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Landforms of Glacial Deposition


Castle Creek Glacier BC RockiesLandforms of terrestrial glacial depositionalIce-marginalSubglacialGlacialGlaciotectonic morainesFlutes megaflutesDump morainesDrumlinsAblation morainesRogenmoraineMega

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Document on Subject : "Landforms of Glacial Deposition"— Transcript:

1 Landforms of Glacial Deposition Castle C
Landforms of Glacial Deposition Castle Creek Glacier (BC Rockies) Landforms of terrestrial glacial depositional Ice - marginal Subglacial Glacial Glaciotectoni

2 c * moraines Flutes, megaflutes Dump mo
c * moraines Flutes, megaflutes Dump moraines Drumlins Ablation moraines Rogen moraine Mega - scale glacial lineaments Glaciofluvial Outwash fans/plains Eskers

3 Kames, kame terraces Kame - kettle topo
Kames, kame terraces Kame - kettle topography Glaciotectonic : deformation of sediment or rock by moving ice After Bennett and Glasser , 2009 Glaciotectonic m

4 oraines Seasonal push moraines • Assoc
oraines Seasonal push moraines • Associated with receding glaciers that have significant seasonal melting • In some cases small annual moraines can be trac

5 ed across a pro - glacial plain • Lim
ed across a pro - glacial plain • Limited glaciotectonic deformation Surge and sustained - advance moraines • Associated with glaciers that are either sur

6 ging or advancing in a sustained way
ging or advancing in a sustained way • Often involve significant glaciotectonic deformation of pre - exisiting pro - glacial bed materials ( e.g , ground mo

7 raine or glaciofluvial deposits) Season
raine or glaciofluvial deposits) Seasonal push moraines at Slttjkull After Bennett and Glasser , 2009 Fast net recession, low seasonal variation: No seas

8 onal push moraines Slower net recession
onal push moraines Slower net recession or high seasonal variation: Seasonal push moraines Net advance: No seasonal push moraines Seasonal push moraines Castl

9 e Creek Glacier (BC Rockies), M. Beedle
e Creek Glacier (BC Rockies), M. Beedle , UNBC , http://web.unbc.ca/~beedlem/castle_cr_glacier.html Castle Creek glacier – development of a push moraine

10 M. Beedle , UNBC M. Beedle , UNBC Cas
M. Beedle , UNBC M. Beedle , UNBC Castle Creek glacier – push moraine history Structure of seasonal push moraines After Bennett and Glasser , 2009 Sur

11 ge and sustained - advance moraines Surg
ge and sustained - advance moraines Surge - related push moraine in front of Usherbreen , Svalbard, August 1985 Push moraine from the 1980 surge of Eyjabakkaj

12 kull , Iceland ( Benediktsson , et al.,
kull , Iceland ( Benediktsson , et al., 2009) Sediments and tectonic structures in section 1. Tectonic stress from right to left. (A) Minor folds in laminate

13 d LPT* in the upper centre. (B) Serie
d LPT* in the upper centre. (B) Series of thrusts in LPT at the base. The lowermost thrust occurs at the gravel/LPT interface. (C) Close - up of a high str

14 ain shear zone at the base of the secti
ain shear zone at the base of the section. Note the sigmoidal foliation between the thrusts determining the relative sense of movement . *LPT = loess, peat

15 and tephra deposits that formed a blan
and tephra deposits that formed a blanket in the pro - glacial area Benediktsson , et al., 2009 Dump moraines • Supraglacial (and subglacial ) material t

16 hat accumulates at a stationary margin
hat accumulates at a stationary margin and is then deposited by slump and flow processes at the ice edge • Dump moraines can form in both frontal and late

17 ral positions • Material is not deform
ral positions • Material is not deformed as in glaciotectonic moraines and is not bedded as in kames Kruger et al., 2002 http://people.su.se/~iborg/bildarkiv

18 et/bildsidor/glac/moran/ib256.htm Ablati
et/bildsidor/glac/moran/ib256.htm Ablation moraines • Supraglacial material that is present on the surface of a pro - glacial stranded ice block that subseq

19 uently melts • Hummocky terrain is a c
uently melts • Hummocky terrain is a common product • Composition will be reflective of supraglacial material (angular, coarse) Fig. 9.12 After Bennett and

20 Glasser , 2009 USGS Debris - covered s
Glasser , 2009 USGS Debris - covered stranded ice - Athabasca glacier Flutes, drumlins and mega - lineations Streamlined • positive • subglacial • dep

21 ositional Mega - lineations Drumlins Flu
ositional Mega - lineations Drumlins Flutes spacing length spacing length length spacing Typical ranges of spacings and dimensions of flutes, drumlins and me

22 ga - lineations from data in Bennett and
ga - lineations from data in Bennett and Glasser , 2009 width height width height width Dimensions of flutes, drumlins and mega - lineations Flutes ( Brarjku

23 ll , Iceland) https://notendur.hi.is/oi/
ll , Iceland) https://notendur.hi.is/oi/bruarjokull_photos.htm http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/drumlins/flutes Slheimajkull https://notendur.hi.is/oi/glacial_geolo

24 gy_photos.htm http://libwiki.mcmaster.ca
gy_photos.htm http://libwiki.mcmaster.ca/clip/index.php/Main/FORMATION Drumlins (Northern Saskatchewan) Unknown location Morley, Alberta Jrvenp, Eastern Fin

25 land There is wide diversity in the morp
land There is wide diversity in the morphology and sedimentary composition of drumlins, and there are several theories (and significant controversy) on their

26 formation. Some of the consistent feat
formation. Some of the consistent features of most of the theories are: 1. A bedrock or other obstacle may be important in initiating the formation of a d

27 rumlin, 2. Deformation of existing till
rumlin, 2. Deformation of existing till (and/or fluvial sediments) likely takes place, 3. Elevated water pressures may enhance this process by reducing the

28 strength of the sediment, and 4. Drumli
strength of the sediment, and 4. Drumlinoid features may become increasingly streamlined over the duration of their formation. From Boyce and Eyles , 1991 M

29 odels for drumlin formation After Bennet
odels for drumlin formation After Bennett and Glasser , 2009 Drumlins overprinted on outwash deposits After Bennett and Glasser , 2009 Modification of drumlin

30 s following a change in ice direction Af
s following a change in ice direction After Bennett and Glasser , 2009 Linear features in this area range from ~6 to ~40 km long Dubawnt Lake area, Nunavut, (F

31 owler, 2010) ~ 5 km Mega - scale glacial
owler, 2010) ~ 5 km Mega - scale glacial lineaments It is generally (though not universally) assumed that mega - scale glacial lineaments are formed by proces

32 ses similar to drumlins. Stokes and Cl
ses similar to drumlins. Stokes and Clark (2002) suggest that very long lineaments (up to 13 km) with L:W ratios as high as 40 are formed underneath ice tha

33 t is moving particularly fast. Glaciofl
t is moving particularly fast. Glaciofluvial depositional features: Kames and Kame terraces http://www.york.ca http://www.gov.ns.ca/natr/meb/field/vista2.asp

34 Kame terrace Kames and kame terraces ar
Kame terrace Kames and kame terraces are characterized by bedding and post - depositional faulting. After Bennett and Glasser , 2009 Glacier d’Arolla ,

35 http:// www.swisseduc.ch/glaciers/gloss
http:// www.swisseduc.ch/glaciers/glossary/kame - terrace - en.html Kame terrace Lateral moraine Characteristics of material in depositional landforms Feature

36 Stratification Deformation Rounding Sort
Stratification Deformation Rounding Sorting Seasonal push moraines Glaciotectonic moraines Dump moraines Flutes Drumlins Mega - scale lineaments Kames Kame -