theycontainSeveralmodicationshavebeenproposedandinsomecaseshavebeenado

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generationsthattodayconfrontthismarketTherevolutionunderwayiscertainlynotheadedbytheBabyBoomersorbytheSilentGenerationthenewmarkettrendsareinsteadbeingsetbyGenerationXandtheMillennialGenerationwhereth Download

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wineeconomicsandpolicy7 2018 infact menghini 2018 wineeconomicsandpolicy7 menghini infact inotherwords forthesegenerations universityofflorence wineincluded atthesametime org

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1 theycontain.Severalmodicationshavebeenpr
theycontain.Severalmodicationshavebeenproposedand,insomecases,havebeenadoptedconcerningthegrapevarietiesusedinproduction.Morerecently,ithasbeenproposedtomakemodicationsevenintheambitofconformityassessment,limitcheckstochemical-physicalanalyses,andexcludesensorialanalyses.Facedwiththesehypotheticalchangestoproductioncodes,severalactorsoftheproductionchainexpressfearthatallofthiswillleadtothecreationofProtecteddesignationsofOriginthatwillwindupallthemoreresemblingProtectedGeographicalIndications.Otheractors,onthecontrary,expressamorefavourableopinion,underliningthatthesemodicationsmightfurtherbringouttheterroirand,atthesametime,byexcludingsensorialanalysis,leavemoreroomfortheoenolo-gist'screativity.Regardingtheseaspects,itishardtosaywhichpositionisright.Whatwecancertainlysaytodayisthatinmanycases,revisionsproposingtoexpandthevarietiesallowedinadesignationdonotrepresentadecisiondictatedbymomentaryconvenience:theyinsteadconstituteanappropriatecorrectionofproductioncodesthatwereoriginallybornwithexcessivelyrestrictiveregulationsthatinseveralcasesunex-plainablyexcludedautochthonousvarieties.Theproposedmodicationswouldwithoutadoubtallowrmsgreaterfree-domofoperation,remainingwithintheproductioncode.Andevenmoreimportantforasectorlikewinegrowingthatisalreadyburdenedwithcountlesstechnicalandnancialcon-straints,thesemodicationswouldalsooffer,intheshortterm,greatermarginstoadaptthewineoffertothedemandsofthemarketofthemoment,andincreasinglymoreoften,theywouldmakeitpossibletoremedyextremeseasonalclimaticsituations.Sowhynotmodifyproductioncodesevenmoreresolutely?Whynotabandononceandforalleverythinginthemthatdeterminesconstraints?Thedangerwewouldriskactingtoohastilyisthatoffollowingfashiontooclosely,andincurringtwoverydangerouseffects:rstcouldbethatofresemblingmydirectcompetitorswho,likeme,intendtosatisfythesametarget;thesecondandperhapsevenmoredangerouseffectisthatofmakingproductsdestinedtohaveanincreasinglyshorterlifecycle,andthisfact,forasectorlikethatofwinegrowing,wouldrepresentalethaldanger,ifweconsidertheconsiderableinvestmentsbehindeverydecisioninproductionorientation.Thenecessityforgreaterdifferentiationamongrmswastargetedbyinvestinginthegrowthofone'sownbrandand,atthesametime,expandingtheassortmentofwinesoffered.EmblematicinthehistoryofItalianwinesisthecaseoftheSuperTuscans:since1970afewcompanies,capableofmakingautonomousandseriousinvestmentsonthelevelofbrandequity,showedthatinsomecases,theopportunitytopenetratenewmarketscouldresultfromcreatingnewproductshavingthecouragetototallyabandonthecanonsofaproductioncode.Itwasagaininthewakeofthisexperiencethatin1992ProtectedGeographicalIndicationswereformallydenedbyEuropeanEconomicCommunitytodistinguish,withmoreemphasis,theseproductionexcellencesfromthecommonwinestowhichtheyformerlybelonged.Comparedtothepast,todaywecanafrmthattheimportanceofhavingastrongcompanybrandisanaspirationwidespreadamongthermsofthesectorandnolongertheprerogativeofthelargerandinnovativerms.Inthisnewbusinessculture,thermshaveunderstoodthatthemostpromisingopportunitiesofdifferentiationarenolongertobesoughtrelyingonthecharacteristicsofexperiencealonemoreoveralreadywidelydevelopedbutalsoinvestingincharacteristicsofcredence,startingpreciselyfromthebrand,andinotherelements,especiallyontheemotionallevel.Forthisreason,rmshaveunderstoodthatinordertodenesuchacomplexproduct,itisimportanttooperatefollowingaprecisemarketingstrategy,oftenevenmadetomeasurefortheindividualproduct,astheyfallshyofthecorporatelevel.Recently,eventechnicalinnovationsareinspiredbytheseprinciples,andvariousnoveltiesaimexplicitlyatstrikingtheimaginationofconsumersmorethanatguaranteeinganeffectiveimprovementoftheproduct:therearethosewhocontrivenight-timeharvests,oragewineinterracottacontainersinsteadoftheusualwoodenbarrels,orhaveevendevisedtechniquestoagebottledsparklingwinesont

2 heseabed.Alloftheseinnovationsindicateth
heseabed.Alloftheseinnovationsindicatetheeffortsrmsaremakingtoreachthemarketwithincreasinglymoreoriginalproductsthattheycantelltalesaboutandthatmakethemuniqueintheircategory.Browsingthroughtherecenttrendsofdifferentiation,thephenomenonthatiscertainlymostaffectingtheentirewine-growingsectorcanbeidentiedintheenormousgrowthoforganicproductions,aswellasintheemergenceofthephenomenonofnaturalwines.Currently,theorganicsectorinItalyhasreachedanimportance,withrespecttototalfoodsales,closeto4%andthisalreadysignicantvaluetakesonevengreatersignicancewhencomparedtothe0.6%thatwasrecordedin2000.Bynow,oneItalianfamilyoutofhabituallyconsumesorganicproducts,wineincluded.Thisimportantsuccessoforganicwines(5%ofsalesforindoorconsumptionsviamodernretailtradingin2017alone)mustbeattributedbothtoimportanttechnologicalgoalsmetandacertaindevelopmentofdemand.Onthetechnologicallevel,itisanundisputedfactthatonlyrecentlyhasthewinegrowingsectorcreatedaorganicproductionofhighquality.Thisalsoexplainstherelativedelaywithwhichorganicwineshaveenteredtheorganicmarket.Infact,whileformanyfoodcategoriessuchasfruitandvegetables,thedefectsassociatedwithanoriginallyperfectibleorganicproductiontechniquerepresentedthealmostevidentproofthattheproductwasgenuine,forwinesthedefectsresultingfromrstattemptsatorganicproductiondidnothaveananddiscouragedeventhebravestandmosttolerantconsumers.Inadditiontobeingattributedtoagrowthinquality,thesuccessoforganicwinesisalsotiedtothegreatsuccessofdemand.Inthisregard,itisimportanttoconsiderthatthegrowingattentionofconsumerstowardsorganicwinesmustbeinterpretedconsideringittheconsequenceofagenerationalchangeandnotofachangeinthepreferencesofthesameindividuals.Inotherwords,thegrowingpreferencesfororganicwinesarenotsomuchduetotraditionalconsumerswhohavechangedwinepreferences,astheyaretothenewS.Menghini/WineEconomicsandPolicy7(2018)85 generationsthattodayconfrontthismarket.TherevolutionunderwayiscertainlynotheadedbytheBabyBoomersorbytheSilentGeneration:thenewmarkettrendsareinsteadbeingsetbyGenerationXandtheMillennialGenerationwherethemostconsistentpartofdemandisconcentrated.Forthesegenerations,thepurposeoffoodisnolongertosatisfyaphysiologicalneed,butinsteadbecomesameansbywhichtheycanachieveandmaintain,aslongaspossible,acertainphysicalandpsychologicalwellbeing,whichisindispensabletobeabletohaveasatisfactorylifestyle.Forthesegenerations,purchasingbehaviourrepresentsaveritablelanguagethroughwhichtheycanexpresstheirpersonality:fromthisviewpoint,organicproducts,wineincluded,becomethemeansbywhichtheycanrealisetheirlifestyle,astheycanalsosatisfyexistentialneedstiedtothesenseofbelongingandsocialsuccess,takingpartinanincreasinglymorewidespreadeco-friendlyculture.Ineatingtostaywell,itisparticularlyinterestingtoreectonthefactthattheconsumerexpressesagrowingappreciationforfoodproductsnotforwhattheycontain,butinsteadforwhattheydonotcontain:thecategoryofproductswithoutpalmoil,withoutlactose,withoutgluten,withoutsalt,withoutfat,withoutsulphites,etc.iswinningincreasinglymoreimportantcommercialground.Thisaspectisveryimportantbecauseitshowsthatconsumers,thoughinspiredbyamorecomplexbehaviouralmodel(fromthesatisfactionofaphysiologicalneedtoanexistentialrealisationiscertainlynolittledifference),inthemomenttheychoosetheproductontheshelf,theyarerewardingtheimmediacyandsimplicitywithwhichitisproposed.Inotherwords,thoughthereisnolackofsuccessfulproductspublicisedusingrationalinformationbasedonwell-expressedmessagesaboutafood'snutritionalcontentsandfunctionalproperties,themessageisnaturallyclosertothedemandsforacommunicationthattodaymustadapttoamarkedcontractionintermsoftimeandspaceand,unfortunately,ofconsumerscapableofunderstandinglongerandmorecomplexmessages.Theexistingphenomenonrecordsadouble-digitincreaseinthedemandfororganicproductsandnotonlyforfoodproducts,butalsoforcosmetics,whic

3 hshowsthatpersonalcarehasbecomeacentralt
hshowsthatpersonalcarehasbecomeacentralthemeandthatconsumersidentifytheorganicproductasidealtosatisfytheirpersonalwellbeing.Themostimportantaspecttoconsider,however,isthatamongthedriversthatorientthedemandforwinesand,ingeneral,forallfoodproducts,thecharacteristicisalwayscloselyassociatedwiththeproduct'sorigin:theconsumerwhochoosesorganicalwaysmanifestsamarkedpreferenceforthelocalproduct,andndsanevengreaterguaranteeinthischaracteristicbothintermsoffoodsafetyandofenvironmentalandsocialsustainability.Thisaspectisoffundamentalimportanceandpermitsustohypothesisethatthedevelopmentoforganicproductionlinesintheareaofwineswillnotconictwiththedesignationsoforigin,butwillinsteadndinthemanimportantally.Itcannotbeexcluded,however,thatasorganicwineswinmoreground,theneedforlessrestrictiveproductioncodescanemergeevenmore.Thisnecessityhasalreadyinpartbecomeevident,consideringthatparalleltothediffusionoforganicwines,wearealsowitnessingagrowinginterestfornaturalwines:withthesewines,thesearchforaproductthatisbornoftheterritoryreachesitsclimax.Createdunderconditionsoftheutmostsustainability,thesewinesaspiretoexpresstheeffectivevocationsoftheplaceofproductiontotheutmost,makingtheimageofthewinegrowerforcefullyemergeasassociatedwiththecraftsdimensionofthermhedirects.Thephenomenonisstillamatterofnarrowmarketniches,butitmustbeobservedwithgreatattention,especiallybecauseitagainproposesadirectrelationshipoftrustbetweenconsumerandproducerbeyondallformsofcertiedguarantee.Itismyopinionthatthegrowthofmarketsharesoforganicandnaturalwinescangreatlycontributetothesector'ssuccess,guaranteeingnewopportunitiesofdifferentiationandgrowthofqualityoftheentiresectorwithoutconictingwiththedesignationsoforigin.ThesuccessofthesenewproducttypologieswillparticularlyturntotheaccountoftheItalianwinegrowingreality,consideringthatitwillofferimportantopportunitiesforgrowthalsoforthesmallbrandsandforthelessdiffusedspeciesofgrapes.Thesalesguresoflarge-scaleretailinginItalyofthesepastyearsconrmthesefactswithshelvescarryingaconstantlygrowingassortmentoflabelswithanumericallygreaterpresenceofsmallrmsandautochthonousvinespecies.Thismeansthattheconsumerassociatesthehealthycharacteristicofanorganicwinewithsmallbrandsandlesser-knownvinespecies:smallisbeautifulseemstobeaveryimportantsloganforthissegment,anditseemsequallyclearthatthecerticationofanorganicproductdoesnotreplacebutinsteadaddstothedesignationoforigin.Itishardtosaywhetherthesuccessoforganicwinesisduetoapassingfad:soonerorlater,thisexplosivegrowthmayslackenofforrunupagainstasetback,especiallyifwestartectingontheallbutecologicaleffectsthatcouldpara-doxicallybesetoffwiththediffusionofgrapeproductionusingorganicfarming,andthisstartingfromtheuseofcopperisaproblemthatisalreadyemerging.Whatthesedisparatestrategiesofdifferentiationcertainlypointout,fromthesearchforlessrestrictiveproductioncodestothespreadingoforganicandnaturalwines,isthefactthatwine-growershaveunderstoodthatperfection,especiallywheninspiredbyasinglebestwaythatperhapsalsoconformstothebesttechnologiesandthemostauthoritativeopinionsofthemoment,producesmonotonyandboredom.Thesesentimentsareafarcryfromademandthatintheambitofwinesisstronglystimulatedbycuriosityandthedesiretoalwaysexperimentsomethingnew.Thatsaid,wecanreasonablythinkthattherighttheonethatfavoursoriginalitytotheutmost,inanyeventpreventingthemarketfrombeinginvadedandruinedbyrecklessalchemists:designationsoforiginwillhavetondapointofbalance,continuingtoguaranteethestandardsthatcreatetheproduct'sidentityandrecognisabilitywithoutmortifying,however,thecreativityoftheindividualandtheemergenceoftheseimportantnewtrendsofconsumption.ictofinterestNone.S.Menghini/WineEconomicsandPolicy7(2018)85 HOSTED BY Availableonlineat WineEconomicsandPolicy7(2018)85 DesignationsoforiginandorganicwinesinItaly:Standardisationanddifferentiationinmarketdy

4 namicsSilvioMenghiniUniversityofFlorence
namicsSilvioMenghiniUniversityofFlorence-GESAAF-Sez.Estimo,EconomiaAgrariaeForestale,ItalyReceived5November2018;receivedinrevisedform29November2018;accepted29November2018KEYWORDS:Organicwine;Designationoforigin;ConsumerbehaviourBeingoriginalanddifferentisthekeytosuccessifyouarelookingtomarketaproductthatisnotonlyofundisputedquality,butalsooneofakind.Inthewinesector,especiallyinfragmentedproductionrealitieslikeItaly,marketcompetitivenesshasdevel-opedforyearsbymeansofcollectivestrategies,asinthecaseofdesignationsoforigin,establishedinourCountrysince1963,sevenyearsbeforetheintroductionofVQPRD(QWPSR-QualityWinesProducedinSpeciedRegions)bytheEuropeanCommu-nity.Intheframeworkoftheirspeciclegislation,these"designa-tionoforigin",unlikemanyotherforeigngeographicalindications,werebornonthevoluntaryinitiativeofproducers,withtheaimofsettingstrictrulesonboththeproductandtheprocessing.Thesestrategieshavetodatemetwithconsiderablesuccess,indeedextendingbeyondthespecicviniculturalsector:infact,ingeneratingveritableterritorialbrands,thedesignationshavelentanextraordinaryboosttotheproductionareas,attractingnewresourcesandfavouringthedevelopmentofneweconomicactivities,suchastourism,forexample.Designationsoforiginhavepromptedproducerstobetonquality,favouringanexpansionofproductionconnesofthesector'srmsintermsofbothdeepeningandbroadening.Inthissense,theyhavehadtheextraordinaryintuitionofanticipatingbyftyyearstheprinciplesofmultifunctionaldiversicationthatinspiretoday'sagriculturalpoliciesonboththenationalandEUlevels.Recently,thoughdesignationshaveundoubtedlygeneratedpositiveeffectsononehand,exaltingaproduct'sspecicitybyreasonofitsplaceoforigin,ontheotherhand,wealsonotetheeffectsofstandardisationthataproductioncodenaturallygeneratesamongwinesbelongingtothesamedesignation.Therearemanycausesforthis,themostimportantofwhichcanbesummedupintwofundamentalpoints.Therstaspectthatcurrentlyincreasesthenegativeeffectsofstandardisationoverthoseofdifferentiationconcernsthefactthatintime,manywinegrowersoperatingunderthesameproductioncode,insteadofconvergingtowardsthesamequalitysegment,haveinsteadfollowedoppositedynamics.Soitisthattodaywithinthesamedesignationoforigin,basicwinessoldatthreeeurosperbottlecancoexistalongsideultra-premiumwinessoldatmorethanthirtyeurosperbottle.Howcansuchabroadvariabilityofqualitywithinthesamedesignationbeconsiderednormal?Whatqualitydoestheproductioncodeintendtoattest,thatofthewinesoldatthreeeurosorthatofthewinesoldat30euros?Thesedramaticpricedifferencesconfusetheconsumer,makingthedesignationacharacteristicthatwinegrowerswillunderscoreincreasinglyless,thehigherthequalitysegmenttheywanttheirwinetooccupy.Thesecondaspectthatintheseyearshasmosthighlightedtheundesiredeffectstiedtostandardisationconcernsthegrowingvariabilityoftheglobalmarketsthateverywinegrowerhastoconfront.Howcanaproduceradapttothechangesofconsumerpreferencesand/orreacttothethreatsofcompetitors,ifheissubjectedtothedictatesofarigidproductioncode?Towhatextentdothebondsofconformityhinderthedemandsandopportunitiesforaproducttoadapttothechangesofmarketscenarios?Howlongwillasolidtraditionandqualitystandardsstableintimendlastinglyloyalconsumers?Facedwiththeevidentopportunitiesandthedrawbackswehavejustpointedout,inthesepastyearsrmshavesoughtsolutionsbyoperatingontwofronts:byproposingtherevisionofproductioncodes,andbyimaginingstrategiescapableofdifferentiatingamongstthemselves.Concerningproductioncodes,letussayinextremesynthesisthattodateattemptshavebeenmadetoreducetheconstraintswww.elsevier.com/locate/wephttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.wep.2018.11.0032018UniCeSV,UniversityofFlorence.ProductionandhostingbyElsevierB.V.ThisisanopenaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ E-mailaddress:silvio.menghini@uniPeerreviewunderresponsibilityofUniCeSV,UniversityofFlorenc

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