Pathological Pathological - Start

2017-07-24 40K 40 0 0

Pathological - Description

events maybe generated by certain transmitter(s).. Somorjai Dávid. N. eurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are endogenous bioactive substances . Substances used as neurotransmitters belong to three. distinct families:. ID: 572527 Download Presentation

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Pathological events maybe generated by certain transmitter(s).

Somorjai Dávid



Neurotransmitters are endogenous bioactive substances

Substances used as neurotransmitters belong to three

distinct families:

(1) amines, (2) purines and (3) peptides


of chemical neurotransmitters:

1. The synthesis of the chemical transmitter takes place in the

presynaptic neuron

2. The synthesized transmitter or it precursor is stored in the release

compartment of the cell, most frequently in axon terminals

3. Release of the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft upon

excitation of the presynaptic element

4. Binding of the transmitter to its receptor/s/ that belong to ionotropic

and metabotropic classes

5. Termination of the action of transmitters and its triggered




 powerful excitatory neurotransmittermore than half of the synapsis are glutamate in the CNSplays an important role in learning and memory, plasticity, long term potentiation, neurotoxicitySynthesized by two major pathways:->from α-ketoglutarate and donor amino acids by means of transmission->glutamine by the action of the enzyme glutaminaseThere are at least five excitatory aminoacid repetors ->NMDA is the most importantNMDA is implicated in memory, development and epilepsy


Glutamate toxicity

Excitotoxicity = excitatory + toxicity




nerve cells and the


-> two general ways

too much glutamate around ->overtoxication of the receiving nerve cell

the receptors for the glutamate can be


Cells become overexcited -> cell damage and/or


acute and chronic glutamate



susceptibility of neurons to excitotoxicity can change tremendously with age


Excitotoxicity Theory


Thank you for your attention!

Sources: seminarium handouts and slides

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