Download presentation
1 -

Gestural representations of tone in Mandarin Evidence from timi


ng alternationsMuye Zhang Christopher Geissler Jason ShawDepartment of Linguistics Yale UniversityINTRODUCTIONThe primary argument that lexical tones are articulatory gestures as in the phonological p

scarlett's Recent Documents

Viva La Novella
Viva La Novella

IV Selecting the novellaBy Tom LangshawThe selection process for Viva la Novella consumed my life during January so most of my reading took place against a summery optimistic backdropBut looking back

published 0K
PAYMENT TYPEERRORRECOMMENDED SOLUTIONDebit CardCredit Card1702 or 174
PAYMENT TYPEERRORRECOMMENDED SOLUTIONDebit CardCredit Card1702 or 174

Invalid or missing CVV code Please verify the 3-digit code on the back of the card If you continue to receive the error contact the card issuer Debit Card/Credit CardAddress verification failed Cardho

published 0K
Carolyn Stanford Taylor
Carolyn Stanford Taylor

State SuperintendentPO Box 7841 Madison WI 53707-7841 125 South Webster Street Madison WI 53703608 266-3390 800 441-4563toll freedpiwigovDtI tlan for the Elementary and Secondary SchoolEmergency

published 0K
nnrnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn n
nnrnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn n

nrnnrnnnnnnnnrrnrrnrrrrrrrr r

published 0K
Avicenna146s
Avicenna146s

AVICENNA 980-1037Poem on Medicine transl HC Krueger Springfield 1963 pp 14-57Preface in VersePraise be to Allah the Teacher the Unique Majesty of the Heavens the Exalted the Glorious Glory be to Him t

published 0K
JRegulatorsofForestEcosystemsByRobertAHaackandJamesWBylerodaysforestma
JRegulatorsofForestEcosystemsByRobertAHaackandJamesWBylerodaysforestma

fcausingfungiandxhemistletoesAnecosystemmanagementapproachtoinsectanddiseasemanagementisnotnewLargelyinre-sponsetopesticideconcernsofthe1960saninte-gratedapproachtopestmanagementIPMwasdevelopedbasedon

published 0K
Export to Excel
Export to Excel

PrintHelpHillsborough County Florida County Chronic Disease Profile IndicatorYearsAvg Annual Number of EventsAge-Adjusted RateQuartileState Adjusted RateUS Healthy People 2020 GoalCoronary Heart Disea

published 0K
x0000x0000       RICARDO LARACALIFORNIA INSURANCE COMMISSIONERx0000x00
x0000x0000 RICARDO LARACALIFORNIA INSURANCE COMMISSIONERx0000x00

BULLETIN 2020TO All Property andCasualty Insurers and Workers Compensation InsurersFROMnsurance Commissioner Ricardo Lara recognizes that the COVID19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented challenge for

published 0K
Download Section

Download - The PPT/PDF document "" is the property of its rightful owner. Permission is granted to download and print the materials on this web site for personal, non-commercial use only, and to display it on your personal computer provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright notices contained in the materials. By downloading content from our website, you accept the terms of this agreement.






Document on Subject : "Gestural representations of tone in Mandarin Evidence from timi"— Transcript:

1 Gestural representations of tone in Mand
Gestural representations of tone in Mandarin: Evidence from timi ng alternations Muye Zhang, Christopher Geissler, Jason Shaw Department of Linguistics, Yale University I NTRODUCTION : The primary argument that lexical tones are articulatory gestures, as in the phonological primitives of Articulatory Phonology (Gafos & Goldstein, 2012) , has come from the way that tones interact with other gestures. Specifically, lexical tone has been argued to condition patterns of relative timing between consonant s and vowel s based on evidence from kinematic data. In syllables with complex onsets (and no lexical tone), the onset of movement of a vowel tends to occur during the middle of the preceding consonant cluster , the so - called “c - center” effect (Browman & Goldstein, 1988; Hermes, Mcke, & Grice, 2013) . Similarly, in languages with lexical tone, the vowel has been observed to begin movement around the midpoint between the onset consonant and the tone, a pattern reported in Mandarin Chinese (Gao, 2008) , Thai (Karlin & Tilsen, 2015) , and Lhasa Tibetan (Hu, 2016) . Considered relative to a toneless CV syllable baseline, for which onset consonant and vowel begin movement at roughly t he same time, it is striking that adding a consonant to the syllable to yield CCV and adding a lexical tone to yield , e.g., C , result in the same pattern of relative timing — it is as if the tone is functioning as an onset consonant . S ince Gao (2008), this has served as a working hypothesis within Articulatory Phonology and one that presents a viable alternative to the analysis of tone s as autosegments. However, the gestural approach to tone makes a key prediction, which has yet to be tested. Within the same language, CV syllables with and without tone are predicted to differ in timing. Specifically, the lag between consonant and vowel gestures should increase in a syllable with tone relative to a closely matched syllable without lexical tone. In this paper, we present what is, to our knowledge, the first empirical evidence for tone - conditioned timing alternation s of the type unique ly predicted by the A rticulatory P honology approach to tone . E XPERIMENT : We chose Mandarin Chinese to test for timing alternations. In Mandarin, t oneless syllables, often referred to as having “neutral” tone, are possible in a few ways: (1) certain grammatical morphemes are toneless , including the s entence - final question particle ; (2) certain productive compounding paradigms condition tonelessness on embed ded non - head member s ( Chen & Xu, 2006) . We included both of these in our design as separate conditions (which we refer to as “Absent” for the grammatical morpheme and “Reduced” for neutral tones in compounds ) , along with matched syllables also embedded in compounds but fully specified for tone , the “Full” condition . An example stimulus set is provided in Table 1. The target syllable , shown in bold, was always /mu/ (or / m ə / for the question particle), produced in the “Full” condition with either falling (Tone 4) or low (Tone 3) tones and preceded by a carrier sentence and a context . The context was displayed on the screen before each item but not read aloud. We recorded one native speaker of Beijing/Northern Mandarin producing 14 repetitions of each item (Carrier + Target) in four sets using Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA). Sensors on the upper lip and lower lip were used to compute change in lip aperture (LA) over time for the target /m/ . A sensor on the tongue dorsum (5 cm behind the tip) was used to track tongue retraction towards the target for /u/. The relative timing of the onset of /m/ and the onset of /u/, i.e., C - V lag, is the key dependent variable. This was calculated by subtractin g the timestamp of the onset of Table 1. Example s timulus set Condition Context C arrier Target Full zhè yī lèi tù zi x ǐ huān b ǎ sh p q ǐ kāi, zh ǎ o chóngzi chī. w ǒmen gěi tā qǐmíng jiào qǐ m t This type of rabbit likes prying off tree bark to look for bugs to eat. We call it a bark - prying rabbit. Reduced zhè yī lèi tùzi hěn x ǐ huān ānjìng de kàn qítā de tù zi . w ǒmen gěi tā qǐmíng jiào qǐ mu t This type of rabbit likes quietly watch ing other rabbits. We call it an admiring rabbit. Absent zài yīgè jǐubā, xīn lái de fúwùyuán hěn bèn. lǎobǎn wèn: píngzi gài dōu bù huì q ǐ m ə tā At a bar, there’s

2 a new employee who’s incompetent. The
a new employee who’s incompetent. The manager asks : “he can’t even open a bottle?” Gestural representations of tone in Mandarin: Evidence from timi ng alternations Muye Zhang, Christopher Geissler, Jason Shaw Department of Linguistics, Yale University movement of the vowel from the onset of movement of the consonant. To account for variations in speech rate, we divided raw C - V lag s by total syllable duration. The key prediction is that C - V lag will be longer for the “Full ” condition than for “Reduced” or “Absent” conditions. Except w h ere otherwise noted, statistical significance is reported on the basis of ne sted comparison of linear mixed - effects models with item as a random effect. RESULTS : Figure 1 shows only a marginal effect of condition on C - V lag ( p =.0998 ) , suggesting that mere presence or absence of tone is not a clear predictor. Figure 2 shows a significant interaction between condition and tone ( p =.046) . There is positive evidence for a timing alternation, but only for T one 3. P airwise t - tests corrected for multiple comparisons using Holm’s method show that for Tone 3, the “F ull ” condition elicited a significantly greater C - V lag than the reduced - tone an d neutral - tone conditions ( p ’s< .02). D ifferences between “Reduced” and “Absent” conditions were not significant for either tone . Figure 1: Lags by condition Figure 2: Lags by condition and tone D ISCUSSION : The C - V lag results provide the first piece of evidence for tone - conditioned timing alternations, a key prediction of the current working hypothesis for tonal gestures in Articulatory Phonology. T he presence of tone conditions a change in C - V lag , lengthening the temporal interval between the onset of consona ntal and vocalic gestures. This effect, however, was driven entirely by T one 3. Tone 4 targets exhibited no significant diff erence in C - V lag when compared to reduced - or absent - tone T one 4 targets . Although there has been some debate about the gestural analysis of Tone 3 in Mandarin (Hsieh, 2011; Yi & Tilsen, 2015) , the distinction between Tone 3 and Tone 4 was not expected . One possible explanation is that T one 4 gestures lack the anti - phase coupling relation with the onset consonant . Another is that the inv entory of temporal relations is rich er than just in - phase and anti - phase (c.f., the gesture - internal landmarks of Gafos, 2002; Goldstein, Nam, Saltzman, & Chitoran, 2009) . R egarding the status of reduced - vs. absent - tone conditions , it seems that the morphoseman tic compounding manip ulations of lexical tone were eff ective: the C - V lag for the reduced - tone was statistically indistinguishable from the absent - tone for all targets . Our results here are based on just one speaker, but we plan to develop this paradigm further to probe the nature of tone - condition ed timing alternations and the consequences for the status of lexical tones as gestures. References Browman, C. P., & Goldstein, L. (1988). Some Notes on Syllable Structure in Articulatory Phonology. Phonetica, 45 , 140 - 155. Gafos, A. (2002). A grammar of gestural coordination. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 20 , 269 - 337. Gafos, A., & Goldstein, L. (2012). Articulatory representation and organization. In A. C. Cohn, C. Fougeron, & M. K. Huffman (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Laboratory Phonology (pp. 220 - 231). Gao, M. (2008). Mandarin tones: An articulatory phonology account. Yale University. Goldstein, L. H., Nam, H., Saltzman, E., & Chitoran, I. (2009). Coupled oscillator planning model of speech timing and syllab le structure. In G. Fant, H. Fujisaki, & J. Shen (Eds.), Frontiers in Phonetics and Speech Science: Festschrift for Wu Zongji (pp. 239 - 249). Beijing: Commercial Press. Hermes, A., Mcke, D., & Grice, M. (2013). Gestural coordination of Italian word - initial clusters: The case of “impure s”. Phonology, 30 (1), 1 - 25. Hsieh, F. - Y. (2011). A gestural account of Mandarin tone 3 variation. P roc. of the 17th international congress of phonetic sciences , 890 - 893. Hu, F. (2016). Tones are not abstract autosegmentals. Speech Prosody 2016 , 302 - 306. Karlin, R., & Tilsen, S. (2015). The articulatory tone - bearing unit: Gestural coordination of lexic al tone in Thai. Proc. of Meetings on Acoustics, 22 (1), 1 - 9. Yi, H., & Tilsen, S. (2015). Gestural timing in Mandarin tone sandhi. Proc. of Meetings on Acoustics, 22 (1), 1 - 11.