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Chapter 26 New Global Patterns

(1800–1914). Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.. World History: Connection to Today . Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved..

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Chapter 26 New Global Patterns






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Slide1

Chapter 26

New Global Patterns

(1800–1914)

Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

World History: Connection to Today Slide2

Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Chapter 26: New Global Patterns (1800–1914)

Section 1:

Japan Modernizes

Section 2:

Southeast Asia and the Pacific

Section 3:

Self-Rule for Canada, Australia,

and New Zealand

Section 4:

Economic Imperialism in Latin America

Section 5: Impact of Imperialism

World History: Connection to Today Slide3

Japan Modernizes

How did discontent in Japanese society and the opening of Japan lead to the Meiji restoration?What were the main reforms under the Meiji?

How did Japanese military strength promote imperialism?

1Slide4

Events Leading Up to the Meiji Restoration

By the 1800s, discontent simmered throughout Japan.

The government responded by trying to revive old ways.

The United States forced Japan to grant trading rights and forced

unequal treaties on Japan.

Some Japanese strongly criticized the shogun for not taking a strong stand against the foreigners. Foreign pressure deepened the social and economic unrest.

Discontented daimyo and samurai overthrew the shogun and “restored” the emperor to power. The Meiji restoration, which lasted from 1868 to 1912, was a major turning point in Japanese history.

1Slide5

Reforms Under the Meiji

Ended legal distinctions between classes

Set up schools and a university

Hired westerners to teach the new generation modern technologyEncouraged Japan’s business class to adopt western methods

Built factories and sold them to wealthy business families, known as

zaibatsu

Adopted the German model of government

Set forth the principle that all people were equal under the law

Established a western-style bureaucracy

Used western technology to strengthen the military

Ended the special privilege of samurai

SOCIAL CHANGE

ECONOMIC REFORMSGOVERNMENT

The Meiji reformers wanted to replace the rigid feudal order with a completely new political and social system and to build a modern industrial economy.

1Slide6

Why Was Japan Able to Modernize So Rapidly?

Japan was a homogeneous society — that is, it had a common culture and language that gave it a strong sense of identity.

Economic growth during the Tokugawa times had set Japan on the road to development.The Japanese had experience learning from foreign nations, such as China.The Japanese were determined to resist foreign rule.

1Slide7

Japanese Imperialism

In 1894,Japan defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War, gaining treaty ports in China and control over the island of Taiwan.

In 1905, Japan defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, gaining control of Korea as well as rights in parts of Manchuria.

In 1910, Japan annexed Korea,

absorbing the kingdom into the

Japanese empire and ruling it

for 35 years.

As with western industrial powers, Japan’s economic needs fed its imperialist desires.

1Slide8

Wealthy business families in Japan were known as a) daimyo. b) shogun. c) samurai. d) zaibatsu.

Japan was able to modernize so quickly in part due to being a) a heterogeneous society. b) a homogeneous society. c) a military society. d) an isolated society.

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Section 1 Assessment

1Slide9

Section 1 Assessment

1

Wealthy business families in Japan were known as a) daimyo. b) shogun. c) samurai.

d) zaibatsu.

Japan was able to modernize so quickly in part due to being a) a heterogeneous society.

b) a homogeneous society.

c) a military society. d) an isolated society.

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Click Here.Slide10

Southeast Asia and the Pacific

What impact did European colonization have on Southeast Asia?How did Siam maintain its independence?How did imperialism spread to the Philippines and other Pacific islands?

2Slide11

Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 1900

2Slide12

Colonization of Southeast Asia

By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia. They:

introduced modern technology expanded commerce and industry set up new enterprises to mine tin and harvest rubber brought in new crops of corn and cassava built harbors and railroads

These changes benefited Europeans far more than the people of Southeast Asia.

In their relentless race for raw materials, new markets, and Christian converts, western industrial powers gobbled up Southeast Asia.

2Slide13

How Did Siam Maintain Its Independence?

King Mongkut, who ruled from 1851 to 1868, set Siam on the road to modernization. Siam was forced to accept some unequal treaties but escaped becoming a European colony.

Both Britain and France saw the advantage of making Siam a buffer, or neutral zone, between them. In the early 1900s, Britain and France guaranteed Siam its independence.

2Slide14

Imperial Powers in the Pacific

In the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in the islands of the Pacific.

In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa. Later, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed to a triple protectorate over Samoa.

From the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power in Hawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.

At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines was placed under American control. The United States promised Filipinos self-rule some time in the future.

2Slide15

Changes introduced by Europeans in Southeast Asia a) primarily benefited Southeast Asians. b) primarily benefited the Europeans.

c) benefited both Southeast Asians and Europeans equally. d) were insignificant.

In 1898, the United States annexed a) Samoa. b) the Philippines. c) Hawaii. d) Burma.

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Section 2 Assessment

2Slide16

Section 2 Assessment

2

Changes introduced by Europeans in Southeast Asia a) primarily benefited Southeast Asians.

b) primarily benefited the Europeans.

c) benefited both Southeast Asians and Europeans equally. d) were insignificant.

In 1898, the United States annexed a) Samoa. b) the Philippines.

c) Hawaii.

d) Burma.

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.Slide17

Self-Rule for Canada, Australia, and New Zealand

How did Canada achieve self-rule?How did European settlement change the course of Australian history?

How did New Zealand emerge as an independent nation?

3Slide18

Canada, 1867–1914

3Slide19

How Did Canada Achieve Self-Rule?

Canada’s first European rulers were French.

When France lost Canada to Britain in 1763, thousands of French-speaking settlers remained.

In 1791 Britain passed the Canada Act, which created two provinces: English-speaking Upper Canada and French-speaking Lower Canada.

During the 1800s, unrest grew in both colonies.

In 1839, the Durham Report called for the two Canadas to be reunited and given control over their own affairs.

In 1840, Parliament passed the Act of Union, a major step toward self-government.

As Canada expanded westward, John Macdonald and George

É

tienne Cartier urged

confederation, or unification, of all Canada’s provinces.

Britain passed the British North America Act of 1867, creating the Dominion of Canada. It united four provinces into a dominion, or self-governing nation. Six additional provinces later joined the union.

3Slide20

Geography of Australia and New Zealand

3Slide21

Europeans in Australia

In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain. At that time, it was too distant to attract European settlers. Australia had long been inhabited by indigenous people, later called Aborigines. When white settlers arrived, the Aborigines suffered disastrously.

In 1788, Britain made Australia into a penal colony. In the early 1800s, Britain encouraged free citizens to emigrate to Australia. As the newcomers took over more and more land, they thrust aside or killed the Aborigines. In 1851, a gold rush in eastern Australia brought a population boom.

By the late 1800s, Australia had won a place in a growing world economy.

3Slide22

New Zealand

In 1769, Captain Cook claimed New Zealand for

Britain.

Missionaries arrived to convert the local people, the Maoris, to Christianity.

In 1840, Britain annexed New Zealand.

Colonists took over Maori land and engaged in fierce wars with the Maoris.

By the 1870s, Maori resistance crumbled. Many Maoris died in the struggle.

White New Zealanders won independence.

New Zealand pioneered in several areas of democratic reform.

In 1893, it became the first nation to give suffrage to women.

Later, it was in the forefront of other social reforms.

3Slide23

Section 3 Assessment

Under the British North America Act of 1867, Canada a) became a confederation. b) became a dominion. c) was divided into Upper Canada and Lower Canada. d) was colonized by the British.

The first European settlers in Australia were a) Dutch. b) British. c) French. d) Americans.

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3Slide24

Section 3 Assessment

3

Under the British North America Act of 1867, Canada a) became a confederation.

b) became a dominion.

c) was divided into Upper Canada and Lower Canada. d) was colonized by the British.

The first European settlers in Australia were a) Dutch.

b) British.

c) French. d) Americans.

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Click Here.Slide25

Economic Imperialism in Latin America

What political and economic problems faced new Latin American nations?How did Mexico struggle for stability?

How did the United States influence Latin America?

4Slide26

Independent Nations of Latin America About 1844

3Slide27

Political Problems

Many problems had their origins in colonial rule, as independence barely changed the existing social and political hierarchy. With few roads and no traditions of unity, the new nations were weakened by

regionalism, loyalty to a local area. Caudillos ruled as dictators.

During the 1800s, most Latin American nations were plagued by revolts, civil war, and dictatorships.

4Slide28

The Economics of Dependence

Economic dependence occurs when less-developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital, and technological know-how. The relationship is unequal because the more developed — and wealthier nation — can control prices and terms of trade.

Under colonial rule, mercantilist policies made Latin America economically dependent on Spain and Portugal. After independence, this pattern changed very little. The region remained as economically dependent as before.

4Slide29

Imperialism in the Caribbean and South America, 1898–1917

4Slide30

The Influence of the United States

In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the American continents were no longer open to colonization by any European powers.

In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Under this policy, the United States claimed “international police power” in the Western Hemisphere. In the next decade, the United States frequently intervened militarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives and investments.

In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians in a revolt against Colombia in order to gain land to build the Panama Canal.

To people in Latin America, the canal was an example of “Yankee Imperialism.”

4Slide31

Section 4 Assessment

Which of the following nations was under United States influence between 1898 and 1917? a) Venezuela b) Colombia c) Mexico d) Honduras

Under the Roosevelt Corollary, the United States claimed “international police power” in a) the Western Hemisphere. b) North America only. c) the Pacific Ocean. d) Eastern Europe.

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4Slide32

Section 4 Assessment

4

Which of the following nations was under United States influence between 1898 and 1917? a) Venezuela b) Colombia c) Mexico

d) Honduras

Under the Roosevelt Corollary, the United States claimed “international police power” in

a) the Western Hemisphere.

b) North America only. c) the Pacific Ocean. d) Eastern Europe.

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Impact of Imperialism

How did imperialism lead to new economic patterns?What was the cultural impact of imperialism?How did political tensions develop as the result of imperialism?

5Slide34

New Economic Patterns

A truly global economy emerged, dominated by the United States, Britain, France, and Germany.Colonial rulers introduced a money economy that replaced the old barter system.

Mass-produced goods from the industrialized world further disrupted traditional economies.Local economies that had once been self-sufficient became dependent on the industrial powers.

5Slide35

Cultural Impact

As westerners conquered other lands, they pressed subject people to accept “modern” ways. By this, they meant western ideas, government, technology, and culture. Many nonwesterners, especially in conquered lands, came to accept a belief in western superiority.

The overwhelming successes of the western imperialist nations sapped people’s confidence in their own leaders and cultures. Western culture spread around the world.

5Slide36

New Political Tensions

By the early 1900s, western-educated elites in Africa and Asia were organizing nationalist movements to end colonial rule.The competition for imperial power was fueling tensions among western nations.

5Slide37

What effect did mass-produced goods have on traditional economies? a) They made traditional economies more competitive. b) They disrupted traditional economies. c) They improved traditional economies. d) They helped to diversify traditional economies.

As westerners conquered other lands, they a) encouraged native peoples to hold onto their own beliefs. b) pressed native peoples to accept “modern” ways. c) easily assimilated with native peoples. d) took on native beliefs and gave up their own.

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5Slide38

Section 5 Assessment

5

What effect did mass-produced goods have on traditional economies? a) They made traditional economies more competitive.

b) They disrupted traditional economies.

c) They improved traditional economies. d) They helped to diversify traditional economies.

As westerners conquered other lands, they a) encouraged native peoples to hold onto their own beliefs.

b) pressed native peoples to accept “modern” ways.

c) easily assimilated with native peoples. d) took on native beliefs and gave up their own.

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Click Here.