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JCBQQL TOL X


82The Ekottarika-gama version stands alone in combining its description of the long succession of ideal kings with narrative pieces that in other Pikya or gama bgsamspscs anncap gl a bgx00660066cpclr

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Document on Subject : "JCBQQL TOL X"— Transcript:

1 JCBQQL TOL, X 82 The Ekottarika-āgama
JCBQQL TOL, X 82 The Ekottarika-āgama version stands alone in combining its description of the long succession of ideal kings with narrative pieces that in other Pikāya or Āgama bgsamspscs anncap gl a bg�cpclr amlrcvr, Olc md these is the need for the successor of a

2 wheel-turning king to receive instruct
wheel-turning king to receive instruction in proper rulership, which has a counterpart in the Discourse on the Wheel-turning King in the Dīgha-nikāya and its parallels in the Dīrgha-āgama and the Oadhyama-āgama . 40 Another such piece in the present Ekottarika-āgama dis

3 course is the description of the genera
course is the description of the general deterioration of living conditions and kmpajgry bsc rm gknpmncp psjcpshgn by rhc rgkc md Lgkg’s ssaacssmp, uhm bgb lmr amlrglsc rhc rync md amlbsar snhcjb by hgs dmpcdarhcps; this is also found in the Discourse on the Wheel-turning King and

4 its parallels. 41 Perhaps the fascina
its parallels. 41 Perhaps the fascination exerted by the motif of the cakravartin on early Buddhist narrators facilitated an intrusion of narrative pieces from the Discourse on the Wheel-turning King into the present context. 42 The narrative in the Discourse on the Wheel-turnin

5 g King shows considerable underlying hu
g King shows considerable underlying humour. 43 Il ky srsby md rhc �psr napr md the Ekottarika-āgama discourse translated above, I drew attention to the humour evident in the description of the cakravartin given in this discourse, arguing that a literal interpretatio

6 n of this part of the Ekottarika-āgama
n of this part of the Ekottarika-āgama discourse as encapsulating Buddhist notions of igleshgn umsjb lmr bm dsjj hssrgac rm rhgs bcsapgnrgml, Lccbjcss rm say, the humour evident in such passages has a didactic purpose and thus is md a ssbrjc rync, osgrc bg�cpclr dpmk arr

7 cknrs rm kaic al asbgclac pmap with lau
cknrs rm kaic al asbgclac pmap with laughter. 44 The same tendency to humour continues through the remainder of the bgsamspsc, uhgah bcsapgbcs Kgle Ka(i'hābcta spending four periods of cgehry-dmsp-rhmssalb ycaps as a ahgjb, a npglac, a igle, alb a pcajssc; 45 and his d

8 escendants living their lives according
escendants living their lives according to the same pattern for eighty-four-thousand generations. 46 Rhgs bcsapgnrgml cvcknjg�cs a general tendency of numbers in an oral tradition to have a symbolical function, rather than expressing a precise numerical value. The number

9 seven in a symbolic sense stands for a c
seven in a symbolic sense stands for a complete time cycle. 47 Seven as a basic temporal unit multiplied by the twelve months of the year results YO : Rhc Rajc md Kgle Lgkg gl rhc Ekottarika-āgama 83 in eighty-four. Eighty-four further enhanced by being multiplied by a thousand lea

10 ds to the number eighty-four-thousand, a
ds to the number eighty-four-thousand, a number that occurs often in Buddhist literature and simply represents a very long time span. A jgrcpaj pcabgle md rhgs bcsapgnrgml gl rhc Ka(i'hābcta rajc umsjb lmr only be absurd, 48 it would also miss the humour inherent in various

11 narrative episodes in the discourse. 49
narrative episodes in the discourse. 49 To appreciate the central message conveyed by this tale, it needs to be borne in mind that the period of ancient Indian history that saw the rise of Buddhism was characterized by a tendency toward political centralization. As is common in pol

12 itical history all over the world, the e
itical history all over the world, the early stages of such political centralization are often marked by a ruthless push to power among petty kings or among rulers and their descendants. This push to power �lbs grs cvnpcssgml gl Bsbbhgsr rcvrs gl rajcs pcnmprgle hmu Kgle P

13 asenadi passed away while trying to ra
asenadi passed away while trying to rally forces against his son who had usurped the throne, 50 mp hmu Kgle Bgkbgsāpa uas apscjjy nsr rm 51 Ling (1973/1976: 68) explains that in ancient India “the king, especially as he grew older and his sons came to manhood, was always a

14 t risk dpmk rhc jarrcp’s hcajmssy, Ta
t risk dpmk rhc jarrcp’s hcajmssy, Tapgmss sadcesapbs aeaglsr rhgs balecp ucpc set out in the Indian manuals of kingship ... these ... indicate a general agreement that the ambition of princes constituted a perennial danger to the security of the king.” Against this background

15 , the description of the peaceful succes
, the description of the peaceful succession of eighty-four-thousand kings, who at the slightest indication of old age are willing to resign peacefully, hand over all power and control to the heir apparent, and spend the rest of their lives secluded from sensual njcasspcs gl pclslaga

16 rgml, umsjb lmr hatc dagjcb rm hatc grs
rgml, umsjb lmr hatc dagjcb rm hatc grs c�car ml rhc ancient Indian audience. In other words, it seems to me that the depiction of the harmonious succession of kings involves a witty criticism of rulership in ancient India. In this way, with a touch of humour the present t

17 ale highlights the superiority of renun
ale highlights the superiority of renunciation over the insatiable drive for power among Indian kings. JCBQQL TOL, X 84 In a country where much spiritual endeavour was and still is aimed at a vision of the gods, the description of these virtuous kings reaches its entertaining culmina

18 tion point when the gods are so impresse
tion point when the gods are so impressed ugrh Kgle Lgkg’s exemplary conduct that they wish to see him. The clrcpraglgle bcsapgnrgml pcaahcs ycr almrhcp ajgkav uhcl Kgle Lgkg, glsrcab md pckaglgle gl hcatcl alb clhmygle rhc bjgss md acjcsrgaj pleasures, prefers to return home q

19 uickly in order to continue performing
uickly in order to continue performing wholesome deeds. Lmrabjy, hgs bcagsgml gs raicl adrcp rhc amknjcrgml md hgs hmsplcy rm hcatcl, a hmsplcy bspgle uhgah hc ugrlcsscb rhc dpsgrgml md emmb alb bad karma. In this way, with a good dose of humour aimed at popular aspirations to heave

20 nly pleasures, the present tale delivers
nly pleasures, the present tale delivers a typical Buddhist teaching by depicting how an exemplary human being will give priority to wholesome conduct over indulgence in sensual pleasures, be these human or divine. Ir gs aeaglsr rhgs hskmpmss bcsapgnrgml md gbcaj psjcp-shgn rhar rhc B

21 sbbha’s �laj kcssaec sralb
sbbha’s �laj kcssaec sralbs msr, hgehjgehrgle rhar lm karrcp hmu gbcaj mlc kay imagine a ruler to be, the real answer to the human predicament can only be found by undertaking the path to liberation. Thus the depiction of the cakravartin gl rhc �psr napr md

22 rhc Ekottarika-āgama discourse, hssr
rhc Ekottarika-āgama discourse, hssr as rhc cvcknjapy igleshgn bcsapgbcb ssbscosclrjy, apc al glrcepaj expression of the early Buddhist attitude towards worldly power, which is seen as vastly inferior to renunciation and liberation. In sum, the soteriological message of the discou

23 rse as a whole is to highlight the ssnc
rse as a whole is to highlight the ssncpgmpgry md kasrcpy md mlc’s mul kglb mtcp umpjbjy bmkglgml, 52 YO : Rhc Rajc md Kgle Lgkg gl rhc Ekottarika-āgama 85 Abbreviations Cṅguttara-nikāya Derge edition Dīrgha-āgama (T 1) Dhp Dīpavaṃsa Dīgha-nikāya Ekottarika-āgama (T 125

24 ) Oadhyama-āgama (T 26) Oajjhima-nikā
) Oadhyama-āgama (T 26) Oajjhima-nikāya Ps Sv Sumaṅgalavilāsinī Ragshō (CBERA' Vin Vinaya References Amritananda, Bhikkhu 1983: Kings oh Duddha’s Time , Baleimi: Kahākaisṭa Rāhatgbyājaya Dmslbargml Ppcss, Alājaym 2007, “Rhc Dgtglc Kcssclecps”, gl Buddhist

25 Studies in Honour oh Xenerable Kirindig
Studies in Honour oh Xenerable Kirindigalle Dhammaratana , S. Ratnayaka (ed.), 15-26, Colombo: Felicitation Committee. 2010: The Ienesis oh the Dodhisattva Kdeal , Hamburg University Press. —’ 2011a: C Eomparative Study oh the Oajjhima-nikāya , Taipei: Dharma Drum Publishing

26 Corporation. 2011b: “Rhc Rajc md Kgle
Corporation. 2011b: “Rhc Rajc md Kgle Ka(i'hābcta gl rhc Eimrrapgia-āeaka alb rhc Cakravartin Motif”, Lournal oh the Eentre hor Duddhist Studies, Sri Lanka , 9: 43-77. —’ 2013: “Rum Tcpsgmls md rhc Kahābcta Rajc gl rhc Eimrrapgia-āeaka, A Qrsby gl rhc Dctcjmnk

27 clr md Ragshō Lm, 125,” gl Research
clr md Ragshō Lm, 125,” gl Research on the Ekottarika-āgama, Taipei: Dharma Drum Publishing Corporation (forthcoming). Bapcas, Albpé 1981: “Lc kassaapc bcs Śāiya: Essag b’glrcpnpérargml”, Bulletin de l’ƒcole Hran¡aise d’Eztr¤me Qrient , 69: 45-73. Barua,

28 Benimadhab 1934: Darhut, Dook KK, Lāta
Benimadhab 1934: Darhut, Dook KK, Lātaka-Scenes , Calcutta: Indian Research Institute. Bernhard, Franz 1965: Udānavarga , Eörrglecl: Talbclhmcai & Rsnpcahr, tmj, 1, Lournal oh Duddhist Studies, Xol0 Z, 4234Kp:gdncba :t Eentre hor Duddhist Studies Sri LankaThe Tale oh King Pimi in t