phytoremediation , where trees are used to draw shallow groundwater towards the surface as well as remove the constituent of concern. Advanced electrochemical oxidation (AEO) technology was successfully tested for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with 1,4 Dioxane at concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/L. HEALTH EFFECT INFORMATION The primary expos

5 ure pathways for 1,4 Dioxane are through
ure pathways for 1,4 Dioxane are through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure. Inhalation of vapors can occur through occupational contact and through contact with water containing 1,4 Dioxane. Ingestion can occur through drinking contaminated water. Dermal exposure can occur at manufacturing facilities and through use of household products including cosmetics and shampoos. While trace amounts of 1,4 D ioxane are found in some cosmetics and shampoos, the levels observed in these pr oducts are generally very low. Few studies are available that provide information about 1,4 D ioxane in humans. Deaths have been reported from accidental exposures to high amounts of vapors and skin absorption. Studies with workers exposed to lower levels of 1,4 D ioxa ne for longer time periods did not show significant harmful health effects. Controlled exposure of volunteers to airborne contam inant for periods ranging from a few minutes to 6 hours produced eye, nose, and throat irritation. I nformation was not a vailable regarding reproductive, developmental, or immunological effects of 1,4 D ioxane in humans. However, available data is sufficient to clearly identify the liver and kidney as the target organs for 1,4 D ioxane toxicity following short - term exposure t o relatively high concentrations regardless of the route of exposure. These findings have been corroborated in animal studies . State Water Resources Control Board Division of Water Quality GAMA Program Revised November , 20 1 9 5 KEY REFERENCES 1. A gency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2012. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine ToxFAQs, 1,4 - Dioxane. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=954&tid=199 2. Blotevogel, J., et al, 2 018, Pilot - Scale Electrochemical Treatment of a 1,4 - Dioxane Source Zone, Groundwater Monito

6 ring and Remediation, 2019. https://on
ring and Remediation, 2019. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/gwmr.12307 3. California State Water Resources Control Board, Division of Drinking Water 2015. Drinking Water Notification Levels. http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/drinking_water/certlic/drinkingwater/documents/notificationle vels/notificationlevels.pdf 4. National Toxi cology Program. Department of Health and Human Services, 2016. 14th Report on Carcinogens. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/content/profiles/dioxane.pdf 5. State Water Resources Control Board. A Compilation of Water Quality Goals, 17th Edition, (SWRCB, 2 016) . http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/water_quality_goals/docs/wq_goals_ text.pdf 6. Mohr, T.K.G., 2001. Solvent Stabilizers, Santa Clara Valley Water District, White Paper. 7. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. Tech nical Fact Sheet. 1,4 - dioxane (November 2017 update). https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014 - 03/documents/ffrro_factsheet_contaminant_14 - dioxane_january2014_final.pdf 8. 2018 Edition of the Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories Tables Un ited States Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2018 - 03/documents/dwtable2018.pdf 9. US EPA Technology Innovation and Field Services Division, Contaminated Site Clean - Up Information, 1,4 Dioxane, https://clu - in.or g/contaminantfocus/default.focus/sec/1,4 - Dioxane/cat/Overview/ 10. Zenker, M.J., Borden R.C., and Morton B., 2003. Occurrence and Treatment of 1,4 Dioxane in Aqueous Environments. Environmental Engineering Science, v.20 pg:423 - 432. State Water Resources Control Board Division of Water Quality GAMA Program Revised November , 20 1 9 6 Active and Standby Public Water Wells with at least detection of 1,4 Dioxane above the NL, 194 well s . (Source: Public Well Data using GA MA Groundwater System