Download presentation
1 -

WELDING IS ACOMMON industrial processsocommon that up to two percent o


H Shane Ashby CSP with West Tennessee Healthcare in Jackson TNOSHA outreach training instructor A veteran ofmember of ASSEs Golden Circle ChapterwwwasseorgAPRIL2002 Welding Fumein the WorkplacePreve

jasmine's Recent Documents

x0000x0000OMB Control NumberExpires
x0000x0000OMB Control NumberExpires

1 Version 131Quarterly Budget and Expenditure Reporting under CARES Act Section18004a1 Institutional Portion 18004a2 and 18004a3if applicableInstitution NameSTVTAAI Education Inc dba South Texas Vo Te

published 0K
B8J8CLDELD8EFIGFI8KFExD8EEJF8KFECLJFEJFC8N8EFI3KxE0GIFYbeXTeaZbagX1gWT
B8J8CLDELD8EFIGFI8KFExD8EEJF8KFECLJFEJFC8N8EFI3KxE0GIFYbeXTeaZbagX1gWT

-10665662KKXNXfgMeZaThTaIZgfbffbahcbaWhXVbafW x0000EEJKXbcTaTagagfcebVXXWaZjXjbeaZaTfhcXeifbelVTcTVglYbegX8ebaJgTaWTeWDbWbcTalKIFagXeiXjfjgIXfcbaWXaggbhcebbgfYTlTaWgTXXcblXag0405bcTaTagfgeTaaZfgTegXW

published 0K
radiation EMRs from cell phones industrial materials such as solvents
radiation EMRs from cell phones industrial materials such as solvents

into neutralized water-soluble substances for transport to the kidneys or intestines for elimination Individual detoxification capabilities vary Environmental overload or lack of nutrients to fuel nec

published 0K
Editor Robert SEA LElEL
Editor Robert SEA LElEL

8QDXWKHQWLFDWHGRZQORDGHG087Har3n8 Cuba Internntional Falls Miss Joliet 214 85 3 -215 - - - - 11 111 - - 217 r9 - - - - 154 63 30 493 17 132 - - - 140 18 - - - - - - - 38 19 130 43 216 65 31 90

published 0K
Developers designers and visionary minds wantedWhat should the city of
Developers designers and visionary minds wantedWhat should the city of

What we will arange for you 149Food and beverages for 24 hours 149Spectacular group workplaces in the arcade of the Science Park Gelsenkirchen 149VR-Work-Stations 149Quiet room and resting possibiliti

published 1K
This document is available online at
This document is available online at

8/5/21https//wwwdhhsnhgov/dphs/cdcs/covid19/documents/self-quarantine-covidpdf3211Bureau of Infectious Disease ControlQuarantine Guide for Unvaccinated People Exposedto COVID-19in theirHouseholdIf you

published 0K
ENFORCEMENT ANTITHEFT   REGULATIONS BUREAU OF MOTOR VEHICLES 29 STATE
ENFORCEMENT ANTITHEFT REGULATIONS BUREAU OF MOTOR VEHICLES 29 STATE

4444Request to re-issue a Call to verify information before filing 207-624-9000 ext 52138 TTY Users call Maine Relay 711 RUSH REQUEST Additional 1000 Fee Please type or print clearly in dark ink In a

published 0K
INCLUDED ORGANIZATIONSAssociation for Career and Technical Education A
INCLUDED ORGANIZATIONSAssociation for Career and Technical Education A

Originated in 2004 Revised in April 2013NCAC as the convener of the national partners who framed the National Standards of Practice NSOP for Career Academies NATIONALSTANDARDSCAREERACADEMIESAprilhave

published 0K
Download Section

Download - The PPT/PDF document "" is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.






Document on Subject : "WELDING IS ACOMMON industrial processsocommon that up to two percent o"— Transcript:

1 WELDING IS ACOMMON industrial process—so
WELDING IS ACOMMON industrial process—socommon that up to two percent of the working pop-ulation in industrialized countries has been engagedin some sort of welding (Liss 2). Welding is also ahazardous process. Burns to the skin, flash burns tothe eyes and fire are some of the more immediateand acute hazards.One hazard is less readily noticeable, but hasboth acute and more long-term chronic effects—welding fume. Fumes are solid particles that origi-nate from welding consumables, the base metal andany coatings present on the base metal.Despite advances in control technology, welders(Wallace, et al 4). The chemicals contained in theseof welding being performed; 2) material the elec-trode is made of; 3) type of metal being welded;4) presence of coatings on the metal; 5) time andseverity of exposure; and 6) ventilation (ELCOSH“Hazard Alert” 1).Although the types of welding are many, it hasbeen estimated that shielded metal arc welding(SMAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW) on mildsteel, stainless steel and aluminum are performedby 70 percent of welders (Liss 2).According to OSHA, possible elements of weld-ing fume and related hazards include the following.Used in large quantities in the manufac-ture of brass, galvanized metals and various otheralloys. Exposure to these fumes is known to causemetal fume fever. Symptoms are similar to those ofthe common flu: fever (rarely exceeding 102şF),chills, nausea, throat dryness, cough, fatigue, andgeneral weakness and aching of the head and body.These symptoms rarely last more than 24 hours.Used frequently as a rust-preventiveExposures to high levels of cadmium fumes can pro-duce severe lung irritation, pulmonary edema and,in some cases, death. Long-term exposures to lowlevels can result in emphysema and can damage theEPAas a potential human carcinogen.als. Exposure to high levelsof beryllium can result interm exposure can result inshortness of breath, chronicIron is the H. Shane Ashby, CSP, with West Tennessee Healthcare in Jackson, TN.OSHA outreach training instructor. A veteran ofmember of ASSE’s Golden Circle Chapter. www.asse.orgAPRIL2002 Welding Fumein the WorkplacePreventing potential health problemsthrough proactive controlsBy H. Shane Ashbyfume is a less readilynoticeable hazard, itmore long-termchronic effects. APRIL2002 www.asse.orgas siderosis. Most authorities agree thatthese iron deposits in the lungs are notdangerous.Mercury.Compounds are used tocoat metals in order to prevent rust orinhibit foliage growth. Exposure to thesefumes may produce stomach pain, diar-rhea, kidney damage or respiratory fail-ure. Long-term exposure may producetremors, emotional instability and hear-Lead oxide fumes are generat-ing alloys or metals that are coated withSymptoms include me

2 tallic taste innal cramps and insomnia.
tallic taste innal cramps and insomnia. Chronic effectsare anemia and general weakness, main-ly in the muscles of the wrists. Leadadversely affects the brain, central nerv-ous system, circulatory system, repro-ductive system, kidneys and muscles.many types of fluxes used in welding.Exposure may irritate the eyes, nose andthroat. Repeated exposure to high con-centrations of fluorides in the air over aand bone damage. Fluorides are retainedin bone and excessive intake may result inan osteosclerosis or a reduction of bonedensity, which is recognizable by X ray. Used in degreasing operations. The heatand ultraviolet radiation from the arc willsition of chlorinated hydrocarbon sol-vents by ultraviolet radiation. It reactswith moisture in the lungs to producehydrogen chloride, which in turndestroys lung tissue.Agas usuallyformed by the incomplete combustion ofvarious fuels. Welding and cutting mayproduce significant amounts of CO. Inpoorly ventilated areas, operations thatmay produce hazardous concentrationsoverexposure include pounding of the heart, a dullheadache, flashes before the eyes, dizziness, ringingin the ears and nausea. However, because these arecommon symptoms, they are often explained awayas “just not feeling good”—people rarely connectthem to CO exposure.principal alloying element in steel manufacture.During welding, these fumes arise from both thebase metal and the electrode. The primary acuteeffect of exposure is irritation of nasal passages,throat and lungs. Long-term exposure may causeiron pigmentation of the lungs, a condition known Exposure LimitsCalcium OxideCadmium FumeChromium, HexavalentChromium, MetalIron Oxide FumePhosphorusTelluriumThallium Titanium DioxideVanadium PentoxideZirconiumWelding FumesCa=NIOSH potential occupational carcinogenSource: Wallace, et al 26-27 Table 1Table 1TLV-TWA 10 (Total)PEL-TWA15,000 (Total)REL-TWA www.asse.orgAPRIL2002 OSHA Requirementsprovided and arranged to(2) Ventilation for gener-provided when welding or cutting is done on metalsnot covered in paragraphs (c)(5) through (c)(12) of(B) in a room having a ceiling height of less than(C) in confined spaces or where the weldingobstruct cross ventilation.welder, except where local exhaust hoods and boothsas per paragraph (c)(3) of this section, or airline res-pirators approved by the Mine Safety and HealthAdministration and the National Institute forprovisions of 30 CFR Part 11 are provided. Naturalventilation is considered sufficient for welding orcutting operations where the restrictions in para-graph (c)(2)(i) are not present.Some questions may arise as one reads this stan-dard. For example, if a facility meets or exceeds theflow rate specified in the standard, yet exposure lim-its are exceeded, would OSHA

3 issue a citation? Ifcontaminants are bel
issue a citation? Ifcontaminants are below exposure limits yet the min-be cited? OSHAclarified this in a letter of interpreta-tion dated Aug. 27, 1993.OSHAis not issuing notices for failure to main-tain specific flow rates for fixed enclosures or freelymovable hoods. Instead, OSHAissues notices when“adequate” ventilation has not been provided. OSHArequired (natural or mechanical) such that personalexposures to hazardous concentrations of airbornecontaminants are maintained below the allowable lev-exposure limits are exceeded, notices may be issuedfor those specific exposure limits which have beenexceeded and may also be issued for failure to provideadequate ventilation under the general duty provi-sions of the Act (OSHA“Enforcement of” 2).Produced by ultraviolet light from thewelding arc. Ozone is produced in greater quantitiesby GMAW, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) andplasma arc cutting. Ozone is a highly active form ofSymptoms of ozone exposure include headache,chest pain and dryness of the upper respiratorytract. Excessive exposure to ozone can cause fluid inthe lungs and is thought to have long-term effects onProduced by GMAW, GTAWand plasma arc cutting. Even greater quantities areformed if the shielding gas contains nitrogen.Nitrogen dioxide, one of the oxides formed, has thegreatest health effect.throat, dangerous concentrations can be inhaledtions of nitrogen dioxide can cause shortness ofbreath, chest pain and fluid in the lungs. (OSHA“Welding Health” 1).Exposure LimitsEach individual constituent of welding fume hasexposure limits (Table 1). However, some debate hascentered on what the actual exposure limit on total“In 1989, the OSHAPEL(permissible exposure) as an eight-hour TWA(time-weightedaverage); however, this limit was vacated and cur-rently is not enforceable. Since 1989, OSHAhas notreestablished a PELfor total welding fume.lish an exposure limit for total welding emissionssince the composition of welding fumes and gasesvaries greatly and the welding constituents mayinteract to produce adverse health effects.“Therefore, NIOSH suggests that the exposurelimits set for each welding fume constituent shouldcontrolled with current exposure limits consideredto be upper limits” (Wallace, et al 6).The American Conference of GovernmentalIndustrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has a TLV-TWAforACGIH TLV (threshold limit value) represents con-ditions under which it is believed that nearly allworkers may be repeatedly exposed to day after daywithout adverse health effects” (Wallace, et al 6).It should be noted that ACGIH is a private pro-fessional society. Its TLVs are updated frequentlyCongress or OSHA.As a result, TLVs are often more current and usu-ally more protective. However, industry is legallyrequired to meet on

4 ly those levels specified by OSHAPELs (W
ly those levels specified by OSHAPELs (Wallace, et al 6). The agency’s welding fumePELapplies in those operations that involve thewelding of iron, mild steel or aluminum unless amore-protective substance-specific standard may beapplied (e.g., exposure to lead, cadmium, beryllium). exposure limits, somedebate has centered onwhat the actual exposure APRIL2002 www.asse.org$135. Although this may sound expensive, the infor-Control MethodsOnce sampling results are returned, facility man-agement must determine what (if any) correctiveaction is needed. For example, if results show thatexposure limits are being exceeded, a respiratoryprotection program should be implemented until apermanent control can be developed.for Welding Fumes,” OSHAnotes several methodsto control exposure to welding fume and its individ-ual constituents.process enclosure;general dilution ventilation;Other controls include using welding rods orwire that produce a low fume (since some 90 percentof the fume can come from the consumable). In addi-tion, some welding guns can extract 95 percent of thefume (ELCOSH “Hazard Alert” 2).When purchasing an LEV system, remember thatit must be easy to move and adjust; otherwise,employees may not use it. ANIOSH study of twoportable units found that the unit which performedbest was the cheapest and lightest of the twoEmployees must also be aware of other protectivemeasures.Remove all paint and solvents before welding ortorch cutting.example, stick welding creates much less fume thanflux core welding.also requires specific controlmeasures for welding mate-metals, such as precaution-standard does not stopthere, however. 1910.252(c)(4)(iv)(A) requires “allWelding may produceAvoid breathing theseSee ANSI Z49.1-1967, Safety in Welding andCutting, published by American Welding Society.1910.252(c)(5), (7), (8), (9) and (10) contain require-contain zinc, lead, beryllium, cadmium and mercury.According to the standard, in all cases, work shouldonly be performed “using local exhaust ventilationand airline respirators unless atmospheric testsunder the most adverse conditions have establishedthat the worker’s exposure is within the acceptableTo determine a worker’s exposure to weldingfumes, a mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter, 0.8microns should be used. Multi-element analysis (up(OSHA“Chemical Sampling” 2). To ensure propersampling, the filter should be placed near theemployee’s breathing zone (in a hemisphere for-ward of the shoulders with a radius of six to ninein.). If the employee is wearing a welding helmetand either no respirator or a negative-pressure respi-rator, sampling should be performed inside the hel-met and outside any respirator (OSHA“CorrectAccording to OSHA, samples should be collectedmaximum collectio

5 n volume of 960 liters is reached(OSHA“C
n volume of 960 liters is reached(OSHA“Chemical Sampling” 2). An AmericanIndustrial Hygiene Assn.-accredited laboratoryprovides a 26 metal scan, and NIOSH Method No.0500M, which can determine exposure to total weld-ing fume (OSHA“Occupational Safety” 6).welding fume costs $110 to $120. For both total weld- According to OSHA,no respirator or anegative-pressurerespirator, samplingany respirator. Astudy performed in aTennessee plantimportance of properity had approximatelywhom were welders.tial area air samples,While both resultswere well below theexposure limit, thean increase in weldingduring the next year. Ina proactive effort, itThis system decreasedarea samples by 47 per-effect on personal sam-ples. Research revealedwhy: Although thenegative pressure cre-CASE STUDY:Tennessee Plant www.asse.orgAPRIL2002 with no ventilation but was later relocated. The otherworked in a curtained off welding station with onlygeneral ventilation. The company later purchased afume extracting welding gun to reduce weldingfume” (Korczynski 940).According to Korczynski, 50 percent of the partic-tilation system, while 40 percent had no ventilationwere inadequate and/or not used by the welders,who complained that the units were heavy and cum-bersome to move around (Korczynski 942). Again,this highlights the need to ensure that portable venti-on the findings of this study, the participants wereadvised to improvetrain welders to prop-implement a regularmonitoring program(Korczynski 944).Astudy in Newresults. “Only 16.1 per-cent of the current65 percent did not nor-mally use respiratoryprotection of any form”(Korczynski 943).U.S. are not immune toKeep local exhaust hoods four to six in. from thefume source.Use air blowers to move fumes away fromwelders when outdoors in windy conditions.Keep the face far from the welding plume.If ventilation is not good, use a respirator(ELCOSH “Hazard Alert” 3).Not every control method will be effective in agiven setting. Therefore, a safety professional shouldbination of methods will best suit a situation. Aregu-lar monitoring program should also be implemented.Research StudiesAccording to Korczynski, “numerous studiesFor example, a study conducted by the Workplacesimilar results. Eight welding companies with a totalof 44 welders participated in the study (Korczynski936). “Welding activities ranged from large work-smaller pieces for the food industry. . . . The type ofwelding identified in all companies was electric arcwelding and 90 percent was MIG on mild steel. . . . Theremainder was either MIG stainless steel or tungsteninert gas on aluminum” (Korczynski 939, 940). Atotalof 42 welders were monitored for personal exposureto welding fumes. Nearly 60 percent were overex-posed to manganese and 19 per

6 cent were overexposedto iron (Korczynski
cent were overexposedto iron (Korczynski 940). “Two welders from two dif-ferent companies had the two highest manganeseexposures. Both had worked in isolated welding sta- the fume to move morethrough the welder’sbreathing zone.To solve this prob-minute and were posi-out of the welder’sbreathing zone. Theunits are lightweightand are easily manipu-reduced the amount ofsure by 51 percent.provements imple-sive methods wereavailable, this approachrent and future needs. When purchasingremember that it APRIL2002 www.asse.org OshDoc/Interp_data/I19990203.html �.“Enforcement of Ventilation Requirements for1993. I19930827.html �.“Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for “Welding Cutting and Brazing General Requirements.”OSHA.“Welding Health Hazards.” Washington, DC: U.S.1996. files/weldhlth.html Wallace, M., et al.“In-Depth Survey Report: such problems. Studies performed in fiveplants in the Midwest (three in Illinois,overexposures to iron oxide (Korczynski943). Astudy in an Arkansas plant deter-LEV system were generally inadequate tocapture fumes emitted during the variousoperations. The researchers recommend-the plant be conducted inside appropriatebooths (Korczynski 943).The Engineering Control Technologywelding operations and exposures towelding fume at the Boilermaker’sApprenticeship Training School. Datafrom this study support the use of LEVin controlling exposure to welding fume.During the study, personal and areasamples were both significantly lowerwith ventilation on than with it off(Wallace, et al 21). “In 1996, NIOSHunits in a controlled setting. WithoutLEV, total welding fume concentrationsranged from 2 to 60mg/m. Ventilationreduced the fumes to 3 to 13mg/mAlthough the measurements were notalways below the exposure limits theequipment cut fumes and, thus, the riskweight” 1, 2). Figure 1 provides a graph-ic representation of the results.As a NIOSH literature review on welding andlung cancer revealed, welders have a 40 percentincreased risk of developing occupationally inducedlung cancer (Korczynski 937). This fact is com-pounded by the continued introduction of newwelding processes, techniques and materials(Wallace, et al 4). As a result, welding will likely be ahigh priority for regulators—and, thus, for indus-References �.“Cheap Lightweight Unit Can Reduce Risky WeldFumes.” d000122/d000122.html �.Korczynski, R.E.“Occupational Health Concerns in theLiss, G.M.Labor, December 1996.1-82. html/rp5.htm �.“Chemical Sampling Information: Welding Fumes �. Your FeedbackDid you find this articleinteresting and useful?Circle the correspondingnumber on the readerservice card.RSC#Feedback47Yes48Somewhat49No Figure 1Figure 1 Effect of Ventilation on Asafetyprofessionalcontr