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IntroductionOutcrops of the Cretaceous Yezo Group arewidely distribute


ezo Group Research in SakhalinA Historical Reviewand Haruyoshi MaedaDepartment of Geology and Paleontology National Science Museum Department of Geology and Mineralogy Graduate School of Science Kyoto

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Document on Subject : "IntroductionOutcrops of the Cretaceous Yezo Group arewidely distribute"ā€” Transcript:

1 IntroductionOutcrops of the Cretaceous Y
IntroductionOutcrops of the Cretaceous Yezo Group arewidely distributed in a 350km long band run-ning in a north-south direction in the centralportion of Hokkaido. These sediments arethought to have been deposited in the ancientezo forarc basin along the eastern margin 1983). Numerous well-preserve

2 d ammonoidsand inoceramids occur at vari
d ammonoidsand inoceramids occur at various horizons,and these fossils have been the subject of themany geological and paleontological studiesconducted during the last century (see Hayami& Yoshida, 1991; Hirano 2003; Takashima ezo Group deposits cross under the La Per-ouse Strait (Soya Strait) from

3 northernHokkaido and extend over a dist
northernHokkaido and extend over a distance of 750kmnorthward from the KrilÕon Peninsula to theKhoe Cape in the western Sakhalin region(Vershchagin, 1970, 1977; Fig. 1). Sakhalinhas long been recognized as one of the impor-in the North PaciŽc realm, and consequently,these deposits and their respec

4 tive faunas havebeginning as long ago as
tive faunas havebeginning as long ago as 1860.In this paper we mainly review past researchon the Cretaceous Yezo Group in the westernSakhalin region and discuss future research ezo Group Research in SakhalinŃA Historical Reviewand Haruyoshi MaedaDepartment of Geology and Paleontology, National Scie

5 nce Museum, Department of Geology and Mi
nce Museum, Department of Geology and Mineralogy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyou-ku, Kyoto 606Š8502, JapanE-mail: maeda@kueps.kyoto-u.ac.jpAbstractHistorically, research on the Cretaceous Yezo Group of Sakhalin may be divided into fourmajor stages, ea

6 ch partly dependent upon the internation
ch partly dependent upon the international political situation at the time, as well asŅstate of the artÓ practices of the day in paleontology and stratigraphy. The Žrst stage, from 1860 to1905, is characterized by early geological expeditions and subsequent fossil descriptions by pioneerorkers in p

7 aleontology. Throughout the second stage
aleontology. Throughout the second stage, from 1905 to 1945, research in northernSakhalin was conducted mainly by workers from the U.S.S.R., while Japanese workers limited mostof their research activities to southern Sakhalin. During the third stage, from 1945 to 1989, manyorkers from the U.S.S.R.

8 were active, but they conŽned their rese
were active, but they conŽned their research to a comprehensive study ofthe Cretaceous in the Naiba area. The fourth stage, beginning in 1990 and continuing to the present,consists of JapaneseŠRussian Joint Research groups primarily studying various modern day disci-plines such as paleobiology, tap

9 honomy, magnetostratigraphy, and isotope
honomy, magnetostratigraphy, and isotope stratigraphy.Key words:Cretaceous, historical review, Sakhalin, Yezo Group The Cretaceous System in the Makarov Area, Southern Sakhalin, Russian Far Eastedited by Y. Shigeta and H. Maeda, National Science Museum Monographs, 31: 1Š24, 2005 History of research

10 Historically, research on the Yezo Group
Historically, research on the Yezo Group ofSakhalin may be divided into four majorstages. Each stage is partly dependent uponthe international political situation at the time,as well as Ņstate of the artÓ practices of the dayin paleontology and stratigraphy.The Žrst stage (1860 to 1905)During this

11 period the numerous expedi-tions by pion
period the numerous expedi-tions by pioneer workers in geoloy resulted indiscovery of many fossils. In 1860 F. B.Schmidt and P. V. Glen, who were members ofthe Russian Geological Society expedition toSiberia, made the Žrst discovery of Cretaceousdeposits on Zhonkier Cape in northernSakhalin (Fig. 2

12 ; Glen, 1868; Schmidt, 1868a,b). F. B. S
; Glen, 1868; Schmidt, 1868a,b). F. B. Schmidt (1873), who described theis characterized by a peculiar divergent rib-Inoceramus digitalisSowerby. It was later redescribed by Michael(1899) who named it Inoceramus schmidtihonor of F. B. Schmidt (Fig. 3). It is now re-garded as an important zonal inde

13 x fossil forthe middle part of the Campa
x fossil forthe middle part of the Campanian of the NorthZhonkier Cape by F. B. Schmidt, from theMgachi area by P. V. Glen, and from the north-estern coastal area of southern Sakhalin byA. F. Andrea were sent to Dr. Heer in Stock-holm who described them as a Miocene ageßora (Heer, 1871, 1878a, b).I

14 n 1867Š1868 J. Ropatin discovered Creta-
n 1867Š1868 J. Ropatin discovered Creta-ceous deposits along the eastern coast ofsouthern Sakhalin (Lopatin, 1870; Schmidt,1970), and D. L. Ivanov discovered UpperCretaceous deposits on the KrilÕon Peninsulain 1890 (see Vereshchagin, 1977).The second stage (1905Š1945)During this period workers from

15 the.S.S.R. conŽned their research activ
the.S.S.R. conŽned their research activitiesmainly to the Cretaceous deposits of northernSakhalin, whereas Japanese workers limitedtheir research primarily to southern Sakhalin.crop localities were known in many areas of southern Sakhalin (Jimbo, 1906, 1907;Kawasaki, 1907; Kawasaki & Shimotomai,19

16 08; Hirano & Tsurumaru, 1908; Inoue &Ots
08; Hirano & Tsurumaru, 1908; Inoue &Otsuki, 1909), and it had became obvious thatthese outcrops were widely distributed in anorth-south direction in the west Sakhalin re-gion (Jimbo, 1908; Yabe, 1909).During the same period several Russian ge-ologists investigated Cretaceous deposits innorthern Sa

17 khalin (Tikhonovitch & Polevoy,1910, 191
khalin (Tikhonovitch & Polevoy,1910, 1915; Polevoy, 1914; Tikhonovitch,1914). In 1914 Sokolov published a monographon inoceramids in which he concluded that theCretaceous System in northern Sakhalin is ofIn 1917 A. N. Krishtofovitch began study-ing the plant fossils of northern Sakhalin, ander the

18 next 20 year period, he publishedmany pa
next 20 year period, he publishedmany papers in which he described an exten-sive ßora of Cretaceous age (Krishtofovitch,1918a,b, 1920, 1927aŠc, 1932, 1935, 1937). many other areas of the far eastern region ofRussia, including Primorye and Kamchatka(Krishtofovitch, 1932, 1935). H. Yabe and S.Shimizu

19 also explored the Cretaceous Systemin n
also explored the Cretaceous Systemin northern Sakhalin and attempted to corre-late it with the deposits in southern Sakhalin(Yabe & Shimizu, 1924a, b; Shimizu, 1925;abe, 1926, 1927). Hayasaka (1921), and Yabeand Nagao (1925) described several Creta-ceous mollusks from northern Sakhalin, whileceou

20 s heteromorphic ammonite from southernso
s heteromorphic ammonite from southernsouthern Sakhalin are found along the NaibaRiver (Figs. 4, 5). In 1926 M. Kawada careful-surveyed the Naiba area deposits and devel-oped a biostratigraphic scheme based on theabundant molluscan fossils that occur in manyhorizons (Kawada, 1929a). S. Shimizu also

21 in- asunari Shigeta and Haruyoshi Maeda
in- asunari Shigeta and Haruyoshi Maeda ezo Group Research in SakhalinŃA Historical Review3 ig.1.Index map showing distribution of Cretaceous Yezo Group exposures (black areas) in Sakhalin, Russia, asunari Shigeta and Haruyoshi Maeda KrasnoyarkaFormationZhonkierF. ig.2.Outcrop of the Cretaceous Ye

22 zo Group at Zhonkier Cape in northern Sa
zo Group at Zhonkier Cape in northern Sakhalin, site of the Žrst discoveryof Cretaceous deposits in Sakhalin. Upper: View of the port of Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky from ZhonkierCape. Lower: Large outcrop of the Cretaceous Yezo Group at Zhonkier Cape. The beds strike N10Š20”E, anddip 70”westward. The

23 uppermost Zhonkier Formation is comprise
uppermost Zhonkier Formation is comprised mainly of Žne-grained, bedded sandstone,mudstone and coal, while the Krasnoyarka Formation, which is about 120m thick, consists primarily of sand-stone and sandy mudstone, rich in adesitic volcanic rock fragments. It conformably overlies the Zhonkier For-ma

24 tion, and is unconformably overlain by P
tion, and is unconformably overlain by Paleogene conglomerate. The Krasnoyarka Formation is fossilifere-Sphenoceramus orientalis(Sokolov) and ŅGigantocaplustransformispart, and Gigantocaplus giganteus(Schmidt) is abundant in lower to middle part, while Sphenoceramusschmidti(Michael) is abundant thr