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WAYS OF LIFE


SACREDTRADITIONALKNOWLEDGEPREPARED FOR THE FIRST NATIONS CENTRENATIONAL ABORIGINAL HEALTH ORGANIZATIONBefore we beginlet us take time to honour all our ancestors who were Medicine menpharmacistsherbal

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Document on Subject : "WAYS OF LIFE"— Transcript:

1 SACRED WAYS OF LIFE TRADITIONALKNOWLEDGE
SACRED WAYS OF LIFE TRADITIONALKNOWLEDGE PREPARED FOR THE FIRST NATIONS CENTRENATIONAL ABORIGINAL HEALTH ORGANIZATION Before we begin,let us take time to honour all our ancestors who were Medicine menpharmacists;herbalists;counsellors;midwives;and doctored our physical,emotional,and spiritual needs.We thank you.e also take time to honour our present day Traditional Medicine men and women,chosen to continue practicing our ancient healing and wellness practices.,pharmacists,social workers,doctors,communityhealth workers,optometrists,dieticians/nutritionists,dentists,psychologists,nurses,sports therapists,and in so many other areas of health,wellness,and healing. Traditional knowledge and thelaw In the time

2 s of our ancestors,our peopleshad protoc
s of our ancestors,our peopleshad protocols,customary laws and socialconventions that regulated socialbehaviour.These protocols informedpeople how to obtain objects,such asmedicines,through stories and ceremonies.With European contact,and the foreignrules they brought with them,many Firstere overshadowed orforgotten.Traditional knowledge was notseen as equal to western knowledge.Yetrowingebuilding ourcultures and ways of life.,First Nations are raising the issue of protecting the traditionalknowledge of indigenous peoples withfor example,is an international body t of the United Nations.Itsve people attain thehighest possible level of health.WHO픀s Traditional MedicineStrategy 2002-2005 gnizes the import

3 ant role of traditionalknowledge and med
ant role of traditionalknowledge and medicines in the healthand well-being of indigenous peoplesound the world. Two other organizations that recognizetraditional knowledge are the ConventionerCBDCBDorld Intellectual Property Organizatione signed agreements to support its objective to maintain the conservationof biological diversity,the use of its parts,and the fair and equitable sharing of resources. CBD defines biologicalsity as the variability among livingom all sources includingterrestrial,marine,and other aquaticecosystems and includes their ecologicalcomplexes.It also includes diversity within species,between species,and Canada has been a CBDmember since 1992. WHO Traditional Medicine ention on Bio

4 logical Diversity The following are tool
logical Diversity The following are tools a person,community,or nation can use to helpmaintain traditional knowledge.Eachexample can be changed to fit yourcommunityÕs needs,and in a way thatsupports the vision of your community. research committee Credible research follows rules that areusually reviewed and approved by certaingroups of people.Research in mostviewed by peerreview boards that suggest revisions andcorrections,or decide if the research First Nations communities could develop aresearch committee to decide if a researchend product of research and decide whereould use the information.Thisgives the community ownership of andvolvement in the research project.Theresearch committee can also help d

5 evelopof community information.A communi
evelopof community information.A community research committee couldbe made up of several people,decided.It might includean Elder,Chief,Counsellor,and someoneconsidered knowledgeable or an expert inthe subject of the research.This committee Tool 1 could be actively involved in the research.It should have clearly defined mandates.Its members should also represent thediversity within the community. Participatory action research (PAR) is amodel that actively promotes communityinvolvement.Put simply,PAR is a group of people confronted by a problem whoand then see how successful they were. If the researchers were not successful,ory could begin again.While the originsof this research model are vague,itsusefulne

6 ss in turning ordinary communitymembers
ss in turning ordinary communitymembers into researchers is widelyecognized.PAR looks at issues that the communityidentifies as important.It is research that isalues,and protocols.This model promotes a qualitativeapproach to gathering and making sense This process is referred to as Òheuristic,팀a way of being informedand a way of knowing.Heuristic researchinvolves self-search,self-dialogue,and self-es researchers understandtheir frames of reference when doingvolving something foreign Tools for maintaining traditional knowledge Developing policies w a course of action,or activity,will be undertaken andmanaged based on the principles,values,traditions,and beliefs of a community,a,a nation. olicies are

7 written toguide communities and organiza
written toguide communities and organizations onvarious issues,such as how research will beTraditional knowledge should be includedin these important guides for behaviour.Written policies can offer a sense ofsecurity and safety for First Nationsresponsibilities and goals for areas oftraditional knowledge. ool 2 For example,the Philippine Congresscreated the Institute of Traditional andAlternative Health Care under the raditional and Alternative Medicine Act velopments of theirve guidance for setting policies or goals.Communitygroups were instrumental in guiding theere included by the Philippinenment when drafting the law.Section2 of the Act outlines the following policy SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy. Ñ

8 It is herebydeclared the policy of the S
It is herebydeclared the policy of the State toimprove the quality and delivery of healthcare services to the Filippino peoplethrough the development of traditionaland alternative health care and itsintegration into the national health caredelivery system. It shall also be the policy of the State toseek a legally workable basis by whichindigenous societies would own theirknowledge of traditional medicine. Whensuch knowledge is used by outsiders, theindigenous societies can require thepermitted users to acknowledge its sourceand can demand a share of any financialeturn that may come from its authorized commercial use. Setting objectives Objectives are clear statements of specificactivities needed in order

9 to reach goalsand support policies and
to reach goalsand support policies and laws recognizedwithin a specific group.For example,thePhilippine Institute of Traditional andes to help support itsalternative health care systems that have direct impact on publichealth care.of traditional,alternative,preventiveand curative health care modalitiese been proven safe,effective,cost-effective and consistent withgovernment standards on medicalꔀTo develop and coordinate skillstraining courses for various forms care modalities;ꔀTo formulate standards,guidelinesappropriate for the practice oftraditional and alternative health care as well as in the manufacture,quality control and marketing ofdifferent traditional and alternativehealth care materials,n

10 atural andorganic products,for approval
atural andorganic products,for approval andadoption by the appropriatevernment agencies;ꔀTo formulate policies for theprotection of indigenous and naturalom unwarranted exploitation,for approval and adoption by theappropriate government agencies;ꔀTo formulate policies to strengthenole of traditional and alternativehealth care delivery system;and ꔀTo promote traditional and alternativeventions,seminars andmeetings in coordination with theDepartment of Tourism,Duty Freeporated,PhilippineConvention and Visitors Corporationand other tourism-related agenciesas well as non-government and local apprenticeshipprograms Education is crucial to gain and keeptraditional knowledge.The Navajo NationThis Nation d

11 eveloped an apprenticeshipprogram that t
eveloped an apprenticeshipprogram that trains Navajo to becomecertified traditional healing practitioners.Funding partners became involved ineloping this program,showing theircommitment to maintaining Navajotraditional knowledge and the importance er Territoryn Ontario has a program to trainmidwives.It shows the importance oftraditional midwifery from a First NationÕsve and has led to the developmentof the Six Nations Maternal and ChildCentre.The Centre offers a trainingves.Theiven project is to give expectant mothers and their familiesramming that supports their beliefs Indigenous peoples throughout the worldunderstand the need to maintain traditionalColombian Amazon through the Union s have a certifi

12 cation processentices.Thisallows people
cation processentices.Thisallows people to tell the difference betweentraditional healers and people who pretendto be traditional healers. Tool 3 Many First Nations people receiveeducation in universities and colleges.Not every school offers a Native Studiesprogram,but the few that do are trying to deliver culturally-appropriate education.Learning about First Nations cultures is onestep in maintaining traditional knowledge.Many universities,colleges,First Nations,and non-First Nations people are trying toinclude this knowledge in their programs.ve Studies curricula varyfromschool to school,it usually includes theknowledge of Elders.The First sity of Canada in Regina,wan,delivers course informationco-faci

13 litated by Elders.First Nationscolleges
litated by Elders.First Nationscolleges are similar to mainstream collegeswith one major distinctionÑthey have ꔀto rebuild,reinforce,and exploretraditional tribal cultures usingꔀto address western models oflearning by providing traditionalses that aretransferable to four-year Educating First Nations children infor maintaining traditional knowledge.using traditional ways in everyday life. developing a code of ethics/behaviour:ꔀHow do our traditional healers earna living to support their families?ꔀHow do we promote the use of our medical knowledge by our ownof the dominant society arepromoted so forcefully?ꔀHow do we ensure our knowledgeis not only preserved but alsoimproved?ꔀHow do we protect

14 ourselves STATEMENT OF COMMITMENT At t
ourselves STATEMENT OF COMMITMENT At the conclusion of the Gathering,we committed ourselves to workingtraditional medicine and to offeringindigenous peoples and humanity. ATEMENT OF BELIEF e consider yagŽ,along with ourwisdom and knowledge,to be a gifthealth of humanity.We have a dutyto demonstrate to the world,withimportance of our values. Union of YagŽ Healers of the Colombian Amazon, Traditional healerprofessional regulation code of ethics/behaviourcode of ethics/behaviour Traditional healers throughout history havealways understood protocols of ceremonies.Through their learning and teachings,theywere taught what was acceptable whenentrusted with the knowledge given tothem.Today,misusing t

15 raditional knowledgecan cause damage to
raditional knowledgecan cause damage to either a person orMany professionals must belong to a self-regulatory body that ensures theirand are bound by a code viour.Elders and healers are important to a community.It is up to the community to ensure they seekound information.The following Tool 4 Tool overview: Nation, community and individual perspectives Apprenticeship Ð learning a trade,occupation,or craft through practicalexperience from someone with yearsof knowledge in the area. Ð the misappropriation ofknowledge and/or biological materialfrom traditional communities. Biological diversity Ð all living speciesa healthy and sustainable environment. Biological resources Ð resources thatorganisms,popul

16 ations,and biotic parts of ecosystems. t
ations,and biotic parts of ecosystems. tified traditional healing practitioner Ð a person who has gone through all the appropriate lessons and ecognized by the community as credible. Code of Behaviour principles that provides a guide towhat is considered proper or improper,and appropriate or inappropriatebehaviour. Code of Ethics standards,principles,rules,or guidelinesesearchers to guide theesearch. Convention on Biological Diversity Ð the CBD was signed by 150 government leaders at the 1992Rio Earth Summit.The Convention is dedicated to promoting sustainabledevelopment.It recognizes thatgical diversity is about more thanplants,animals and micro-organismsmedicines,fresh air and water,shelter,and a cle

17 an and healthy environmentin which to li
an and healthy environmentin which to live.It has established three main goals:the conservation of biological diversity;the sustainableuse of its components;and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits Curriculum Ð a set of courses,educational Ð relates to a set of moral principlesor values,or a theory or system ofof an individual or group. First Nations Ð a term used to refer toeoples of Canada,includingstatus,treaty,and non-status Indians. First Nations CentrFNCFNC Ð a centreof excellence at the National AboriginalHealth Organization that is a FirstNations-designed and -controlledorganization dedicated to advancingFirst Nations health knowledge,andthe health and well-being of FirstNations thr

18 ough research andknowledge-based activit
ough research andknowledge-based activities. Heuristic Ð relates to exploratoryoblem-solving that uses self-educating techniques;an educationalmethod in which learning takes placevestigations. istic research that involves self-search,self-dialogue,and self-discovery. gies individual,group,or culture;a set ofeconomic,or other system. Intellectual property rIPRIPR rights recognized as belonging to creatorsinal creative works and designsthat are protected under legislation for a period of time. Medicine wheel circular pattern recognized forysical,emotional,mental,andspiritual,espoused by plains andwestern First Nations. Member states Ð countries that haveagreed to join a body or organizationthat is compos

19 ed of several othermember states,such as
ed of several othermember states,such as the UnitedNations;countries that have agreed to adopt a mandate and take part in a process or movement to demonstratetheir commitment in advancing andaddressing certain issues of concern to other member states,such as thevention on Biological Diversity. National Aboriginal HealthOrganization (NAHO) eated to influence and advancethe health and well-being of AboriginalPeoples through research and knowledge-based strategies. articipatory action research (PAR) qualitative research that promotescommunity involvement to identifyibute both to the practicalconcerns of people in an immediateproblematic situation and to further The active collaboration of the researcherand

20 the research participant/respondentis re
the research participant/respondentis required to accomplish this dualco-learning as a primary aspect of the ylogenic efers to the evolutionarydevelopment and diversification ofgroups of organisms. Policy Ð a plan or course of actionintended to influence and determinedecisions,actions,and other matters. Protocols Ð a preliminary memorandumoften formulated and signed bynegotiators as a basis for a finalconvention or treaty;the records orminutes of a conference or congressthat show officially the agreementsarrived at by the negotiators;rules ocedures. Research journals Ð periodicals thatpublish articles on various topics,a formaleview process. raditional knowledge of knowledge,skills,and practices based

21 on the theories,beliefs,andiences indig
on the theories,beliefs,andiences indigenous to differentcultures,whether explicable or not,used in maintaining health as well diagnosing,andoving treatment of physical Qualitative research Ð research thate data that are not easily coded into numbers.Theemphasis is on words and feelingsrather than numbers.Qualitativeresearch participants or respondents vel.Key qualitative researchtechniques include focus groups and other observational methods. Ways of knowing Ð theories of knowledgeknown to a First Nations communitythat includes ceremonies,spiritualpractices,dances,songs,crafts,andlanguage important to that group. World Intellectual Property international organization dedicated to promoting the use a

22 nd protection of works of the human spir
nd protection of works of the human spirit.Withters in Geneva,Switzerland,national treaties dealing withdifferent aspects of intellectual propertyprotection.The Organization counts If you would like to learn more about traditional knowledge and issues,check out the following resources.Battiste,Marie and Henderson,James (SaÕkeÕj) Youngblood, and Heritage (Saskatoon:Purich,2000).Yukon First Nations, raditional Knowledge Research Guidelines:A Guide for Yukon First Nations,2000).onment Canada,ÒAboriginal Traditional Knowledge and Environmental Science and the Environment, .32 (Ottawa:EnvironmentCanada,2002).Ferguson,Michael A.D.,ÒUtilizing Indigenous Knowledge in Environmental Researchand Assessment,팀

23 Terra Borealis, No.2 (Labrador:Institute
Terra Borealis, No.2 (Labrador:Institute for EnvironmentalMonitoring and Research,2002).Grenier,Louise, Working with Indigenous Knowledge:A Guide for Researchers velopment Research Centre,1998).ribe, al Theft and Misrepresentation otsmovi,Arizona:Hopi Tribe,2001-2005).Available at:www.hopi.nsn.us/Pages/Culture/misrep.html.y F.,and Haas,G.,ÒCommunity Health for First Nations: ersity:Journal for Life on Earth, (Ottawa:Tropical Conservancy,2002).Moore,MariJo,ÒPre-School Program:Revitalizing Cherokee Language,팀 Cultural Survival, Issue 23.3 (Cambridge: Cultural Survival, Inc.,1999). ersity,Traditional Knowledge and Rights of Indigenous Peoples (Pangan,Malaysia:Third World Network,2004).Available at: .org

24 .sg/title/bioipr.htm. Resources S.A.Han
.sg/title/bioipr.htm. Resources S.A.Hansen and J.W.Van Fleet, Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property:A Handbook on Issues and Options forTraditional Knowledge Holders in Protecting their Intellectual Property and Maintaining Biological Diversity (Washington,DC:American Association for the Advancement of Science,2003). Protecting Indigenous PeopleÕs Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property:A Community Guide (Ottawa:Pauktuutit InuitWomenÕs Association,2003). World Health Organization, World Health Organization Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002-2005 (Geneva:World HealthOrganization,2002).Available at: www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/trm_strat_eng.pdf Convention on Biological Diversity,

25 퉔raditional Knowledge and the Conventi
퉔raditional Knowledge and the Convention on Biological Diversity.팀Available www.biodiv.org/programmes/socio-eco/traditional/default.asp versity, ,Innovations andPractices of Indigenous and Local Communities (New York:United Nations Environment Program,2003). See website for the World Intellectual Property Organization at: .wipo.int vention on Biological Diversity, t on the Status and Trends Regarding the Knowledge,Innovations andPractices of Indigenous and Local Communities (New York:United Nations Environment Program,2003). ebsite for the Alaska Native Science Commission at: vescience.org/html/traditional_and_scientific.html C.Fletcher,ÒCommunity Based Participatory Research Relationships with Abor

26 iginal Communities in Canada:Anerview of
iginal Communities in Canada:Anerview of Context and Process,팀 TZIWIN:Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health, ol.1,Issue ve Science Commission, able 1:Comparisons between Traditional and Scientific Knowledge Styles e Science Commission,2005).Available at: vescience.org/html/traditional_and_scientific.html Alaska Native Science Commission, Table 2:Comparisons between Traditional and Scientific Knowledge in Use Alaska Native Science Commission,2005).Available at: www.nativescience.org/html/traditional_and_scientific.html Theresa Zolner,ÒGoing Back to Square One and Finding ItÕs a Circle:NotNotversity Research in IndianCountry.팀 PIMATZIWIN:Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community

27 Health, Vol.1,20032003.91-113. Global D
Health, Vol.1,20032003.91-113. Global Development Research Centre, Capacity Building for Microfinance:The design of microfinance policies and programmes (Osaka,Japan:Global Development Research Centre,2003). Office of DinŽ Culture,Language and Community Services, Overview:Navajo Traditional Apprenticeship Program Office of DinŽ Culture,Language and Community Services,1997). E.Panousos,ÒFirst Nations Health Information Governance:The Importance of Policy-Making,팀 ,A Three Day Workshop Ð Day Two:Skills and Considerations in Planning First Nations Centre,National Aboriginal Health Organization,2004). Republic of the Philippines, Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (TAMA) of 1997 (Manila,

28 Philippines:Republic vailable at: .grain
Philippines:Republic vailable at: .grain.org/brl_files/philippines-tama-1997-en.pdf hilippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care.Available at:www.doh.gov.ph/pitahc/Index.html. Office of DinŽ Culture,Language and Community Services, Overview:Navajo Traditional Apprenticeship Program (Phoenix,Arizona:Office of DinŽ Culture,Language and Community Services,1997). 2 S.Fraser, TSi Non:we Ionnakeratstha (the place they will be born) Ona:grahstaÕ(a birthing place) River Territory,Ontario:Six Nations Maternal and Child Centre).Available at: www.naho.ca/french/pdf/ABirthingPlace-SixNations.pdf Union of YagŽ Healers of the Colombian Amazon, Ethics for Indigenous Medicine of the Col

29 ombian Amazon Union of YagŽ Healers
ombian Amazon Union of YagŽ Healers of the Colombian Amazon,2000). American Indian Higher Education Consortium, Tribal Colleges:An Introduction (Washington,D.C.:American IndianHigher Education Consortium,Institute for Higher Education Policy,February1999) p.A-3.Available at: .org/AIHEC%20Documents/PDFS/intro.pdf John Kahlunes Fadden, The Haudenosaunee Code of Behaviour for Traditional Medicine Healers (Ohsweken,Ontario:Irocraft Books,1995). YagŽ Healers of the Colombian Amazon, Colombian Amazon (Columbia:Union of YagŽ Healers of the Colombian Amazon,1999).Available online at: .amazonteam.org/elders2.html vernment of New Zealand,S ds for Traditional MŠori Healing Government of New Zea

30 land,June 1999).Available at: http://www
land,June 1999).Available at: http://www.moh.govt.nz. Woodland Cultural Centre,Aboriginal Languages Programs and Projects (Brantford,Ontario:Woodland Cultural,2002).Available at: oodland-centre.on.ca/languages.html#anchor249809 Alaska Native Language Center.Available at: www.uaf.edu/anlc/languages.html MariJo Moore,ÒPre-School Program:Revitalizing Cherokee Language,팀 Cultural Survival, idge:Cultural Survival,Inc.,1999). vernment of Canada, s Digital Collections wa:Government of Canada,2005).Available at: http://collections.ic.gc.ca/E/WhatsNew/Index.html Government of Canada, First Peoples on SchoolNet (Ottawa:Government of Canada,2005).Available at: http://www.schoolnet.ca/aboriginal/e/background_e.as