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Presentation on theme: "ORGANICS"— Presentation transcript:
Chemical compounds in living systems
COMPOSITION OF LIVING THINGS
70 – 90% water
Remaining 10% are Carbon based compounds
Other essential elements included in these compounds????
H, O, N, S, P
Where does all the Carbon to make these compounds originate?
WHAT MAKE CARBON SO SPECIAL??
TetravalentForm both chains & ringsForm double & triple bonds
HYDROCARBONS: Simplest organic molecule
Hydrophobic(nonpolar)Insoluble in waterMajor component of fossil fuelsLiving systems Lipids
What do petroleum products & fats have in common???
Same molecular formula, different structure
# possible isomers increase as size of the C chain increases
Different arrangement of atoms
Different arrangement around inflexible = bonds
STEREO OR OPTICAL ISOMERS
Mirror-images – many implication in drug interactions
CREATING COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Convert hydrocarbon chain into another organic compound by removing a Hydrogen & adding a functional group
HYDROXYL or ALCOHOL
- OHPolar Soluble (more OH’s, more soluble)
AldehydeAttach to 1st or last C
Ketone Attach to middle C
Polar (soluble)Source of attachment for H bonds
-COOHAcids – give sour taste
-NH2BaseIndicator for proteins
-SHStrong odors (garlic) – added to gasesStabilize protein structure
C-O-CSlightly polar, capable of H bondsCommon link w/in carbohydrates & lipids
Used in energy transferADP ATPStructural component of DNA
Monomer – single unit (building block)Polymer – large molecule of similar repeating unitsMethane Ethane Butane (1 C) (2 C) (3 C)