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TOWARDS A SYSTEMIC CREATION FOR YOUTH


MARKET SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FOR DECENT WORK TOWARDS A SYSTEMIC CREATION FOR YOUTH MARKET SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FOR DECENT WORKTOWARDS A SYSTEMIC CREATION FOR YOUTH that the source is indicated For rights

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1 TOWARDS A SYSTEMIC CREATION FOR YOUTH M
TOWARDS A SYSTEMIC CREATION FOR YOUTH MARKET SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FOR DECENT WORK: TOWARDS A SYSTEMIC CREATION FOR YOUTH MARKET SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FOR DECENT WORK TOWARDS A SYSTEMIC CREATION FOR YOUTH that the source is indicated. For rights of reproduction or translation, application should be made to ILO Publiaccordance with the licences issued to them for this purpose. Visit www.ifrro.org to nd the reproduction rights organization in your country.Crafting Kuza: towards a systemic approach to job creation for youth in Mombasa / International Labour Ofce, International Labour Ofce concerning the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, or Reference to names of rms and commercial products and processes does not imply their endorsement by the ILO publications and electronic products can be obtained through major booksellers or ILO local ofces in many countries, or direct from ILO Publications, International Labour Ofce, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. CataloVisit our website: www.ilo.org/publns PART ONE: MAXIMISING INCLUSIVE JOB EFFECTS Testing the business modelPART TWO: MEASURING INCLUSIVE JOB EFFECTS PART THREE: TAKE-AWAY LESSONS FROM KUZA’S EXPERIENCE OF

2 INCLUSIVE JOB CREATION for sustainably
INCLUSIVE JOB CREATION for sustainably employing hundreds of Mombasa County youth and making fast moving conand occasional despair. Above it all is a case about the need to capture, absorb and process its efforts to create more regular and remunerative employment for disadvantaged youth. Kuza is a 3.5 year program, funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) and impleexpanding employment opportunities for poor and marginalized youth in targeted sectors in Mombasa County, The project’s early analysis laid out the challenge of promoting youth employment in Mombasa County. The 44 percent unemployment among youth was higher than the national average and also higher than the overall unemployment rate in Mombasa. The challenge was strongest for specic groups of youth, including those from traditional coastal ethnic communities and women. There was also a signicant mismatch in the types of skills youth were being taught in existing educational institutions and those required by the job market. Recognizmainstay of tourism was agging as a result of several high-prole security incidents was signicant for the project’s choice of focal sectors. As the project examined sect

3 ors that might feasibly provide for the
ors that might feasibly provide for the expansion expansion in Mombasa County, including the extraordinary costs of doing business and inadequate access to micro-retail. This study focuses on Kuza’s micro-retail work. See Figure 1 for a map of the Kuza interventions. 3 This case study was undertaken between August and November, 2015. It was led by Marremote interviews with project staff. Fieldwork for this study was conducted over one week MSA support the set up and implementation of Kuza’s results measurement system, and therefore did not approach the case study from the perspective of an unbiased observer. Rather it drew from its deep knowledge of Kuza’s strategies and context to reect in the case study. See Woolcock, Michael, Using Case Studies to Explore the External Validity of ‘Complex’ Development IntervenAllana, Amir and Tim Sparkman, Navigating Complexity: adaptive management and organizational learning in a , Knowledge Management for Development Journal, Vol 10, No 3, 2014. 4 PART ONEUNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEMmid’ is a longstanding challenge worldwide, and Kenya’s Mombasa County is no exception. , continue to account for the bulk of retail trade and serve the poorer segments

4 of the nation’s consumers. In Momba
of the nation’s consumers. In Mombasa County, approximately 70 to 80 percent of retail indirectly, according to Kuza’s estimateshowever. Fayaz Bakers Ltd., a supplier, had already bought dozens of bicycles to provide to return each day (and keeping them from stealing the bicycles). Another of Kuza’s partners, Ezzi Traders Ltd., was frustrated by its dependency on existing wholesalers and their inability ences of their consumer base. When asked why the supplier had not simply built a micro-retail outreach model themselves, they responded that they were not comfortable bearing ers directly, losing sales and bearing the costs of transporting their products back to their stores. Alternatively, retailers dealing directly with suppliers had to wait for lorry deliveries from suppliers’ sales teams, often spending up to a week between stocking out and resup means ‘store’ or ‘shop’ in Swahili, the predominant language of small-scale trade in Mombasa County. 5 FIGURE 2 – SIMPLIFIED MICRO-RETAIL DISTRIBUTION MODELIn summary, Kuza’s challenge lay in nding actors who were more willing than existing dis owners. Kuza wanted to use a market facilitation approach to bridge that gap, 

5 47;supporting establishment of a new mic
47;supporting establishment of a new micro-distribution model that will give suppliers better access to the micro-retail segment, while also equipping micro-retail outlets with the products, information, equipment and skills required to grow their businesses.” Kuza thought that the skill level required to be salespeople was appropriate to the disadvantaged youth that they were targeting for employment. To address the issues in the supply system, Kuza decided to pilot a model that would enlist local unemployed youth as salespeople. , revenue increases among suppliers and retailers would create more jobs at those businesses. Higher incomes for previously uneminduced employment. Kuza’s micro-distribution results chain is shown in Figure 3. 7The concept of induced employment is explained in detailed in the results measurement discussion. Traditional Wholesaler “Traditional” trade = 6 FIGURE 3 – MICRO-DISTRIBUTION RESULTS CHAIN Capitalising on the growth of Micro-retail in Mombasa by growing Micro-distribution to the sector Impacts Outcomes Outputs (Systems Change) Intervention Activities Increased employment (induced) for target young women and men Increased income for target young women and men Increas

6 ed sustained (Self) employment (direct)
ed sustained (Self) employment (direct) for target young women and men Sales (performance) of micro-distribution enterprises increases New opportunities for self-employed target young men and women to enter or expand as an enterprise in micro-distribution and related sectors Capacity of target young men and women, as an enterprise, increased via embedded training and on the job learning Target young men and women increase Target young men and women receive Increased sales and distribution and protability of micro-distributors and suppliers Suppliers roll-out micro-distribution business model Suppliers equip TL with necessary inputs and contracted terms Suppliers train micro-distributor (TLs and team) on market and product knowledge TL recruits team of micro-distribution team members Kuza connects supplier/suppliers to TLs in each area Kuza recruits TLs based on recruitment selection process developed Kuza provides initial training for the TLs selection/upskilling of the Team Suppliers roll-out model to new areas (in Mombasa/Coast) New suppliers adopt the micro-distribution model to grow their business in new areas Kuza demonstrates the success achieved during the pilot with other potential suppliers to stimulate re

7 plication in other areas of Mombasa Supp
plication in other areas of Mombasa Suppliers identify and train new TL Kuza supports the suppliers to develop in-house selection, recruitment, and training capacity for new TLs Kuza works with each partner supplier to develop product-specic training to micro-distribution teams4321765891011201819121314151617212223242526272829 Kuza works with each partner supplier to develop a tailored operations manual for the implementation of the business model Kuza assists the supplier partners to identify their distribution shortcomings and sales opportunities, and upgrade their knowledge of the area Kuza develops business model and operations plan for micro-distribution and presents detailed costed model to potential partners Kuza identies and signs MOU withpotential supplier partners (April 2015, 5)Suppliers sign agreement with TLsIncrease opportunities for target young men and women who obtain a job/apprenticeship in micro-distribution and related sectors 7 To identify suppliers, Kuza started by looking at the products in micro-retail shops which “One of our original concerns was that there wouldn’t be enough entrepreneurs, but that’s turned out to not be a problem. -Richard Dellar, Kuza Micro-Distribution Co

8 nsultantImplicit in this pitch was the e
nsultantImplicit in this pitch was the expertise of Kuza’s combination of market systems and industry expert staff, plus the donor-provided resources to hold partners’ hands as they experimented with the model. However, Kuza provided no nancial support to any partner. The team rst sought a bread seller as an anchor partner, enlisting Fayaz, then built a basket of four additional non-competing suppliers. This grew to include suppliers of bread (Fayaz Bakers), At the same time, the Kuza team identied 15 separate, though in some cases contiguous, them a 1 KES commission on unit sales above their target, for example. However, they were encouraged to hire their new employees from within Kuza’s target demographic.about their products and distribute marketing materials. The Kuza team provided training process took time, the project had the opportunity to learn from the start-up of their original sess a higher-than-expected volume of working capital. That lesson factored into their sec tinued that arrangement with the micro-retailers. Those direct relationships facilitated a high rately with each supplier, arranging delivery and settling payments on a supplier-by-supplier “hectic,” saying, 

9 47;it’s my rst time to combine
47;it’s my rst time to combine so many suppliers.” Moreover, one of his supoffered to micro-distributors, eroding Benjamin’s ability to use the additional margin to cover time of writing this study.on him. Richard Dellar, one of Kuza’s micro-retail advisers, characterized this as “the differit was other behaviours by that supplier’s sole distributor, which had a long-term contract to The coordination challenge is clear when the distribution network is visualised, as in Figure 4. Supplier4 Retailer102 Supplier5 Retailer108 Retailer279 Supplier3 Retailer180 Supplier2 Supplier1 Retailer28 Retailer34 Retailer33 Retailer29 Retailer30 Retailer22 Retailer32 Retailer37 Retailer3 Retailer13 Retailer11 Retailer2 Retailer1 Retailer10 MD2 Retailer222 Retailer9 Retailer92 MD12 Retailer223 Retailer226 Retailer95 Retailer17 Retailer19 Retailer228 Retailer20 Retailer248 Retailer6 Retailer16 MD1 Retailer21 Retailer25 Retailer36 Retailer31 Retailer23 Retailer40 Retailer246 Retailer244 Retailer12 Retailer7 Retailer8 Retailer15 MD13 Retailer249 Retailer274 Retailer273 Retailer266 MD14 Retailer261 Retailer269 Retailer211 Retailer276 Retailer270 MD11 Retailer142 Retailer143 Retailer155 Retailer147 Retailer156 R

10 etailer280 Retailer278 Retailer275 Retai
etailer280 Retailer278 Retailer275 Retailer264 Retailer277 Retailer265 MD8 Retailer151 Retailer141 Retailer144 Retailer157 Retailer154 Retailer145 Retailer158 Retailer152 Retailer146 Retailer159 Retailer262 Retailer216 Retailer271 Retailer205 Retailer272 Retailer296 Retailer295 Retailer286 Retailer294 Retailer287 Retailer291 Retailer283 Retailer293 Retailer292 Retailer299 Retailer106 Retailer101 Retailer120 Retailer105 Retailer113 Retailer268 Retailer118 Retailer263 Retailer110 MD6 Retailer267 Retailer114 Retailer117 Retailer104 MD9 Retailer153 Retailer149 Retailer150 Retailer148 Retailer160 Retailer109 MD15 Retailer115 Retailer103 Retailer116 Retailer107 Retailer111 Retailer112 Retailer119 Retailer64 Retailer70 Retailer65 Retailer75 Retailer67 Retailer79 Retailer80 Retailer208 Retailer215 Retailer212 Retailer203 Retailer201 Retailer202 Retailer219 Retailer73 Retailer74 Retailer68 Retailer77 Retailer69 Retailer71 Retailer72 Retailer78 Retailer38 Retailer35 Retailer26 Retailer27 Retailer24 Retailer39 Retailer209 Retailer207 Retailer218 Retailer214 Retailer204 Retailer206 Retailer210 Retailer217 Retailer220 Retailer213 MD4 Retailer63 Retailer62 Retailer76 Retailer61 Retailer66 Retailer42 Retailer45 Retailer57 Retailer47 Retail

11 er51 Retailer52 Retailer54 Retailer46 Re
er51 Retailer52 Retailer54 Retailer46 Retailer48 Retailer50 Retailer58 Retailer235 Retailer93 Retailer85 Retailer84 Retailer240 Retailer99 Retailer94 Retailer231 MD5 Retailer87 Retailer96 Retailer90 Retailer88 Retailer86 Retailer89 Retailer97 Retailer82 Retailer91 Retailer81 Retailer83 Retailer100 Retailer56 Retailer49 Retailer53 Retailer43 Retailer41 Retailer55 Retailer44 Retailer59 Retailer260 Retailer14 Retailer60 Retailer252 MD3 Retailer140 Retailer132 Retailer128 Retailer121 Retailer122 Retailer131 Retailer138 Retailer179 Retailer126 Retailer136 Retailer127 Retailer123 Retailer125 Retailer130 Retailer133 Retailer137 Retailer139 Retailer162 Retailer165 Retailer171 Retailer173 MD7 Retailer298 Retailer289 Retailer290 Retailer285 Retailer297 Retailer281 Retailer282 Retailer288 Retailer284 Retailer300 Retailer169 Retailer167 Retailer175 Retailer172 Retailer168 Retailer170 Retailer177 Retailer163 Retailer161 Retailer176 Retailer166 Retailer164 Retailer129 Retailer174 Retailer178 Retailer197 Retailer134 Retailer135 Retailer124 Retailer194 Retailer200 Retailer182 Retailer225 Retailer195 Retailer186 Retailer224 Retailer184 Retailer185 Retailer234 Retailer187 Retailer188 Retailer190 Retailer191 Retailer192 Retailer247 Retailer243

12 Retailer254 Retailer242 Retailer253 Ret
Retailer254 Retailer242 Retailer253 Retailer256 Retailer245 Retailer257 Retailer258 Retailer5 Retailer4 Retailer251 Retailer255 Retailer241 Retailer98 Retailer250 Retailer18 Retailer259 Retailer183 Retailer193 Retailer239 Retailer199 MD10 Retailer237 Retailer227 Retailer230 Retailer233 Retailer221 Retailer229 Retailer238 Retailer232 Retailer198 Retailer189 Retailer181 Retailer196 Retailer236 9 The network shows a high density of relationships and signicant redundancy, meaning that of information and ease the pressure on micro-distributors to maintain multiple communicaCHECKING SUSTAINABILITYKuza’s intervention reduces suppliers’ cost of search, helping them nd and build the capacity of energetic micro-distributors who can reach Mombasa County’s thousands of small owners. “The hardest part is nding the right person for sales. That’s the greatest benet Kuza brings,” said Fayaz Khamisa, Managing Director at the family-run Fayaz Bakers. market. Put more bluntly, PZ Cussons Area Regional Sales Manager Patrick Maingi pointed Kuza’s role, at the time of writing this study, was to sort out the model’s teething problems without Kuza’s intervention at the micro-distri

13 butor level – the subject of signi&
butor level – the subject of signicant internal Kuza knows it must pass the search and coordination function on to a sustainable entity, so to own and replicate the model. However, the project’s early attention was on the issue of utors are trained and operating, producing employment for at least 60 youth salespeople, while suppliers are starting to see noticeable growth. The supplier Fayaz Bakers, an early adopter of the business model, has seen a 2.5 percent increase in sales since it started with Kuza three months prior and projects that sales through the micro-distribution channel could exceed 10 percent of its total units sold in the next six months. According to the micro-distributors, retailers are happy because goods are being delivered to them regularly at fair prices with no additional transport costs. Moreover, all parties are beneting from improved information ows, a feature that speaks to the long-term viability of the new relationships. Improved information about buyer preferences is an explicit aim in the model and there was evidence that it is now occurring. Fayaz had made several changes to their bread products, based on new customer feedback relayed through micro-distributors. Ezzi

14 also reported improved access to consume
also reported improved access to consumer preferences through the new channel. Several micro-distributors also reported relaying consumer preferences up the chain to suppliers, while their salespeople were better able to market products to retailers, owing to the tailored supplier training they received. Improved information ow was made possible by esized? This seems unlikely for a few reasons, some of which were mentioned in interviews with suppliers themselves. For one, there are currently a handful of micro-distribution models for FMCGs in Kenya, but those models are owned by suppliers who give little room for other suppliers’ products. For another, selling FMCGs is a low-margin business, leaving little room As mentioned previously, many suppliers would be averse to taking on the investment of recruiting and training micro-distributors, let alone the ongoing servicing required to keep them operational. So while the model was obviously to everyone’s benet (perhaps with the Kuza’s coordination and capacity building role? The answer to this question is still unclear, Moreover, Kuza also questioned the degree to which the jobs being created by the model lar reected that “You would think tha

15 t in a place with over 40 percent unempl
t in a place with over 40 percent unemployment, [the youth] would be crowding at your door. But in reality it can be difcult to get them to come back to work every day.” Kuza recognized that it needed to learn more about the motivations Young salesperson at Humphrey’s shop County, was doing 11 Leakey Mogangi in his shop: 32-yr-old entrepreneur 12 PART TWONOT A JOB FOR EVERYONE:To know whether the business models were working, or not, the Kuza project built a moniKuza’s MRM system was designed to respond to the donor’s desire to measure impacts of ”. Given that part of the donor’s justication for (18-30) who have not completed high school, with particular focus on women and people that would not exclude most of the likely job takers. Consequently, Kuza decided to dene reported to the donor as a Kuza beneciary, all job recipients would need to be both young employed, from a traditional coastal community, be female or with a low formal education). of job recipients too narrowly, since Kuza’s indirect approach meant it does not have control over who received the jobs that it helped create. However, as mentioned above, to inuence this outcome the project is encouragi

16 ng micro-distributors to hire youths mee
ng micro-distributors to hire youths meeting the 2+1 rule. This effectively passes the challenge down to project partners, although by its nature micro-distribution roles are naturally lled by salespeople meeting most of Kuza’s targeting http://www.enterprise-development.org/page/measuring-and-reporting-resultsFowler, Ben. 13 To capture its impact on employment, Kuza seeks to measure three types of job creation: micro-distributors do keep rudimentary information on sales (e.g. to reconcile cash balcally or recorded formally. The project distributes paper forms to micro-distributors to track sales by supplier – to gauge the model’s performance from a nancial perspective, as well as employee characteristics – to measure the model’s performance with respect to employThe project needs to know sales levels and employee numbers – on top of the frequency and daily hours of employment for each salesperson – in addition to the number of retailers served by each. Asking micro-distributors to track this information should theoretically be helpful to them as well, and would lead to the goal in which “the market players recognise the value of enhanced information and the model generates

17 this information without Kuza’s on
this information without Kuza’s ongoing intervention” as expressed by Justin van Rhyn from the Kuza team. Nonetheless, the Kuza team was somewhat frustrated by how difcult it proved to be to convince their partners to take the A tricky challenge that Kuza has struggled with is how to determine the sustainability of the new jobs created from its efforts. Kuza’s theory of change essentially asserts the following: formance improves, then the working youth’s job is more permanent (i.e. a sustained job). However, once it was agreed with the donor as a project cornerstone, it carried signicant ramications for what Kuza felt comfortable reporting as direct jobs created. In a principled effort to avoid over-reporting, it is quite possible that the project is instead under-reporting Take the case of Mr. Mwangangi. He had three salespeople working for him at the time of . He started with six staff, then red one for stealing and laid off two others because the milk supplier was not delivering due to its own working capital challenges. He expected to rehire the last two youths as soon as milk returned to his micro-distribution basket, but for Kuza’s purposes those two youths would not qualif

18 y in the beneciary count because th
y in the beneciary count because their jobs came on and ofine in direct relation to the milk supply. MRM is a tough job that manages to combine intense deadline pressure with precious derstandable. As Kuza MRM Manager Herbert Kere noted, “The ones that are consistent are the ones that are coming every day. The ones that uctuate I leave out entirely.”Mwangangi’s was a consistent story for each of the micro-distributors interviewed. With little shop in the vain hope that the milk truck would show up. When they were certain of delivery, provides a method for counting part-time jobs, called Full-Time Equivalent (FTE), designed . However, Kuza felt uncomfortable classifying such periodic For further information on denitions, refer to Fowler, Ben and Erin Markel, Working Paper: Measuring Job THE INDIRECT, THE INDUCED . To address the issue of indirect jobsmicro-distributors, those jobs would qualify. This is quite likely, given the direction the model is taking. Two cases illustrate the point.wo cases illustrate the point.”partnership with Kuza’s micro-distributors. Its sales in three months had increased by 5,000 expected to increase by 30,000 in the next six months owing only to sal

19 es through Kuza’s These would quali
es through Kuza’s These would qualify as indirect jobs, under the assumption that any increase above Fayaz’s PZ Cussons said it would only increase staff through its distributors, paying the salaries of hitting sales targets. However, that distributor, in turn, served at least nine other suppliers in Coast Province, complicating the task of attributing a given staff increase to Kuza’s micro-activity, thus creating jobs in other sectors. To estimate induced employment, a project must rst identify a credible ratio, or multiplier, between an increase in income and employment. Many efforts have been made to estimate such multipliers. Critiques of induced employment estimates are both practical (if using secondary sources as the source of the multiplier, they cannot be veried) and theoretical (multipliers are linear and do not account for scale an “income increase” as net income changes attributable to the work of the programme. income increases for that specic population (essentially, salespeople), although it might retailers. This is another instance in which the desire to avoid over-reporting potentially leads to under-selling the project’s true impact. A quick note on denitio

20 ns: the uses of “direct” and &
ns: the uses of “direct” and “indirect” are different in the M4P literature and the job creation literature. Both denitions are used in this case study, based on the context of use. For clarity, a “direct” beneciary is one that receives Kuza support –the micro-distributors and suppliers. An indirect beneciary would be a retailer served by a micro-distributor. A direct job, however, would only qualify as a job created as a result of the introduction of the micro-distributor model – thus the rationale for limiting direct job creation to sales jobs with micro-distributors. An indirect job would be created as a result of the model’s success – thus For an overview, see the International Finance Corporation’s review of this topic here: http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/f0be83804f7cdf68b7deff0098cb14b9/chapter3.pdf?MOD=AJPERESFowler, Ben and Erin Markel, Working Paper: Measuring Job Creation in Private Sector DevelopmentThe Society for International Development’s urban employment multiplier for Kenya has a value of 0.75, while the International Labour Organization’s overall employment multiplier for Kenya has a value of 1.67. The aver Lastly, the issu

21 e of , the issue of ”16 It is alway
e of , the issue of ”16 It is always an issue for private sector development programs, whether seeking to boost em-ployment or not. A few examples from Kuza illustrate the challenge of maintaining awareiti, we learned that a local youth group had been buying bread from Fayaz’s local wholesale point and selling to local retailers, at the same price at which Mr. Njeru was selling. As he “There’s a lot of contact at the moment so it’s relatively easy to Another team leader, Humphrey Khingi in Magongo, said he previously bought Fayaz bread from self-employed salespeople who worked under that company’s previous effort at distribution to micro-retailers. With his team’s distribution to around 50 shops in his area already original salespeople are “still there, but they only sell along the highways” now. example, is not the only breadmaker trying to reach micro-retailers in Mombasa County. tems. PZ Cussons, for its part, faced challenges because its cosmetic products were more These examples do not highlight a weakness in the model (it’s hard to imagine any youth search on the issue in the months following the case study. DCED Standard Version VII. Page 15. PART THREETAKE-AWAY LESSO

22 NS FROM KUZA’S EXPERIENCE OF INCLUS
NS FROM KUZA’S EXPERIENCE OF INCLUSIVE JOB CREATION tions that projects have to make when starting-up and iterating their way towards systemic and sustainable impact. While it may be too early to see how Kuza has changed its programbusiness model up and running and to measure progress – getting to the point where it can common to make compromises to a facilitation strategy when market actors signal, tunities in a market system. The Kuza project recognized the compromises it was making and is moving quickly to extricate itself from its prominent initial role in FMCG distribution. Despite the resort to some more direct tactics, Kuza kept the systemic change vision in sight and had a clear plan for incrementally working towards it. This is a principled compromise – qualitatively different from the (perhaps more common) compromises programs sometimes make for the intention of simply hitting targets or Though it was still too early to witness signicant changes in Kuza’s micro-distribution activity, its efforts to learn rapidly were already visible marching into the market system with a predetermined solution to youth employment, choices, Kuza sought to balance not only rigour (getting accurate measures)

23 with pracing (with the associated risk o
with pracing (with the associated risk of under-reporting) with real achievements (which risks over-reporting). It is not easy to know what credible estimates of impact are when it 17 Somewhat counter intuitively, it can were averse to changing their practices. Kuza’s effort to build a monitoring regime that While operational data was problematic but feasible to gather, the Kuza team worried more about understanding the strength and extent of the distribution network it was trying to foster. While focusing on changes in individual actors is useful, it is important to understand the evolution of the entire system to fully capture how the market is evolving – this is the hallmark of a truly ‘systems’ approach, after all. This includes measures that shed light on the strength and extent of the network, such as how effectively information (e.g., prices, orders, complaints, feedback, etc.) ows between actors in different Mixing generalist, market systems theory staff with specialibility to Kuza in partner negotiations, almost certainly hastening the pace of partner ate the enthusiasm of industry experts. There is occasional tension between them, as es a successful intervention. However, working co

24 nstructively together produced an interv
nstructively together produced an intervention that was sound, systemically focused and capable of garnering the buy-in of industry representatives. In other words, tactics were led by the experts, strategy by the theorists. creation that is attributable to a development project’s efforts in its paper “Working Paper: member, Tim Sparkman, who was not previously engaged on the Kuza project and so was Market Systems Development for Decent Work ‘The Lab’ (www.ilo.org/thelab) is an action land’s State Secretariat for Economic Affairs. Adam Smith International 18 MARKET SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FOR DECENT WORK Wichtiger HINWEIS Innerhalb der Schutzzone (hellblauer Rahmen) darf kein anderes Element platziert werden! Ebenso darf der Abstand zu Format- resp. Papierrand die Schutzzone nicht verletzen! Hellblauen Rahmen der Schutzzone nie drucken!Siehe auch Handbuch„Corporate Design der Schweizerischen Bundesverwaltung“ Kapitel „Grundlagen“, 1.5 / Schutzzonewww. cdbund.admin.ch   Crafting Kuza: towards a systemic approach to job creation