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AidingthesearchExaminingindividualdierencesinmultiply-constrainedproblemsolving1erencesinmultiply-constrainedproblemsolvingThemostcommonlyusedtasktoexaminemultiply-constrainedproblemsolvingisthecompou Download

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2012 brewer 001 2013 brewer 2012 2013 001 mse ellis wiley 2007 engle memory constrainedproblemsolving 213 beeman 2009 jarosz

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1 ContentslistsavailableatConsciousnessand
ContentslistsavailableatConsciousnessandCognitionjournalhomepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/concog Aidingthesearch:Examiningindividualdierencesinmultiply-constrainedproblemsolving  erencesinmultiply-constrainedproblemsolving.Themostcommonlyusedtasktoexaminemultiply-constrainedproblemsolvingisthecompoundremoteassociatestask(CRAT).WhiletheCRAThastraditionallybeendenedasaconvergentthinkingtask,inthecurrentstudywerefertoitasmultiply-con-strainedproblem-solvingtasktohighlighttheimportanceofcue-drivensemanticmemorysearchprocessesforsuccessfulproblemsolving.Specically,theremoteassociatetaskoriginallydesignedbyMednick(1962)asatasktomeasurecreativeprocesses,requiresanindividualtosearchforatargetinformationthatissemanticallyrelatedtothreecuewordsandformsacompoundwordorcommonphrasewitheach.Forexample,whenshownthecuewordsCREAM,SKATE,WATERparticipantssearchforthetarget.Whilemanywordsaresemanticallyassociatedwitheachofthecues,istheonlywordthatissemanticallyassociatedwithallthreecuesandisconsideredtheaccuratesolution.CRATproblemscanbesolvedusingvariousstrategiesincludinganalyticalprocessing(i.e.,generatingasolutionandtestingitagainsteachword)andinsightprocessing(i.e.,thesolutionarrivingfromanBowden&Jung-Beeman,2003a).Moreover,inordertosolveaCRATproblem,onemustemploybothdivergent(i.e.,ndingmultipleassociatesofcues)andconvergent(i.e.,identifyingtheexactassociate/solutionforthethreecues)thinkingprocesses(Gilhooly,Ball,&Macchi,2015).Thesedierentstrategiesforarrivingatasolutionhighlightthepotentialforbothintra-andinter-individualdierencesinmultiply-constrainedproblemsolving.Specictoanalyticalprocessing,therearelikelyattention-basedprocessesandmemory-searchbasedprocessesthatjointlycontributetoindividualdierencesinmultiply-con-strainedproblemsolving.Indeed,whenindividualswithhighlevelsofdomain-specicknowledgeofbaseballweregivenspecializedCRATproblems,interferenceoccurredwhenanincorrecttarget()hadstrongassociationswithtwoofthecuewords()butnotthethird(Ricks,Turley-Ames,Wiley,2007;Wiley,1998)leadingtolessaccurateproblemsolving.Thisinterferenceeectsuggeststhatincorrectsolutionsmaybecomeactiveandcreateaxednessornarrowingofthesearchspacetherebylimitinganindividual'sabilitytoaccessthecorrecttarget.Additionalevidencesuggeststhatindividualswhoperformpoorlymultiply-constrainedproblemsolvingtasksareunabletosuppresshigh-frequencycue-targetpairs(Gupta,Jang,Mednick,&Huber,).Avoidanceofhighfrequencyresponsesmayalsohelpexplainwhyintoxication(Jarosz,Colesh,&Wiley,2012)andsleepCai,Mednick,Harrison,Kanaday,&Mednick,2009;Sio,Monaghan,&Ormerod,2013)aidinndingsolutions(i.e.,throughrelaxationofaninappropriatelynarrowedsemanticsearch).Thereareseveraltheoriesdescribingtheprocessesexploitedtoarriveatapossiblesolutiontoamultiplyconstrainedproblem(Weisberg,2015),andmostoftheempiricalworkhasfocusedonattentionalcontrolprocesses.Specically,successfullysolvingCRATproblemsrequiresoptimallybalancingtimespentontask-relatedatten-focuswhileallowingforsometask-unrelatedmind-wandering(Smallwood&Schooler,2006;Wiley&Jarosz,2012).Overall,thesestudiessuggestthatindividualdierencesinattentioncontrolprocessesshouldpredictsolutionratesformultiply-constrainedSeveralstudieshaveshownthatindividualdierencesinworkingmemorycapacity(WMC)theabilitytouseattention-andmemory-basedprocessestomaintaintask-relevantgoalsinthefaceoftask-irrelevantthoughtsanddistractionsisoftenfoundtobepositivelyrelatedtosolutionratesformulti

2 plyconstrainedproblems(Chuderski&Jastrze
plyconstrainedproblems(Chuderski&Jastrzebski,2018;Gilhooly&Fioratou,2009;Lavric,Forstmeier,&Rippon,2000;Ricks,Turley-Ames,&Wiley,2007).Forexample,individualswithhighverbalWMChavehigherinsightandanalyticalsolutionratesforCRATproblems(Chein&Weisberg,2014).WMCisalsocorrelatedwithintelligence(Kane,&Engle,2003),whichitselfisastrongpredictorofmultiply-constrainedproblemsolving(Lee&Therriault,2013).WhileincreasedWMCisgenerallyassociatedwithbetterperformanceoncreativetasksingeneral(seeWiley&Jarosz,2012forareview),therearescenarioswherehavinghigherWMCcanalsohinderproblemsolvingperformanceonataskliketheLuchin's(1942)jugtask.Inthistask,theparticipantmustcreateatargetvolumeofwaterinanemptyjugbypouringwaterfromthreeadditionaljugswithsetvolumes.WhentheseproblemsrequireamoreabstractsolutionstrategyhighWMCindividualsarelesslikelytosolvetheproblem(Beilock&DeCaro,2007;Gaissmaier,Schooler,&Rieskamp,2006).Furthermore,individualswithcompromisedWMCfromintoxicationoralackofsleepoutperformcontrolparticipantsinthistask(Caietal.,2009;Jaroszetal.,2012;Sioetal.,2013However,largescaleindividualdierencesresearchhasfoundWMCpredictsover50%ofthevarianceininsighttasks,includingtheCRAT(Chuderski&Jastrzebski,2018).Therefore,itisimportanttobetterunderstandtheunderlyingmechanismsresponsibleforoverlappingvariancebetweenWMCandCRATproblemsolving.RecentevidencesuggeststhatCRATperformanceisdependentonsemanticsearchprocessesinadditiontoattentioncontrolprocesses.InatypicalCRATexperiment,participantshavethegoalofprovidingasinglepossiblesolutiontotheCRATproblem.Smithetal.(2013)askedparticipantsinaCRATtoovertlygenerateallpossiblesolutionsandoutputthempriortodecidingontheirnalanswer.Ananalysisoftheseresponsesandtheirrelativesemanticdistancetothecuesandtargetsindicated(1)responsestendtobegeneratedfromasinglecueratherthanfromthethreecuesgivenand(2)individualstendtousealocalsearchstrategy(i.e.,possiblesolutionsarebaseduponpreviouslygeneratedsolutions).AdditionalworkbyDavelaar(2015)emphasizedthatinadditiontosemanticsearchprocesses,optimalstrategiesforsolvingCRATproblemsincludeallowingtime(e.g.,throughmindwandering)forinappropriateresponsestodecay.Thisraisesthepossibilitythatincorrectcue/solutionusageduringproblemsolvingcouldleadtopoorerperformancethroughgettingstuckinanincorrectresponsechain.Thispossibilityissimilartolong-termmemoryresearchshowingthatlowWMCparticipantstendtouseineectivesemanticcuestoguidetheirsearchofmemory(Unsworth&Engle,2007Takentogetherthereisastrongevidencethatindividualdierencesinsemanticmemorysearchandretrievaldynamicsplayaroleinmultiply-constrainedproblemsolving.D.M.Ellis,G.A.Brewer Asmentionedearlier,semanticmemorysearchandretrievaldynamicsalsodriveindividualdierencesinWMC.Insemanticuencytasks,highWMCindividualsrecallmoreexemplarsovertimethanlowWMCindividuals(Rosen&Engle,1997).Additionally,RosenandEnglefoundthatlowWMCparticipantsweremorelikelytoresamplepreviouslyretrievedresponsesthanhighWMCUnsworth,Brewer,andSpillers(2013)extendedthesendingsbyshowingthatwhenlowWMCparticipantsweregivencretrievalcues(i.e.,varioussub-categoriesofanimalsinananimaluencytask)thedierencesbetweenlowandhighWMCindividualswereattenuated.IndividualdierencesinWMCarealsopredictiveofcuedandfreerecallmemorytaskperformancebecauselowWMCparticipants(1)failtouseeectivesemanticcuestofacilitatetheirsearchand(2)experiencedicultyresolvingcueoverloadwhenusingvagueoroverlygeneralsemanticcues(Unsworth,2009;Unswor

3 th,Spillers,&Brewer,2012;Watkins&Watkins
th,Spillers,&Brewer,2012;Watkins&Watkins,1976).ThisviewsuggeststhatindividualswithlowWMC,andthuslessecientattentioncontrolprocessesandsemanticsearchprocesses,shouldhavelowersolutionratesonCRATproblemsthanindividualswithhighWMC.Furthermore,Lee&Therriault(2013)reportedthatassociativeuency(derivedfromsemanticuencytasks)wasamediatoroftherelationbetweenWMCandmultiply-constrainedproblemsolving.Whereasthispreviousworkwascorrelationalinnature,inthecurrentstudyweaimedtoexperimentallyinuencesemanticsearchprocessesintheCRAT.IncidentallyprimingCRATsolutionsprovidesapotentialmeansforimprovingmultiply-constrainedproblemsolvingandinuencingtherelationbetweenworkingmemory.Previously,CRATsolutionshavebeenprimedbyaskingparticipantstoreadatextthatisprimarilywritteninitalicizedtextbutisinterspersedwithnon-italicizedwordsthatparticipantswereinstructedtoavoidreading(Kim,Hasher,&Zacks,2007).Thenon-italicizedwordswhichshouldhavebeenignoredintheirexperimentweresolutionstosubsequentCRATproblems.Individualswhoweremoredistractedbythenon-italicizedwordslatersolvedmoreCRATproblemswherethesewordswerethesolution.Ad-ditionally,severalexperimentshavesuccessfullyusedDeese-Roediger-McDermottfalsememorymaterialstogeneratesemanticactivationtoCRATtargetsandpositivelyinuencesolutionratesonsubsequentproblems(Howe,Garner,Dewhurst,&Ball,2010;Howe,Garner,&Patel,2013).OthershaveattemptedtoincidentallyprimeCRATtargetinformationbyembeddingtargetortargetassociatedinformationwithinalexicaldecisiontaskandndamixedpatternofresults(Moss,Kotovsky,&Cagan,2007,2011;Smith,Sifonis,&Angello,2012).Whatisseenacrossthepreviousliteratureistheincidentalexposureoftargetinformation,butwhatisunseenisanattempttopreexposecuetargetinformation,andisexploredinthefollowingexperiments.Insummary,WMCispositivelyrelatedtoperformanceonCRATproblemsandmostpublishedresearchimpliesthatthesein-dividualdierencesarisefromvariabilityinattention-basedprocesses(Wiley&Jarosz,2012).However,othermultiply-constrainedproblemsolvingmodelsarguethatCRATperformancedependsonsemanticretrievalstrategiesthatincludeexhaustivelyretrievingallcue-targetpairsandallowingpreviouslyretrievedincorrecttargetstimetodecayviamind-wandering(Davelaar,2015;Smithetal.,2013).Furthermore,individualdierencesstudiessupportthisalternativehypothesis(Lee&Therriault,2013).ThesetheoriessuggestthatwecanattenuatethedierencesinCRATsolutionratesbetweenindividualswithlowandhighWMCifwecanequatetheircuedependentsemanticsearchstrategies.Ofcourse,thepossibilityexiststhatWMCtapsmultiplecognitiveabilitiesthatareallimportantformultiply-constrainedproblemsolvingintasksliketheCRAT(Unsworth,2016).Thus,theexperimentsinthecurrentstudyexaminewhethermakingtheCRATsolutionmoreaccessibleinsemanticmemory,usinganovelpreexposureparadigm,shouldfacilitateproblemsolvingmoreforlowthanforhighWMCparticipants.Fromasemanticsearchperspective,performancedibetweenlowandhighWMCindividualsshouldbeattenuatedduetopreexposureofCRATsolutions.2.Experiment12.1.Method2.1.1.ParticipantsanddesignUsingtheeectsize(f=.205)fromapilotexperimentonpreexposingCRATsolutionswedeterminedthatwouldbeneededtohaveadequatepower(.80)todetectourproposedmoderationeectofWMConpreexposedCRATproblemaccuracy(Gpower:Erdfelder,Faul,&Buchner,1996).TwohundredandthreeparticipantswererecruitedfromtheArizonaStateUniversityparticipantpool.Twentyparticipantswereremovedfromdataanalysisduetonotfollowinginstructions.Oftheremainingonehundredandeighty-

4 threeparticipants,allwerenativeEnglishsp
threeparticipants,allwerenativeEnglishspeakersandtheyreceivedcoursecreditfortheirparticipation.Participantsweretestedingrouplaboratorysessionslastingapproximatelytwohoursinwhichtheycompletedthreeworkingmemorytasks,asentencepreexposuretask,andnallyaCRAT.2.1.2.Materials2.1.2.1.Compoundremoteassociatetest.AllsixtyoftheCRATproblemswereselectedfrom144problemsthatBowdenandJung-Beeman(2003b)normed(AppendixA).Problemswereselectediftheyhadnormedsolutionratesbetween20and80%,withina30-secondtimelimit,tohelpcounteranypotentialoor/ceilingeects.Additionally,problemswerealsochosenonthebasisthattheydidnothavesharedcueswithotherproblemorasolutionthatwasalsoacueforanotherproblem.Participantresponseswereevaluatedandrescoredtoaccountforobviousspellingerrors(e.g.insteadof)andentryofnon-alphabetic(e.g.insteadof)inotherwisecorrectresponses.Thedependentvariablewastheproportionoftargetsolutionscorrectlyentered.2.1.2.2.Operationspan(Ospan).Participantssolvedaseriesofmathoperationswhiletryingtorememberasetofunrelatedletters(F,H,J,K,L,N,P,Q,R,S,T,Y).Participantswererequiredtosolveamathoperation,andaftersolvingtheoperationtheywerepresentedwithaletterfor1s.Immediatelyaftertheletterwaspresentedthenextoperationwaspresented.Threetrialsofeachlist-D.M.Ellis,G.A.Brewer length(37)werepresented,withtheorderoflist-lengthvaryingrandomly.Atrecall,lettersfromthecurrentsetwererecalledinthecorrectorderbyclickingontheappropriateletters(seeUnsworth,Heitz,Schrock,&Engle,2005formoredetails).Participantsreceivedthreesets(oflist-lengthtwo)ofpractice.Forallofthespanmeasures,itemswerescorediftheitemwascorrectandinthecorrectposition.Thescoreistheproportionofcorrectitemsinthecorrectposition.2.1.2.3.Readingspan(Rspan).ParticipantswererequiredtoreadsentenceswhiletryingtorememberthesamesetofunrelatedlettersasOspan.Forthistask,participantsreadasentenceanddeterminedwhetherthesentencemadesenseornot(e.g.sdishwaslostbecauseitwasnotbasedonfact.).Halfofthesentencesmadesensewhiletheotherhalfdidnot.Nonsensesentencesweremadebysimplychangingoneword(e.g.)fromanotherwisenormalsentence.Participantswererequiredtoreadthesentenceandtoindicatewhetheritmadesenseornot.Afterparticipantsgavetheirresponsetheywerepresentedwithaletterfor1s.Atrecall,lettersfromthecurrentsetwererecalledinthecorrectorderbyclickingontheappropriateletters.Therewerethreetrialsofeachlist-lengthwithlist-lengthrangingfrom3to7.ThesamescoringprocedureasOspanwasused.2.1.2.4.Symmetryspan(SymSpan).Inthistaskparticipantswererequiredtorecallsequencesofredsquareswithinamatrixwhileperformingasymmetry-judgmenttask.Inthesymmetry-judgmenttaskparticipantswereshownan8×8matrixwithsomesquareslledinblack.Participantsdecidedwhetherthedesignwassymmetricalaboutitsverticalaxis.Thepatternwassymmetricalhalfofthetime.Immediatelyafterdeterminingwhetherthepatternwassymmetrical,participantswerepresentedwitha4×4matrixwithoneofthecellslledinredfor650ms.Atrecall,participantsrecalledthesequenceofred-squarelocationsintheprecedingdisplays,intheordertheyappeared,byclickingonthecellsofanemptymatrix.Therewerethreetrialsofeachlist-lengthwithlist-lengthrangingfrom2to5.ThesamescoringprocedureasOspanwasused.2.1.2.5.Workingmemoryscore.Theworkingmemoryscorewascalculatedasthefactorscorefromaprincipalcomponentsanalysisofthethreecomplex-spantasks.2.1.3.ProcedurerstcompletedtheWMCtasks.Weinformedparticipantsthattheexperimentconsistedoftwodistinctphases.Intherstphase,theywouldbeshownawordforve

5 seconds,afterwhichtheywouldwriteasentenc
seconds,afterwhichtheywouldwriteasentencethatmustincludethewordtheywerejustshown.Inaddition,weinstructedparticipantstovarytheirsentences(i.e.,tonotwriteTHEKANGAROOWASHOPPYandforasubsequentsentencewriteTHEKEYBOARDWASHOPPY)withtheexpresspurposetoaidthedepthofprocessingoftargetsduringthepreexposurephase.ParticipantsgeneratedsentencesforthirtyrandomlyselectedtargetsfromthelistofsixtysolutionwordsfromtheCRATproblemsusedinthesecondphase.Preexposureisawithin-subjectsmanipulation,suchthat,everyonegetsanequalnumberofpreexposedandunexposedproblems,butwhichproblemsarepreexposedisrandom.PriortothesecondphaseweprovidedparticipantswithtwoexamplesofCRATproblemsbeforeattemptingthesixtytestproblems,ofwhichthirtywerepreexposedandthirtywerenotpreexposed(henceforthcalledUnexposed).First,theywereshownacompletedproblem(i.e.shownthecues,FOUNTAIN,POP,BAKING,andsolution,),thenanincompleteproblem(i.e.onlyshowncues;BACK,STEP,).Afterashortperiod,theresearcherwouldasktheparticipantforapotentialsolutiontotheincompleteproblem.Theresearcherwouldconrm/informthemofthecorrectsolution(),emphasizethatsolutionscouldbeatthebeginningorendofthecuewords,andremindthemofthethirty-second-timelimitforeachproblem.Foreachproblemtheparticipantwasallowedasingleresponsethattheytyped.Possiblesolutionscouldbetypedinandalteredpriortosubmission.Responsescouldbeenteredbeforetheendofthethirty-second-timelimit,andenteringasolutionwouldcausethenextCRATproblemtoimmediatelyappear.Nofeedbackwasprovidedregardingtheparticipantsaccuracy.3.ResultsDescriptivestatisticsforbehavioraldatacanbefoundinTable1.WesoughttodeterminewhetherpreexposingCRATsolutionsattenuatedtherelationbetweenWMCandCRATaccuracy.CorrelationsforalltaskscanbefoundinTable2.Withinourdata,wecantcorrelationbetweenWMCandPreexposedsolutionrates,(183)=.288,.001,aswellas,Unexposedsolution(183)=.288,.001.Replicatingpriorstudies,WMCtaskswereallsignicantlycorrelatedwitheachotherandhighWMCparticipantssolvedmoreproblemscorrectlythanlowWMCindividuals. Table1DescriptivestatisticsfortheOperationSpan,SymmetrySpan,ReadingSpan,WorkingMemoryCapacity(WMC)factorscore,andProportionofPreexposed&UnexposedCompoundRemoteAssociatesAccuratelySolved.Std.Dev.OperationSpanSymmetrySpanReadingSpanD.M.Ellis,G.A.Brewer WethenconductedageneralizedlinearmodeltotestwhetherWMCmoderatedtheeectofpreexposureonCRATaccuracy,andwhiletheeectsizeofpreexposureissmallthereremainstheabilitytostilldetectamoderationeect.Essentially,thiswouldbetantamounttondinganinteractionintheabsenceofanymaineectsinaregressionmodelwithmultiplepredictors.Therewasacantmaineectofpreexposure,(1,181)=11.923,.001,MSE=.006,  p 2 =.062,amaineectofWMC,(1,181)=.001,MSE=.022,  p 2 =.102,andnointeractionbetweenpreexposureandWMC,(1,181)=.030,=.863,MSE=.006,  p 2 =.000(seeFig.1d).ThelackofasignicantinteractionindicatesthatwhileWMCisrelatedtosolutionratesforCRATproblems,withhighWMCindividualscorrectlysolvingmoreproblemsthanlowWMCindividuals,WMCdoesnotmoderatetheeectofpreexposureonCRATaccuracy.3.1.DiscussionPreexposingparticipantstofutureCRATsolutionsledtoimprovedperformanceforthoseproblems.However,preexposuredidnotattenuateperformancedierencesbetweenlowandhighWMCindividualsaswaspredictedfromasemanticsearchfacilitationaccountofindividualdierencesinCRATproblemsolving.ItisimportanttonotethatthetargetexposuredesignledtoasmallerencebetweenthenumberofPreexposedandUnexposedproblemssolved.InExperiment1thepreexopsuremani

6 pulation Table2CorrelationsbetweenOperat
pulation Table2CorrelationsbetweenOperationSpan(Ospan),SymmetrySpan(SymSpan),ReadingSpan(Rspan),WorkingMemoryCapacity(WMC)factorscore,Preexposed(Preexpo)&Unexposed(Unexpo)CompoundRemoteAssociates.OperationSpanSymmetrySpanReadingSpan.365WMC.746Preexposed.087.256Unexposed.130.219.01. Fig.1.Thescatterplotsshowperformanceonthecompoundremoteassociatestask(CRAT)inrelationtoworkingmemorycapacity(WMC).GolddatapointsrepresentlowWMCindividualswhoscoredintherst/lowestquartileofWMCscores.Reddatapointsrepresentindividualsinthefourth/upperquartileofWMCscores.BlackdatapointsareforthesecondandthirdquartilesofWMCscores.(A)UnexposedCRATaccuracyinrelationtoeachindividualsWMC.(B)PreexposedCRATaccuracyinrelationtoeachindividualsWMC.(C)AdierencescoreofPreexposedCRATaccuracyminusUnexposedCRATaccuracyinrelationtoeachindividualsWMC.(D)MeanproportionsofPreexposedandUnexposedCRATaccuracies(standarderrorbars)forparticipantsinthelowerandupperquartilesoftheWMCdistribution(Forinterpretationofthereferencestocolourinthisgurelegend,thereaderisreferredtothewebversionofthisarticle.)D.M.Ellis,G.A.Brewer providedonlytargetinformationtotheparticipantsandthetargetwasalwaystruthful(i.e.,acorrectanswer).Itispossiblethattherelativeassociationbetweenthetargetinformation,providedatpreexposure,andthecuesthatshouldactivatethetargetwasnotactivated.Therefore,inExperiment2weaimedtoreplicateandextendthecurrentndingsinseveralways.First,wedevelopedacuetargetpreexposureparadigmthatwebelievedwouldhaveastrongereect.Thisupdatedparadigmshouldtheoreticallyelicitstrongerassociativeactivationbetweenthecuesandtargets.Withthecuetargetexposureparadigmwecouldfullymanipulatethevalidityofthetargetinthepreexposure,suchthatthecue,inthecuetargetpair,arefromthesubsequentitems,buttheassociatedtargetwaseitheraTrueorFalsetarget.Specically,Truepreexposureshouldfacilitateproblemsolving,whileFalsepreexposureshouldcauseinterference.Thismanipulationleadstothreepossibleoutcomes.First,performancedierencesbetweenlowandhighWMCindividualsmaybesimilarlyinuencedbyTrueandFalsecuetargetexposurereplicatingExperiment1.Second,lowWMCproblemsolvingabilitymaybehelpedmorebyTruecue-targetexposureandhurtmorebyFalsecuetargetexposure.Finally,highWMCparticipantsproblemsolvingabilitymaybehelpedmorebyTruecue-targetexposureandhurtmorebyFalsecuetargetpreexposure.4.Experiment24.1.Method4.1.1.ParticipantsanddesignTwohundredandseventeenparticipantswererecruitedfromtheArizonaStateUniversityparticipantpool.Twoparticipantswereremovedfromdataanalysis,oneforfailingtofollowinstructionsandtheotherforacorruptdatale.Oftheremainingtwohundredfteenparticipants,allwerenativeEnglishspeakersandtheyreceivedcoursecreditfortheirparticipation.Participantsweretestedingrouplaboratorysessionslastingapproximatelytwohours.ParticipantscompletedthethreeworkingmemorytasksthenthenthecuetargetpreexposuretaskfollowedbytheCRAT.4.1.2.Materials4.1.2.1.Compoundremoteassociatetest.Allfty-fouroftheCRATproblemswereselectedfromthe144problemsBowdenandJung-Beeman(2003a,b)normed(AppendixA).InordertohaveanequalnumberofpreexposedproblemsforTrueandFalsepreexposure,wereducedtheitemsetfromExperiment1to54items(18Trueexposure,18Falseexposure,and18Unexposedproblems).Moreover,ofthe18Falsecuetargetpreexposedproblemswecreatedpotentialfalsetargetsforeachcuewordandparticipantswererandomlyexposedtoonlyonecuetargetpairforeachproblem.Inadditiontothereductioninthenumberofproblemstofacilitatethechangeinthe

7 preexposuremanipulation,thecarefulreader
preexposuremanipulation,thecarefulreaderwillalsonoteintheAppendixthatwealsoreplacedsomeoftheproblemsfromExperiment1.Replacementwasnecessarytoeliminateanycueandtargetoverlapbetweenproblemsbecauserealisticfalsetargetsthatwegeneratedforcuewordsinourstimulussetoftenoccurredascueortargetwordsinotherproblems.Thus,theseproblemswereremovedtoensurenooverlappinginformationwaspresentedtoparticipantsbetweenproblemsorconditions.Problemswereselectediftheyhadnormedsolutionratesbetween20and80%,withina30-secondtimelimit,tohelpcounteranyoor/ceilingeects.Additionally,problemswerealsochosenonthebasisthattheydidnothavesharedcueswithotherproblemsorasolutionthatwasalsoacueforanotherproblem.Thedependentvariablewastheproportionoftargetsolutionscorrectlyentered.Participantresponseswereevaluatedandrescoredtoaccountforobviousspellingerrors(e.g.insteadof)andentryofnon-alphabetic(e.g.insteadof)inotherwisecorrectresponses.Thedependentvariablewastheproportionoftargetsolutionscorrectlyentered.4.1.2.2.Workingmemorytasksandscoring.Thesameworkingmemorytasks,measures,andscoringprocedurewasusedasinExperiment1.Workingmemoryscoreswerecalculatedasthefactorscorefromaprincipalcomponentsanalysisofthethreecomplex-spantasks.4.1.3.ProcedurerstcompletedtheWMCtasks.Participantswerethenpreexposedusingacuetargetpreexposuremethod.InthisparticipantswereshowntwowordswhichtheyratedonavepointLikertscalewith1beingrarelyseentogetherand5beingseentogetheroften.OneofthewordswasarandomlyselectedcuefromthreepossiblecuesforeachCRATproblem,andthetargetwordwaseitheracorrectorcue-matchedincorrectsolution(seetheAppendixforcompletelistofproblems).Fromthetotalitemset(54),anequalnumberofproblems(18)werepresentedusingthethreepreexposuretypes(True,False,andUnexposed).Intotal36problemswerepreexposedandofthose36,one-third(12)usedtherstcue,one-third(12)usedthesecondcue,andone-third(12)usedthethirdcueforthecueinthecuetargetpair.ATruepreexposuretrialconsistedofacuetargetpairwherethetargetwasthecorrectsolutiontothatCRATproblem.AFalsepreexposuretrialconsistedofacuetargetpairwherethetargetwasacue-matchedincorrecttargetforthatCRATproblem.AFalsetargetwassemanticallyrelatedtothatspeciccuebutultimatelyanincorrecttarget.SeeExperiment1foradescriptionofanUnexposedproblem.5.ResultsDescriptivestatisticsforbehavioraldatacanbefoundinTable3.WesoughttodeterminewhetherpreexposingCRATsolutionsattenuatedtherelationbetweenWMCandCRATaccuracy.CorrelationsforallmeasurescanbefoundinTable4.Withinourdata,weD.M.Ellis,G.A.Brewer Table3DescriptivestatisticsfortheOperationSpan,SymmetrySpan,ReadingSpan,WorkingMemoryCapacity(WMC)factorscore,andProportionsofTrue,False,&UnexposedCompoundRemoteAssociatesAccuratelySolved.Std.Dev.OperationSpanSymmetrySpanReadingSpanTrueExpoFalseExpo Table4CorrelationsbetweenOperationSpan(Ospan),SymmetrySpan(SymSpan),ReadingSpan(Rspan),WorkingMemoryCapacity(WMC)factorscore,TrueExposed(TrueExpo),FalseExposed(FalseExpo)&Unexposed(Unexpo)CompoundRemoteAssociates.OperationSpanSymmetrySpanReadingSpan.608WMC.863TrueExpo.366FalseExpo.254Unexposed.208**p.01. Fig.2.Thescatterplotsshowperformanceonthecompoundremoteassociatestest(CRAT)inrelationtoworkingmemorycapacity(WMC).GolddatapointsrepresentlowWMCindividualswhoscoredintherst/lowestquartileofWMCscores.Reddatapointsrepresentindividualsinthefourth/upperquartileofWMCscores.BlackdatapointsareforthesecondandthirdquartileofWMCscores.(A)TrueexposedCRATaccuracyinrelationtoeachindividualsW

8 MC.(B)exposedCRATaccuracyinrelationtotha
MC.(B)exposedCRATaccuracyinrelationtothatindividualsWMC.(C)UnexposedCRATaccuracyinrelationtothatindividualsWMC.(D)MeanproportionsofTrue,False,andUnexposedCRATaccuracy(standarderrorbars)forparticipantsinthelowerandupperquartilesoftheWMCdistribution(Forinterpretationofthereferencestocolourinthisgurelegend,thereaderisreferredtothewebversionofthisarticle.)D.M.Ellis,G.A.Brewer foundasignicantcorrelationbetweenWMCandTruepreexposedsolutionrates,(215)=.404,.001,Falsepreexposedsolutionrates,(215)=.302,.001,andUnexposedsolutionrates,(215)=.287,.001.ReplicatingExperiment1andpriorstudies,highWMCparticipantssolvedmoreproblemscorrectlythanlowWMCparticipants.WeconductedageneralizedlinearmodeltotestwhetherWMCmoderatedtheeectofpreexposureontheCRAT.Therewasacantmaineectofpreexposure,(1,213)=273.02,.001,MSE=.014,  p 2 =.562,amaineectofWMC,(1,213)=.001,MSE=.034,  p 2 =.184,andsignicantinteractionbetweenpreexposureandWMC,(1,213)=12.704,.001,MSE=.014,  p 2 =.056(seeFig.2.HighWMCparticipantscorrectlysolvedmoreproblemsthanlowWMCpartici-pantsonallthreeproblemtypes.ThesignicantinteractionindicatedamoderationeectofWMContheimpactofexposureonCRATperformance.TobetterunderstandthisinteractionbetweenexposureandWMC,twoseparategeneralizedlinearmodelsbetweenonlytwoconditionsatatime(TrueversusUnexposedandFalseversusUnexposed)withWMCasthepredictorwereconducted.First,themodelforTrueversusUnexposedconditionsindicatedamaineectofpreexposure,(1,213)=273.022,.001,MSE=.014,  p 2 =.562,amaineectofWMC,(1,213)=42.417,.001,MSE=.034,  p 2 =.166,andasignicantinteraction,(1,213)=.001,MSE=.014,  p 2 =.056.Second,themodelforFalseversusUnexposedindicatedamaineectofpreexposure,(1,213)=7.047,.01,MSE=.010,  p 2 =.032,amaineectofWMC,(1,213)=30.156,.001,MSE=.019,  p 2 =.124,andnosignicantinteraction,(1,213)=.079,=.778,MSE=.010,  p 2 =.000.Whilethiseectwasnotsignicant,therewasanumericaltrendforthefalseexposuretohurthighWMCparticipantsmorethanlowWMCparticipants.Takentogether,thesetwoanalysessuggestthattrueexposurehelpedhighWMCparticipantsmorethanlowWMCparticipantswhereasfalseexposurehadnostatisticallydierentiale5.1.DiscussionTheresultsofExperiment2providefurtherevidencethatexposuretoCRATsolutionsinuencesproblemsolvingability.Correctcue-targetpreexposurefacilitatedperformancewhereasincorrectcue-targetpreexposurehurtperformance.Asexpected,thecuetargetpreexposuremanipulationwasmuchstrongerthanthesentencepreexposureparadigmusedinExperiment1.ReplicatingExperiment1,WMCwaspositivelycorrelatedwiththenumberCRATproblemssolvedcorrectlyforallthreepreexposuretypes.Finally,therewasasignicantinteractionbetweencorrectcue-targetpreexposureandWMConCRATproblemsolving.ThisewasdrivenbyhighWMCparticipantsexhibitingalargereectofTruecue-targetpreexposurewhencomparedwiththeperformanceoflowWMCparticipants.6.GeneraldiscussionTheprimarygoalofthisstudywastodeterminewhethersolutionpreexposureinmultiply-constrainedproblemsolvingwouldattenuatetheneedforWMCinproblemsolvingaswaspredictedfromasemanticsearchfacilitationaccountofindividualdiinproblemsolving.BaseduponpreviousresearchwehypothesizedthatbypreexposinglowandhighspanswithsolutionswewouldndthatlowWMCparticipantswouldshowagreaterperformancegainfromhavingsolutionspreexposedthanthehighWMCparticipants.WhileindividualdierencesinWMCcorrelatedwithCRATproblemsolving,wewereunabletoprovidesupportforthehypothesisthatdierencesbetweenlowandhighWMCparticipant

9 swereduetoindividualdierencesinaccessibi
swereduetoindividualdierencesinaccessibilityofsolutionsfromsemanticmemorysearch.WhenonlytargetswerepreexposedinExperiment1thismanipulationsimilarlyinuencedlowandhighWMCparticipants.Whencue-targetpairswerepreexposedinExperiment2thismanipulationfacilitatedproblemsolvingmoresoforhighWMCparticipants.TheresultsofourstudyprovidefurtherevidencethatsolutionratesforCRATproblemscanbeinuencedbyseveralfactors.Inthecurrentstudy,thepreexposuremanipulationwassimilarinnaturetopriorstudiesandlikelyinuenceCRATperformanceinasimilarmanner.OneadvancementinunderstandingpreexposureeectsfromthecurrentstudycanbefoundbycomparingacrossExperiments1and2.Specically,preexposuretocue-targetinformationenhancesproblemsolvingmuchmorethanpreexposuretoonlytargetinformation.Futureresearchmaybeconcernedwithspecifyingtheunderlyingassociativemechanismsthatareim-plementedtosupportgenerationofplausiblesolutionsinCRATandhowtheseareinuencedbypriorexposuretocue,target,andtargetinformation.InExperiments1and2,wereportevidencethatWMCwaspositivelyrelatedtomultiply-constrainedproblemsolving(i.e.,individualswithhigherWMCcorrectlysolvedmoreCRATproblemsthanindividualswithlowerWMC).Theseresultsareconsistentwithpriorempirical(Lee&Therriault,2013)andtheoretical(Wiley&Jarosz,2012)accountsofworkingmemorydemandsinherentinproblemsolving,andseemsmostlikelywhenproblemsolvingprogressisproceedingduetoanalyticalmethods.Twotheoreticalaccountsforthisrelationhavebeensuggested.ThesemanticsearchaccountpresentedinthecurrentworksuggeststhattherelationbetweenWMCandCRATproblemsolvingreectsoverlapinmemorysearchprocessesinherentinthesetasks(Smithetal.,2013TheattentioncontrolviewsuggeststhattherelationbetweenWMCandCRATproblemsolvingreectsoverlapinattentioncontroldemandsinherentinthesetasks(Wiley&Jarosz,2012).Thecurrentworkwasconductedtoprovideevidenceforthesemanticsearch Participantscompletedapost-experimentalquestionnairethatincludedaquestionpertainingtobeingawareofthemanipulation.Wereconductedthisanalyseswithrecognizingthemanipulationasacovariateandtheinteractionremainedsigni(1,212)=9.879,.01,MSE=012,  p 2 =.045.D.M.Ellis,G.A.Brewer accountoftherelationbetweenWMCandCRATproblemsolvingbutoveralltheresultswereinconsistentwiththisview,butconsistentwiththendingsofSmith,etal.(2012)InExperiment1weattemptedtoattenuateperformancedierencesbetweenlowandhighWMCindividualsbyonlypre-exposingtargetstosubsequentCRATproblems.TheeectoftargetpreexposurewassignicantbutfailedtoattenuategroupdicontrarytowhatwaspredictedfromasemanticsearchperspectiveonindividualdierencesinWMCandCRATproblemsolving.cally,iflowWMCindividualsweresolvingfewerproblemsduetosemanticsearchdecitsthenpreexposuretotargetsshouldhavefacilitatedtheirproblemsolvingabilitybymakingtargetinformationmoreaccessibleinsemanticmemory.However,pre-exposingCRATsolutionsaidedbothgroupstoasimilardegree.TheresultsfromExperiment2conceptuallyreplicatedtheresultsfromExperiment1suchthatTruepreexposedproblemsweresolvedmoreoftenthanUnexposedandFalselypreexposedproblems.Themagnitudeofthiseectwaslargerforthecue(Experiment2)manipulationthanthetargetonlymanipulation(Experiment1).WMCwascorrelatedwiththeproportionofpro-blemssolvedcorrectly,andagain,wefailedtoattenuateperformancebetweenlowWMCandhighWMCparticipantsaswaspre-dictedbyasemanticsearchperspectiveonindividualdierencesinWMCandCRATproblemsolving.TheTruepreexposurema-nipulationhelpedbothlowandhighWMCparticipantsbuttheeectwaslargerforhighWM

10 Cparticipants.Thesendingsagainfailtoprov
Cparticipants.Thesendingsagainfailtoprovidesupportforthesemanticsearchperspective.OnepossibleexplanationforthispatternofresultsisthatprepotentresponsesservedasasourceofinterferenceinCRATproblemsolving(Guptaetal.,2012Storm&Angello(2010)reportedcorrelationsbetweenindividuals'retrieval-inducedforgettingeandtheirperformanceontheCRATproblems.ThesendingssuggestthatitistheabilitytorejectorsuppressprepotentresponsesrstcometomindasapotentiallyimportantaspectofCRATperformance.Inthecurrentstudy,onepossibilityisthatbypreexposingtargetorcuetargetinformationwechangedthedegreetowhichparticipantsneededtosuppresspre-potentresponses.cally,inExperiment1thispreexposuretotarget-onlyinformationfacilitatedCRATperformancebutdidsoequallyforbothlowandhighWMCparticipants.InExperiment2weutilizedaFalsecuetargetpreexposureandthishinderedCRATperformancebutdidsoequallyforbothlowandhighWMCparticipants.Importantly,WMCwasonlyrelatedtosignicantperformancechangesforTruecue-targetpreexposureinExperiment2suggestingpartialevidencefortheideathatattentionprocessesassociatedwithWMCareneededforengagingwithusefulpreviouslyencounteredinformationthatcomestomindwhileproblemsolving.FutureresearchshouldbetterexamineindividualdierencesinWMC,retrieval-inducedforgetting,andCRATproblemsolvingunderconditionsoftrueversusfalsepreexposuretogetabetterhandleontheunderlyingmechanismsofengagementversusdisengagementwithrelevantandirrelevantinformationduringproblemsolving(foratheoreticalreviewseeShipstead,Harrison,&Engle,2016WhenanindividualsolvesaCRATproblemthestrategyusedtoarriveatthesolutionliessomewhereonacontinuumbetweenpurelyanalyticalorpurelyinsightfulmodesofrecoveringpotentialsolutions.Thesestrategiesmayinvolvedierentneurobiologicalnetworks(Bowden&Jung-Beeman,2003a;Kounios&Beeman,2014).Moreover,inindividualdierencesstudiesChein&Weisberg(2014)andChuderski&Jastrzebski(2018)havereportedthatWMCisrelatedtoinsightfullyretrievedsolutionswhichseemscounterintuitive.Inourexperimentspreexposuremayhavecausedindividualstoemploydierentstrategiesduringproblemsolving.McNamara&Scott(2001)foundthatindividualswhoaremorestrategicperformbetteronWMtasks.Itstandstoreasonthatiftheyaremorestrategicinonesetoftasksthentheymayattempttousesimilarstrategiesinanothersetoftasks.Theuseofstrategyinamultiply-constrainedproblemimpliesamoreanalyticalapproach.ItcouldbethatthehighWMCparticipantsinourexperimentswereemployingdierentormoreeectivestrategiesthanlowWMCparticipants.Strategyusagewasnotevaluatedinourexperi-sowecannotmakeanyempiricalclaimsabouttheimpactofpreexposureonstrategyselectionorusage,andthismissingcomponentofourexperimentisanimportantfuturedirection.Toconclude,WMCprocessesandindividualdierencesinworkingmemoryareimportantfactorsinmultiply-constrainedpro-blemsolving.However,therelationbetweenWMCandCRATproblemsolvingremainsunclear.WhilethecurrentstudyhighlightstheroleoftargetaccessibilityinCRATproblemsolving,thefactthatthisdimensiondoesnotappeartobethesourceofdierencesinproblemsolvingabilitybetweenlowandhighWMCparticipantsleadstoimportantfuturedirections.First,whydoindividualerencesinWMCcorrelatewithmultiply-constrainedproblemsolving?Whataretheunderlyingmediatorsofthisrelation?Inthecurrentstudy,weexperimentallymanipulatedtheaccessibilityofsemanticcontentbypreexposingtargetsbutdidnotndsupportforthehypothesisthatindividualdierencesinworkingmemoryarepredictiveormultiply-constrainedproblemsolvingbecauseofsemanticsearchprocesses(

11 Lee&Therriault,2013).However,unlikeLee&T
Lee&Therriault,2013).However,unlikeLee&Therriault,wedidnotmeasureverbalabilitieswhichmayalsoplayanimportantroleintherelationbetweenWMCandCRATalongwithattentioncontrolandotherpossiblefactors(Wiley&Jarosz,2012).FutureresearchshouldmorefullyaccountforthevariousdimensionsofindividualdierencesinWMCinrelationtomultiply-constrainedproblemsolvingtobetteraccountforthetruemediatorsoftherelation.Thistypeofworkwillleadtoamoreenrichedtheoreticalunderstandingofmultiply-constrainedproblemsolving.Additionally,understandingindividualdierencesinmultiply-constrainedproblemsolvingwillallowustoimproveproblemsolvingskillsacrossthisabilityrangeandisthereforeanimportantappliedgoalforresearchersinthisdomain.7.AuthornotesDerekM.EllisandGeneA.Brewer,DepartmentofPsychology,ArizonaStateUniversity.ThisworkwassupportedbyNationalScienceFoundationGrantNumber#1632291awardedtoGAB.Allmaterialsanddatafromtheseexperimentscanbedownloadedfromthecorrespondingauthorslaboratorywebsiteasumaclab.com.Aspecialthankyoutotheresearchassistantswhoworkedontheproject;AriannaBeverly,AaronCohen,ShelbyEvans,VanessaDiggs,andAliceRidgway.D.M.Ellis,G.A.Brewer AppendixAA.1.Experiment1compoundremoteassociateproblemsCuesSolutionshow/life/rowboatake/mobile/conesnowriver/note/accountbanksafety/cushion/pinpointsh/mine/rushgoldcadet/capsule/shipspacehound/pressure/shotbloodsage/paint/hairbrushfrench/car/shoehornsense/courtesy/placecommonower/friend/scoutgirlpeach/arm/tarpitcottage/brick/cakecheesefox/man/peepholemain/sweeper/lightstreetpike/coat/signalturnway/board/sleepwalkopera/hand/dishsoapshine/beam/struckmoonkeg/pu/roompowdereight/skate/stickcarpet/alert/inkredwet/law/businesssuithammer/gear/hunterheadhorse/human/dragraceboot/summer/groundcampdown/question/checkmarkcat/number/phonecalltype/ghost/screenwriterpalm/shoe/housetreemill/tooth/dustsawwagon/break/radiostationmaster/toss/ngerringy/clip/wallpaperanimal/back/ratpackiron/shovel/enginesteampiece/mind/datinggamecross/rain/tiebowcatcher/food/hotdogbottom/curve/hopbelltomato/bomb/pickercherrypie/luck/bellypotchamber/mask/naturalgasage/mile/sandstonehealth/take/lesscarecer/cash/larcenypettytime/blown/nelsonfulltest/runner/maproadteeth/arrest/startfalsehold/print/stoolfootoil/bar/tunasaladtank/hill/secrettopmarshal/child/pianograndtail/water/oodgateD.M.Ellis,G.A.Brewer pine/crab/sauce/military/cut/cream/warshock/shave/tasteforce/line/mailbaby/spring/capA.2.Experiment2compoundremoteassociateproblemsFalsesolutionshow/life/rowpicture/sentence/deathsh/mine/rushbetta/craft/ordercadet/capsule/shippolice/pill/battlehound/pressure/shotbasset/maximum/missedsage/paint/hairadvice/lead/mattedsense/courtesy/placesixth/service/secondower/friend/scoutgarden/boy/sniperpeach/arm/tarim/lock/blackcottage/brick/cakeidyllic/cement/beeffox/man/peeptrot/primitive/chickmain/sweeper/lightline/carpet/glowpike/coat/signalpoint/rack/mixedway/board/sleepwrong/long/remopera/hand/dishsinger/ball/deepshine/beam/strucksun/pole/starkeg/pu/roombeer/short/dressingeight/skate/stickteen/ice/matchcarpet/alert/inkbomb/high/blotwet/law/businessdripping/civil/legitimatehammer/gear/huntersledge/mountain/bountyhorse/human/dragcarriage/anatomy/outboot/summer/groundheel/school/sacreddown/question/checkdraft/good/bookcat/number/phonenip/decimal/celltype/ghost/screengeno/buster/doorpalm/shoe/housefrond/gum/rentalmill/tooth/dustgrain/chipped/mopwagon/break/radiowheel/fast/dialmaster/toss/class/up/middl

12 ey/clip/walltrap/art/chestanimal/back/ra
ey/clip/walltrap/art/chestanimal/back/ratrabid/ip/labiron/shovel/enginewrought/snow/dieselpiece/mind/datingchess/control/speedcross/rain/tietrain/heavy/zipcatcher/food/hotmitt/truck/teabottom/curve/hoprock/left/bunnytomato/bomb/pickerjuice/atom/nosepie/luck/bellypecan/dumb/rubchamber/mask/naturalorchestra/clown/allage/mile/sandold/square/quickhealth/take/lesspoor/away/wittest/runner/mappractice/front/legendteeth/arrest/startbaby/warrant/freshhold/print/stooltight/advertising/softeneroil/bar/tunashale/exam/cannedtank/hill/secretshell/crest/darkmarshal/child/pianore/step/keytail/water/whip/bottle/lampD.M.Ellis,G.A.Brewer pine/crab/saucecone/claw/pan/military/sound/maneuver/borncut/cream/warprime/whipped/fareshock/shave/tastewave/close/sourforce/line/mailopen/tow/clerkbaby/spring/capcarrot/semester/skullAppendixB.SupplementarymaterialSupplementarydataassociatedwiththisarticlecanbefound,intheonlineversion,atBeilock,S.L.,&DeCaro,M.S.(2007).Frompoorperformancetosuccessunderstress:Workingmemory,strategyselection,andmathematicalproblemsolvingunderJournalofExperimentalPsychology:Learning,Memory,andCognition,33(6),983Bowden,E.M.,&Jung-Beeman,M.(2003a).Aha!Insightexperiencecorrelateswithsolutionactivationintherighthemisphere.PsychonomicBulletin&Review,10Bowden,E.M.,&Jung-Beeman,M.(2003b).Normativedatafor144compoundremoteassociateproblems.BehaviorResearchMethods,Instruments,&Computers,35Cai,D.J.,Mednick,S.A.,Harrison,E.M.,Kanaday,J.C.,&Mednick,S.C.(2009).REM,notincubation,improvescreativitybyprimingassociatenetworks.oftheNationalAcademyofSciencesoftheUnitedStatesofAmerica,106(25),10130Chein,J.M.,&Weisberg,R.W.(2014).Workingmemoryandinsightinverbalproblems:Analysisofcompoundremoteassociates.Memory&Cognition,42,67Chuderski,A.,&Jastrzebski,J.(2018).Muchadoaboutaha!:Insightproblemsolvingisstronglyrelatedtoworkingmemorycapacityandreasoningability.JournalofExperimentalPsychology:General,147(2),257Conway,A.R.A.,Kane,M.J.,&Engle,R.W.(2003).Workingmemorycapacityanditsrelationtogeneralintelligence.TrendsinCognitiveSciences,7(12),547Davelaar,E.J.(2015).Semanticsearchintheremoteassociatestest.TopicsinCognitiveScience,7,494Erdfelder,E.,Faul,F.,&Buchner,A.(1996).GPOWER:Ageneralpoweranalysisprogram.BehavioralResearchmethods,Instruments,&Computers,28(1),1Howe,M.L.,Garner,S.R.,Dewhurst,S.A.,&Ball,L.J.(2010).Canfalsememoriesprimeproblemsolutions?Cognition,117(2),176Howe,M.L.,Garner,S.R.,&Patel,M.(2013).Positiveconsequencesoffalsememories.BehavioralSciencesandtheLaw,31,652Gaissmaier,W.,Schooler,L.J.,&Rieskamp,J.(2006).Simplepredictionsfueledbycapacitylimitations:Whenaretheysuccessful?JournalofExperimentalPsychology:Learning,Memory,andCognition,32,966Gilhooly,K.J.,&Fioratou,E.(2009).Executivefunctionsininsightversusnon-insightproblemsolving:Anindividualdierencesapproach.Thinking&Reasoning,(4),355Gilhooly,K.J.,Ball,L.J.,&Macchi,L.(2015).Insightandcreativethinkingprocesses:Routineandspecial.Thinking&Reasoning,21(1),1Gupta,N.,Jang,Y.,Mednick,S.C.,&Huber,D.E.(2012).Theroadnottaken:Creativesolutionsrequireavoidanceofhigh-frequencyresponses.PsychologicalScience,(3),288A.F.,Colesh,G.J.H.,&Wiley,J.(2012).Uncorkingthemuse:Alcoholintoxicationfacilitatescreativeproblemsolving.ConsciousnessandCognition,21Lavric,A.,Forstmeier,S.,&Rippon,G.(2000).Dierencesinworkingmemoryinvolvementinanalyticalandcreativetask:AnERPstudy.Neuroreport,11Lee,C.S.,&Therriault,D.J.(2013).Thecognitiveunderpinning

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