XZ X XZ X XZ Z ZZ Z TUSDU XXZ ZQQZQXZ ZQQZXX QQXXZ YZQZ XXZX X QQXZXX YQQX XYQ ZXXXZ Q FZXPST Z Z Z XZ X Z XXZ XZ - PDF document

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 XZ X XZ    X XZ Z  ZZ Z  TUSDU XXZ ZQQZQXZ ZQQZXX  QQXXZ YZQZ XXZX X QQXZXX YQQX  XYQ  ZXXXZ Q FZXPST Z    Z      Z                                                       XZ X Z XXZ XZ
 XZ X XZ    X XZ Z  ZZ Z  TUSDU XXZ ZQQZQXZ ZQQZXX  QQXXZ YZQZ XXZX X QQXZXX YQQX  XYQ  ZXXXZ Q FZXPST Z    Z      Z                                                       XZ X Z XXZ XZ

XZ X XZ X XZ Z ZZ Z TUSDU XXZ ZQQZQXZ ZQQZXX QQXXZ YZQZ XXZX X QQXZXX YQQX XYQ ZXXXZ Q FZXPST Z Z Z XZ X Z XXZ XZ - Description


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Presentation on theme: " XZ X XZ X XZ Z ZZ Z TUSDU XXZ ZQQZQXZ ZQQZXX QQXXZ YZQZ XXZX X QQXZXX YQQX XYQ ZXXXZ Q FZXPST Z Z Z XZ X Z XXZ XZ "— Presentation transcript


cfibwipvs io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf: Uif vtf pg bppmife cfibwipvs bobmytit gps bttfttnfou boe ioufswfouipo Kbuimffo N. Fffmfy boe Fnimy B. Jpoft D.W. Pptu Dbnpvt pg Mpoh Jtmboe Uoiwfstiuy- UTB Bctusbdu – Diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf bsf bu bo iodsfbtfe sitl gps fohbhioh io dibmmfohioh uif dpoufyu pg gvoduipobm cfibwipvs bttfttnfou boe Pptiuiwf Cfibwipvsbm Tvpppsut. Esbxioh gspn uiftf tuveift boe uif cfibwipvsbm miufsbuvsf- bt xfmm bt uif bvuipst’ dmioidbm fypfsifodf boe sftfbsdi- tvhhftuipot sfhbseioh fbsmy ioufswfouipo gps dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs xiui diimesfo xiui Epxo tyo espnf bsf pspwiefe. Kfyxpset: cy Eptt boe Sfidimf (1::1) bt dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs - it efêofe bt uibu xiidi sftvmut “”io tfmg.iokvsy ps iokvsy pg puifst- dbvtft ebnbhf up uif piytidbm fowisponfou- ioufsgfsft xiui uif bdrvitiuipo pg ofx tlimmt- boe/ps tpdibmmy itpmbuft uif mfbsofsu (p. 215). Ѯf psftfodf pg ioh dfsubio bduipot) (f.h.- Dpf fu bm.- 1:::; Fwbot ’ Hsby- 2000) boe iihi sbuft pg tfmg.ubml (Hmfoo ’ Dvooiohibn- 2000). Beeiuipobmmy- cfibwipvst bttpdibufe xiui boyifuy- 65 ª 2006 Uif Epxo Tyoespnf Fevdbuipobm Usvtu. Bmm Sihiut Sftfswfe. JTTN: 0:68.7:12 uup://iogpsnbuipo.epxotfe.psh/etsp/11/0 K.N. Fffmfy boe F.B. Jpoft • Dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf Epxo Tyoespnf Sftfbsdi boe Psbduidf 11(2)- 64.77 efpsfttipo- boe xiuiesbxbm- ibwf cffo opufe up iodsfbtf xiui bhf (Eylfot ’ Kbtbsi- 1::7). Ѯfsf bsf tpfdiêd piytidbm dibsbdufsituidt pg Epxo tyo espnf (f.h.- uiptf bttpdibufe xiui tmffp eitpsefst) (Sidi ebmf- Fsbodit- Hbwieib.Pbyof ’ Dpuupo- 2000; Tupsft- 1::3) bt xfmm bt b iihifs iodiefodf pg immoftt (Spizfo- 1::6) uibu nby tihoiêdboumy inpbdu uif cfibwipvsbm sfpfsupisft- iodmveioh iodsfbtioh uif milfmiippe pg dibm mfohioh cfibwipvs- io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf. Sftfbsdifst ibwf bmtp efnpotusbufe uibu dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs- pbsuidvmbsmy bwpiebodf cfibwipvs- bppfbst dpotitufoumy io wfsy ypvoh iogbout xiui Epxo tyoespnf (Witibsu- 1::3b- 1::3c). Tpfdiêdbmmy- xifo psftfoufe xiui ubtl efnboet kvtu tmihiumy bcpwf uifis dvssfou mfwfm pg bcimiuy- diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf efnpotusbuf b voirvf pbuufso pg cfibwipvs iowpmwioh ppuioh pvu pg mfbsoioh ppppsuvoiuift boe nitvtioh tpdibm cfibwipvst. Ju bppfbst uibu uif psftfodf pg uif fyusb dispnptpnf bttpdibufe xiui Epxo tyoespnf bĒfdut uif milfmiippe pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs cfhiooioh io iogbody. Jo uvso- uiftf cfibwipvst dbo ibwf dbubtusppiid fĒfdut; ioufs gfsioh xiui mfbsoioh io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf- opu pomy bu uif gpvoebuipobm mfwfm evsioh iogbody- cvu uispvhipvu migf. Ѯftf dibsbdufsituidt uibu inpbdu uif cfibwipvs sfp fsupisf sfëfdu b voirvf pbuufso pg tusfohuit boe xfbl ofttft fwiefou io ioeiwievbmt xiui Epxo tyoespnf boe ibwf cffo eftdsicfe bt b eituiodu dmvtufs pg cfibwipvst ufsnfe b cfibwipvsbm pifopuypf. Eylfot (1::5) efêofe cfibwipvsbm pifopuypf bt “”uif ifihiufofe pspcbcim iuy ps milfmiippe uibu pfppmf xiui b hiwfo tyoespnf ximm fyiiciu dfsubio cfibwipvsbm boe efwfmppnfoubm tfrvfmb sfmbuiwf up uiptf xiuipvu uif tyoespnfu (p. 523). Ѯit epft opu nfbo uibu bmm diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf ximm efnpotusbuf bmm pg uif dibsbdufsituid cfibwipvst; sbuifs- uifsf ximm cf io bo iodsfbtfe milfmiippe. Ѯf fbsmy efwfmppioh bwpiebodf cfibwipvs sfppsufe cy Witibsu boe dpmmfbhvft bmpoh xiui sfppsut pg puifs dibm mfohioh cfibwipvs it cfmifwfe up cf pbsu pg uiit pifopuypf io wfsy ypvoh diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf (Fiemfs- 2005). Ѯvt- iu it pg vunptu inppsubodf up ioufswfof po uif cfibwipvst dibsbdufsituid pg uiit cfibwipvsbm pifop uypf fbsmy po tp uibu uify ep opu sftvmu io pspopvodfe efêdiut xiuiio uif diime’t mbufs efwfmppnfou. Dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs opu pomy psfdmveft ioeiwiev bmt xiui Epxo tyoespnf gspn mfbsoioh ppppsuvoiuift xiuiio uifis fowisponfou- cvu bmtp psfwfout uifn gspn bddfttioh npsf uypidbm fevdbuipobm boe dpnnvoiuy fowisponfout bt uify bppspbdi psftdippm boe tdippm bhf. Wifo pmbdfnfou io b hfofsbm fevdbuipo ps dpnnv oiuy tfuuioh epft pddvs- dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs it milfmy up cf uif dbvtf pg sfnpwbm gspn uiftf tfuuioht. Ѯit it pbsuidvmbsmy vogpsuvobuf- bt hfofsbm fevdbuipo tfuuioht ibwf cffo gpvoe up mfbe up npsf pptiuiwf pvudpnft gps diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf (Cvdlmfy- Cise- Tbdlt ’ Bsdifs- 2002; Dvooiohibn- Hmfoo- Mpsfoz- Dvdlmf ’ Tifppfsetpo- 1::8). Ѯfsfgpsf- ioufswfouipoitut xip bsf milfmy up fodpvoufs cfibwipvs uibu nby cf bttpdibufe xiui mbufs ofhbuiwf pvudpnft nvtu cf psfpbsfe up beesftt tvdi cfibwipvs tp uibu diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf cfofêu gspn mfbsoioh ppppsuvoiuift boe bsf mftt milfmy up cf psf dmvefe gspn hfofsbm fevdbuipo/dpnnvoiuy pmbdfnfout. Fpsuvobufmy- uif nfuipepmphy pg bppmife cfibwipvs bobmytit- efnpotusbufe fĒfduiwf bdsptt b xief sbohf pg pppvmbuipot- xiui wbsipvt eitbcimiuift- dbo cf vuimitfe up beesftt uif voirvf dibsbdufsituidt pg dibmmfohioh cfibw ipvs efnpotusbufe cy diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf. Wiui uipvtboet pg tuveift efnpotusbuioh uif pptiuiwf inpbdu pg ioufswfouipot cbtfe po uif psiodipmft pg cfibw ipvs bobmytit po uif miwft pg ioeiwievbmt xiui eitbcimi uift- cpui sftfbsdifst boe psbduiuipofst ibwf mpoh sfmife po uiit tdifouiêd miufsbuvsf up beesftt uif dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs pg ioeiwievbmt xiui efwfmppnfoubm eitbcimiuift. Sfdfoumy- uif ufdiopmphy pg Pptiuiwf Cfibwipvs Tvpppsu (Dbss fu bm.- 2002) ibt fnfshfe bt bo bppmidbuipo pg uif psiodipmft pg cfibwipvs bobmytit up opu pomy beesftt tlimm sfpfsupisft- cvu bmtp sfeftiho ioeiwievbmt’ miwioh fowispo nfout xiui uif hpbm pg bdiifwioh foibodfe rvbmiuy pg migf boe efdsfbtft io pspcmfn cfibwipvs (Dbss fu bm.- 1:::). Up ebuf- sftfbsdifst ibwf opu tpfdiêdbmmy bppmife uif psiodipmft pg cfibwipvs bobmytit boe pptiuiwf cfibwipvs tvpppsu up nffu uif voirvf cfibwipvsbm dibmmfohft psf tfoufe cy ioeiwievbmt xiui Epxo tyoespnf. Ipxfwfs- io bo fyufotiwf sfwifx pg uif miufsbuvsf- xf iefouiêfe b tnbmm ovncfs pg tuveift vuimitioh cfibwipvsbm bttfttnfou tusbufhift- bt xfmm bt tfwfsbm ioufswfouipo tuveift uibu beesfttfe tfwfsf dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs io ioeiwievbmt xiui Epxo tyoespnf. Ѯf gpdvt pg uiftf iowftuihbuipot xbt opu po uif voirvf dibsbdufsituidt pg ioeiwievbmt xiui Epxo tyoespnf- sbuifs uif gpdvt xbt b pbsuidvmbs gpsn pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs (f.h.- bhhsfttipo- tfmg.iokvsy) ps b pbsuidvmbs ioufswfouipo tusbufhy (f.h.- sfiogpsdfnfou) boe iowpmwfe fiuifs b tpmf pbsuidipbou xip ibe Epxo tyoespnf ps tfwfsbm pbsuidipbout- pomy pof ps uxp pg xipn ibe Epxo tyoespnf. Jo uiit pbpfs- xf csifëy eftdsicf bppmife cfibwipvs bobmytit boe iut bppmidbuipot io bttfttioh boe beesfttioh dibmmfohioh cfibwipvst psfwbmfou io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf. Wf uifo esbx vppo uif fyituioh miufsbuvsf bt xfmm bt pvs dmioidbm fypfsifodf boe pohpioh sftfbsdi up pspwief tvhhftuipot sfhbseioh cfibwipvsbmmy cbtfe bppmi dbuipot up bnfmipsbuf tpfdiêd dibmmfohioh cfibwipvst bttpdibufe xiui Epxo tyoespnf io bo fĒpsu up ioufswfof bt fbsmy bt pptticmf po uiit btpfdu pg uif cfibwipvsbm pif opuypf dibsbdufsituid pg diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf. 66 ª 2006 Uif Epxo Tyoespnf Fevdbuipobm Usvtu. Bmm Sihiut Sftfswfe. JTTN: 0:68.7:12 uup://iogpsnbuipo.epxotfe.psh/etsp/11/0 K.N. Fffmfy boe F.B. Jpoft • Dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf Epxo Tyoespnf Sftfbsdi boe Psbduidf 11(2)- 64.77 Bppmife cfibwipvs bobmytit Cbtfe vppo uif tfniobm xpsl pg Cbfs- Wpmg boe Sitmfy (1:68)- bppmife cfibwipvs bobmytit fnpibtitft ioufswfo uipot beesfttioh tpdibmmy tihoiêdbou bhf.bppsppsibuf cfibwipvst xiui innfeibuf inppsubodf up uif ioei wievbm vtioh psfditf nfbtvsfnfou pg uiptf cfibwipvst io offe pg inpspwfnfou. Hfofsbmitfe cfibwipvst- uibu it- cfibwipvst uibu bsf nbioubiofe pwfs uinf- bppfbs io puifs fowisponfout- boe fyufoe up puifs cfibwipvst- bsf ubshfufe. B gvoduipobm sfmbuipotiip cfuxffo dibohft io cfibwipvs boe uif ioufswfouipo cfioh inpmfnfoufe it efnpotusbufe. Joufswfouipot- efsiwfe gspn uif cbtid psiodipmft pg cfibwipvs (f.h.- sfiogpsdfnfou- fyuioduipo)- bsf eftdsicfe tp uibu uify dbo cf fbtimy sfpmidbufe- boe uifis fĒfduiwfoftt it nfbtvsfe cy inpspwfnfou io uif ioeiwievbm’t pfsgpsnbodf. Fvoduipot pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs Ju ibt mpoh cffo ftubcmitife uibu dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs it eisfdumy sfmbufe up fowisponfoubm wbsibcmft (f.h.- ipx uif cfibwipvs it dpotfrvbufe). Fspn b cfibwipvs bob myuid pfstpfduiwf- dibmmfohioh cfibwipvst bsf nbioubiofe cfdbvtf uify bsf pptiuiwfmy sfiogpsdfe (i.f.- sftvmu io uif efmiwfsy pg b psfgfssfe iufn/bduiwiuy) boe/ps bsf ofhb uiwfmy sfiogpsdfe (i.f.- sftvmu io uif sfnpwbm pg b opopsf gfssfe iufn/bduiwiuy). P’Nfimm- Ipsofs- Bmcio- Tupsfy boe Tpsbhvf (1::7) eftdsicfe uiftf uxp nbkps gvoduipobm dbufhpsift pg cfibwipvs bt fiuifs up pcubio ps up ftdbpf/ bwpie . Ѯbu it- cfibwipvs nby gvoduipo up pcubio dpotf rvfodft tvdi bt buufouipo (f.h.- gspn b pbsfou ps ufbdifs) boe bddftt up pckfdut (f.h.- tobdlt- upyt) ps bduiwiuift (f.h.- sfdftt- usip up uif pbsl). Cfibwipvs nby bmtp gvoduipo up ftdbpf/bwpie dpotfrvfodft tvdi bt buufouipo (f.h.- ioufs bduipot xiui pffst) boe pckfdut (f.h.- dfsubio gppet) ps bduiwiuift (f.h.- bdbefnid ubtlt). Jo beeiuipo up uif gvoduipot pg pcubio ps ftdbpf/bwpie- P’Nfimm fu bm.- (1::7) gvsuifs dbufhpsitf uif gvoduipot pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvst io ufsnt pg tpdibmmy ps opotpdibmmy npuiwbufe cfibwipvst. Tpdibmmy npuiwbufe cfibwipvst iowpmwf uiptf io xiidi uif diime tfflt up ftdbpf/bwpie ps pcubio tpnfuiioh gspn bopuifs ioeiwievbm io uifis fowi sponfou. Cfibwipvst tfswioh b tpdibm gvoduipo io diim esfo xiui efwfmppnfoubm eitbcimiuift bsf pѫfo sfmbufe up inpbisnfout io dpnnvoidbuipo tlimmt (Dbss ’ Evsboe- 1:85; Evsboe ’ Dbss- 1::1; 1::2). Npotpdibmmy npui wbufe cfibwipvst iowpmwf uiptf io xiidi uif diime tfflt up ftdbpf/bwpie ps pcubio ioufsobm tuinvmi (i.f.- tfotpsy tuinvmbuipo) boe- uivt- ep opu iowpmwf dpotfrvfodft sfmbufe up bopuifs ioeiwievbm. Ѯftf opotpdibmmy npui wbufe cfibwipvst bsf pѫfo sfgfssfe up bt atfmg.tuinvmb upsy’ cfibwipvst. Ѯf xpsl pg Witibsu (1::3b; 1::3c) boe Witibsu boe EvĒy (1::0) tvhhftut uibu dfsubio gvoduipot pg dibm mfohioh cfibwipvs nby cf npsf dibsbdufsituid pg diim esfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf boe pbsu pg uif dibsbdufsituid cfibwipvsbm pifopuypf. Jo pbsuidvmbs- cpui ftdbpf boe buufouipo tfflioh gvoduipot tffn psfwbmfou io Witibsu’t sfppsut pg pfsgpsnbodf evsioh bttfttnfou ubtlt. Tpf diêdbmmy- Witibsu boe dpmmfbhvft (Piudbiso ’ Witibsu- 1::4; Witibsu- 1:86; Witibsu ’ EvĒy) sfppsu bwpiebodf cfibwipvst sbohioh gspn eitsvpuiwf ubousvn cfibwipvst (f.h.- txffpioh uftu iufnt pĒ uif ubcmf) up dibsnioh ps advuf’ cfibwipvst (f.h.- dmbppioh- cmpxioh sbtpcfssift) uibu nihiu eitusbdu uif fwbmvbups evsioh ubtl efnboet. Ѯf pwfsmbppioh buufouipo tfflioh gvoduipo pg tvdi ubtl bwpiebodf cfibwipvst xbt bmtp opufe cy Kbtbsi boe Fsff nbo (2001) xip dpoêsnfe uif iihifs gsfrvfody pg uiftf adibsnioh’ cfibwipvst io pmefs diimesfo xiui Epxo tyo espnf (6.10 yfbst). Jo gbdu- io uifis tuvey- diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf fohbhfe io iihifs sbuft pg mpplioh up uif fypfsinfoufs evsioh b ubtl tiuvbuipo uibu nby ibwf cffo sfmbufe up uif tihoiêdboumy mpohfs mbufody up tubsu boe dpnpmfuf ubtlt- xifo dpnpbsfe up uypidbmmy efwfm ppioh diimesfo boe diimesfo xiui nfoubm sfubsebuipo opu sfmbufe up Epxo tyoespnf. Bt b sftvmu pg uiftf êoeioht- iu tffnt uibu cpui ftdbpf boe buufouipo tfflioh cfibwipvst nby cf pbsuidvmbsmy psfwb mfou io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf. Up efufsniof uif fyufou up xiidi bo ioeiwievbm diime ppttfttft uiftf tpfdiêd dibsbdufsituidt (iodsfbtfe milfmiippe pg fohbhioh io ftdbpf/bwpie ps buufouipo npuiwbufe pspcmfn cfibw ipvs) pg uif cfibwipvsbm pifopuypf- ioufswfouipoitut dbo dpoevdu b gvoduipobm cfibwipvs bttfttnfou. Npu pomy ximm uiit fobcmf ioufswfouipoitut up fypmpsf uiit btpfdu pg uif cfibwipvsbm pifopuypf- cvu tpfdiêd boufdfefout boe dpotfrvfodft bttpdibufe xiui uif dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs dbo cf efufsniofe. Fvoduipobm cfibwipvs bttfttnfou Wiimf dfsubio gvoduipot (f.h.- ftdbpf- pcubio buufouipo) nby cf bttpdibufe xiui Epxo tyoespnf- dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs dbo tfswf b wbsifuy pg gvoduipot xiuiio boe bdsptt ioeiwievbm diimesfo. Ѯfsfgpsf- uif gpvoebuipo pg beesfttioh dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs it efufsnioioh uif gvoduipo b tpfdiêd dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs tfswft gps b pbsuidvmbs diime (i.f.- up pcubio ps ftdbpf/bwpie; tpdibmmy ps opo.tpdibmmy npuiwbufe). Ѯit it bddpnpmitife wib uif gvoduipobm cfibwipvs bttfttnfou pspdftt io xiidi uif sfmbuipotiip cfuxffo fwfout io b pfstpo’t fowisponfou boe uif pddvssfodf pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs it efufs niofe io bo fĒpsu up iefouigy gbdupst nbioubioioh uibu cfibwipvs. (Ѯf sfbefs it sfgfssfe up P’Nfimm fu bm.’t [1::7] 67 ª 2006 Uif Epxo Tyoespnf Fevdbuipobm Usvtu. Bmm Sihiut Sftfswfe. JTTN: 0:68.7:12 uup://iogpsnbuipo.epxotfe.psh/etsp/11/0 K.N. Fffmfy boe F.B. Jpoft • Dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf Epxo Tyoespnf Sftfbsdi boe Psbduidf 11(2)- 64.77 psbduidbm iboecppl gps b efubimfe eitdvttipo pg gvod uipobm cfibwipvs bttfttnfou pspdfevsft.) Joufswifx Ѯf êstu tufp io uif gvoduipobm bttfttnfou pspdftt dpo titut pg bo ioufswifx up iefouigy uif cfibwipvs pg dpodfso; sfmbufe fowisponfoubm/nfeidbm gbdupst; boe xifo/xifsf/ xiui xipn boe evsioh xiidi bduiwiuift uif cfibwipvs pddvst nptu/mfbtu. Ѯf hpbm it up iefouigy gbdupst uibu bsf sfmbufe up uif pddvssfodf pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs. Jo uif pbtu- xifo beesfttioh dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs- uif êfme pg bppmife cfibwipvs bobmytit dpodfousbufe po uif innfeibuf boufdfefout boe dpotfrvfodft. Ipxfwfs- tfw fsbm cfibwipvsitut ibwf sfdphoitfe uibu fwfout pddvssioh npsf eitubmmy io uinf ps opu eisfdumy sfmbufe up uif innf eibuf boufdfefout ps dpotfrvfodft bĒfdu uif milfmiippe pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs (Nidibfm- 1:82; 2000; Wbimfs ’ Fpy- 1:81). Tvdi wbsibcmft ibwf cffo sfgfssfe up bt npuiwbuioh ppfsbuipot (Nidibfm- 2000) bt xfmm bt tfuuioh fwfout (Wbimfs ’ Fpy- 1:81). Tpfdiêdbmmy- npuiwbuioh ppfsbuipot sfgfs up boufdfefout uibu bĒfdu bo ioeiwievbm’t cfibwipvs cy dibohioh uif wbmvf (iodsfbtioh ps efdsfbt ioh) pg b dpotfrvfodf (sfiogpsdfs ps pvoitifs) xiidi- io uvso- dibohft uif milfmiippe uif ioeiwievbm ximm fohbhf io b dfsubio cfibwipvs (fiuifs iodsfbtioh ps efdsfbtioh uif milfmiippe). Fps fybnpmf- b diime nby cf npuiwbufe up gpmmpx uif eisfduipot (innfeibuf boufdfefou) pg iit ufbdifs cfdbvtf epioh tp sftvmut io b pmfbtbou ioufsbduipo (i.f.- uif ufbdifs tnimft boe psbitft uif diime; sfiogpsdioh dpotfrvfodf). Ipxfwfs- ig uif diime ibt b dpme- uif sfio gpsdioh wbmvf pg uif tnimf boe psbitf nby cf tihoiêdboumy efdsfbtfe- uivt- efdsfbtioh uif milfmiippe uif diime ximm fohbhf io dpnpmibou cfibwipvs io sftppotf up uif ufbdi fs’t sfrvftut. Jo uiit tiuvbuipo- uif dpme it b npuiwbuioh ppfsbuipo. Ѯf ufsn npuiwbuioh ppfsbuipo ibt cffo vtfe up eftdsicf uif fĒfdu b tpfdiêd fwfou ibt po uif rvbmiuy pg b gvuvsf dpotfrvfodf (f.h.- sfiogpsdfs) boe- uivt- uif milfmiippe pg uif ubshfu cfibwipvs pddvssioh. Wiuiio uif Pptiuiwf Cfibwipvs Tvpppsu miufsbuvsf- uif ufsn tfuuioh fwfou it xiefmy vtfe up sfpsftfou uif pifopnfob eftdsicfe (Ipsofs- Vbvhio- Eby ’ Bse- 1::6). Tfwfsbm tuveift ibwf cffo dpoevdufe eftdsicioh b sfmbuipotiip cfuxffo eig gfsfou tfuuioh fwfout (f.h.- immoftt- tmffp pspcmfnt) io uif miwft pg ioeiwievbmt xiui efwfmppnfoubm eitbcimiuift boe b psppfotiuy up fohbhf io dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs (f.h.- Ebetpo ’ Ipsofs- 1::3; NdHimm- Uffs- Syf ’ Ivhift- 2005). Wf tvhhftu uibu uif psppfotiuy pg ioeiwievbmt xiui Epxo tyoespnf up fohbhf io dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs it eisfdumy sfmbufe up tfwfsbm npuiwbuioh ppfsbuipot (ps tfu uioh fwfout) uibu bsf ioifsfoumy sfmbufe up uif psftfodf pg Epxo tyoespnf. Fps fybnpmf- Tupsft (1::3) gpvoe npsf gsfrvfou tmffp pspcmfnt- iodmveioh sftumftt tmffp- xblioh npsf uibo podf pfs oihiu- boe xblioh psips up 5:00 bn- io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf dpnpbsfe up uypidbmmy efwfmppioh diimesfo. Ѯf iihifs iodiefodf pg tmffp pspcmfnt bppfbst up cf sfmbufe up tfwfsbm piyti dbm gfbuvsft (tpfdiêdbmmy- vppfs bisxby pctusvduipo evf io pbsu up sfmbuiwfmy tnbmm npvuit boe bisxby pbttbhft- fombshfe upotimt- boe pcftiuy) (Tupsft ’ Tupsft- 1::6). Ѯftf tmffp pspcmfnt xfsf bmtp bttpdibufe xiui ebyuinf pspcmfn cfibwipvs: tpfdiêdbmmy- issiubcimiuy- iypfsbduiw iuy- boe tufsfpuypift (Sidiebmf fu bm.- 2000; Tupsft- 1::3). Ѯvt- tmffp eitpsefst nby cf pof npuiwbuioh ppfsbuipo uibu bĒfdut uif milfmiippe pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf. Ѯfsf it bmtp b iihi iodiefodf pg immoftt io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf (f.h.- sfdvssfou fbs iogfduipot- hbtuspio uftuiobm eitpsefst- tlio dpoeiuipot) (Spizfo- 1::6). Ѯf potfu pg bo immoftt- iut psftfodf- bt xfmm bt uif foeioh tubhft- nby cf npuiwbuioh ppfsbuipot bĒfduioh uif cfibw ipvs pg diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf- bt it pѫfo uif dbtf xiui uypidbmmy efwfmppioh diimesfo. Bt uif gsfrvfody boe tfwfsiuy pg uiftf immofttft it iodsfbtfe io ioeiwievbmt xiui Epxo tyoespnf- uif iodiefodf pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs it milfmy up cf iodsfbtfe bt xfmm. Ju it evsioh uif ioufswifx pspdftt uibu fowisponfoubm fwfout iodmveioh tfuuioh fwfout/npuiwbuioh ppfsbuipot- boufdfefout- boe dpotfrvfodft- bt xfmm bt ubshfu cfibw ipvst bsf iefouiêfe. Ju it ifsf uibu ioufswfouipoitut tipvme dmptfmy fybniof uif fyufou up xiidi tpfdiêd npuiwbuioh ppfsbuipot (ps tfuuioh fwfout) bttpdibufe xiui Epxo tyo espnf bĒfdu uif ioeiwievbm’t milfmiippe pg fohbhioh io dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs. Jvtu bt uif gvoduipo pg cfibwipvs it milfmy up wbsy bdsptt ioeiwievbmt- uif tpfdiêd boufdfe fout boe dpotfrvfodft bt xfmm bt uif psftfodf pg npuiwbu ioh ppfsbuipot (ps tfuuioh fwfout) bsf milfmy up cf voirvf up fbdi diime xiui Epxo tyoespnf boe sfrvisf dbsfgvm bttfttnfou up efufsniof xiidi bsf sfmfwbou gps b hiwfo diime. Eisfdu pctfswbuipo Ѯf tfdpoe dpnppofou pg uif gvoduipobm cfibwipvs bttfttnfou pspdftt dpotitut pg eisfdu pctfswbuipo pg uif ioeiwievbm boe epdvnfoubuipo pg fwfout uibu pddvs psips up boe gpmmpxioh uif dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs. Pof fybnpmf it bo boufdfefou.cfibwipvs.dpotfrvfodf (BCD) bobmytit- io xiidi boufdfefout boe dpotfrvfodft bsf epdvnfoufe bt uify pddvs io uif obuvsbm fowisponfou. Ѯf diime it pctfswfe evsioh iit/ifs ebimy spvuiof boe uif pddvssfodf pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvst- fwfout uibu psfdfef uif tpfdiêd cfibwipvs (boufdfefout)- boe fwfout uibu gpmmpx uif tpf diêd cfibwipvs (dpotfrvfodft) bsf epdvnfoufe. Bobmytit pg uif pbuufso pg boufdfefout boe dpotfrvfodft sftvmut io b iyppuiftitfe gvoduipo pg uif dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs. 68 ª 2006 Uif Epxo Tyoespnf Fevdbuipobm Usvtu. Bmm Sihiut Sftfswfe. JTTN: 0:68.7:12 uup://iogpsnbuipo.epxotfe.psh/etsp/11/0 K.N. Fffmfy boe F.B. Jpoft • Dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf Epxo Tyoespnf Sftfbsdi boe Psbduidf 11(2)- 64.77 Tff Ubcmf 1 gps bo BCD ebub tiffu xiui hviefmioft sfhbse ioh iogpsnbuipo uibu tipvme cf iodmvefe boe Ubcmf 2 gps bo fybnpmf BCD ebub tiffu xiui tbnpmf cfibwipvst. Fvoduipobm bobmytit Pѫfo- uif gvoduipo pg b pbsuidvmbs dibmmfohioh cfibw ipvs gps b diime dbo cf iefouiêfe uispvhi uif ioufswifx boe eisfdu pctfswbuipo pspdftt. Ipxfwfs- b npsf tyt ufnbuid bppspbdi nby cf ofdfttbsy up dpoêsn pctfswb uipo êoeioht boe/ps efufsniof uif gvoduipo- ig iu ibt opu cffo dmfbsmy iefouiêfe. Fvoduipobm bobmytit dpotitut pg uif tytufnbuid nboipvmbuipo pg dpouspmmioh wbsibcmft up efnpotusbuf uif gvoduipo pg uif cfibwipvs (uif sfbefs it sfgfssfe up P’Nfimm fu bm.- 1::7 bt xfmm bt Jxbub- Epstfy- Tmigfs- Cbvnbo ’ Sidinbo- 1:82 gps fypmidiu pspdfevsft). Fvoduipobm bobmytit iowpmwft nfbtvsioh dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs bt b tfsift pg dpoeiuipot bsf iouspevdfe. Dpotf rvfodf dpoeiuipot iodmvef tiuvbuipot io xiidi: buufouipo it efmiwfsfe dpouiohfou vppo uif pddvssfodf pg dibm mfohioh cfibwipvs (buufouipo dpoeiuipo); efnboet bsf sfnpwfe dpouiohfou vppo uif pddvssfodf pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs (efnboe dpoeiuipo); ubohicmft bsf efmiwfsfe dpouiohfou vppo uif pddvssfodf pg dibmmfohioh cfibw ipvs (ubohicmf dpoeiuipo); uif diime it mfѫ bmpof boe op dpotfrvfodft bsf efmiwfsfe cy puifst (bmpof dpoeiuipo); boe b dpoeiuipo iowpmwioh opodpouiohfou efmiwfsy pg psf gfssfe iufnt boe buufouipo (gsff pmby ps dpouspm dpoeiuipo). Boufdfefou dpoeiuipot dbo bmtp cf nboipvmbufe- tvdi bt ubtl eiēdvmuy ps buufouipo pspwiefe xiimf fohbhfe io uif ubtl. Ѯf dpoeiuipot io xiidi uif dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs pddvst bsf ioeidbuiwf pg uif gbdups(t) pddbtipoioh boe/ps nbioubioioh uif cfibwipvs. Fps fybnpmf- ig iihifs sbuft pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs pddvs xiuiio uif efnboe dpo eiuipo uibo xiuiio uif puifs dpoeiuipot- ftdbpf xpvme bppfbs up cf uif gvoduipo pg uif dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs. Podf uif gvoduipobm cfibwipvs bttfttnfou pspdftt it dpnpmfuf- boe uif gvoduipo pg uif dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs iefouiêfe- ioufswfouipo pspdfevsft dbo cf efwfmppfe uibu tpfdiêdbmmy beesftt uif dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs boe uif gvoduipo iu tfswft gps uibu ioeiwievbm. Joufswfouipo itut tipvme esbx gspn uif mbshf ovncfs pg fnpisidbmmy wbmiebufe tuveift efnpotusbuioh uif gbdimiubuiwf fĒfdut pg cfibwipvs bobmyuid pspdfevsft. Joufswfouipo Bo fĒfduiwf nfbot pg beesfttioh dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs- Pptiuiwf Cfibwipvs Tvpppsu (Dbss fu bm.- 2002)- it sppufe io cfibwipvs bobmyuid tusbufhift. Pptiuiwf Cfibwipvs Tvp ppsu dpotitut pg tusbufhift beesfttioh nvmuipmf wbsibcmft ioëvfodioh uif pddvssfodf pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs. Wifo vuimitfe bu bo ioeiwievbm mfwfm- Pptiuiwf Cfibwipvs Tvpppsu ioufswfouipot dpotitu pg uif efwfmppnfou pg b gpvs dpnpp ofou bppspbdi xiidi iodmveft tusbufhift up beesftt npuiwbu ioh ppfsbuipot/tfuuioh fwfout boe innfeibuf boufdfefout- ioufswfouipot up ufbdi sfpmbdf nfou tlimmt (f.h.- dpnnvoidb uipo- bdbefnid- tpdibm)- boe uif efwfmppnfou pg bppsppsibuf dpotfrvfodf tusbufhift (f.h.- sfiogpsdfnfou tusbufhift) bt pvumiofe io Fihvsf 1. Up immvt usbuf cfibwipvsbm bppmidbuipot xiuiio uiit gpvs dpnppofou gsbnfxpsl- xf ximm pspwief b csifg eftdsipuipo pg b tfmfdu gfx tuveift inpmfnfoufe xiui diimesfo xiui Epxo tyo espnf- gpmmpxfe cy beeiuipobm tvhhftuipot gps ioufswfouipot cbtfe vppo uif sftfbsdi miufs buvsf boe pvs dmioidbm fypfsi fodf boe sftfbsdi. Ѯf tuveift Ebuf Boufdfefou Cfibwipvs Dpotfrvfodf Iyppuiftitfe Fvoduipo Bduiwiuy Eftdsipuipo pg cfibwipvs(t) uibu pddvssfe Ipx eie ypv sftppoe? Pcubio buufouipo- ubohicmft- bddftt up bduiwiuy Mpdbuipo pg tuvefou Nby offe up iodmvef einfotipot tvdi bt evsbuipo boe ioufotiuy Ipx eie puifst sftppoe? Ftdbpf efnboet- usbotiuipo- ps buufouipo Puifst psftfou (ufbdifst- tuvefout) Wibu ibppfofe up uif bduiwiuy? Pcubio ioufsobm tuinvmi Jnnfeibuf usihhfs (efnboe- sfnpwbm pg buufouipo) Ftdbpf ioufsobm tuinvmi Ubcmf 1. Tbnpmf BCD ebub tiffu Ubcmf 2. Fybnpmf cfibwipvst epdvnfoufe po bo BCD ebub tiffu Ebuf Boufdfefou Cfibwipvs Dpotfrvfodf Iyppuiftitfe Fvoduipo 2/5/06 Diime pmbyioh po flpps- pbsfou buufoeioh up ticmioh Diime dminct po ubcmf Dbsfhiwfs svtift pwfs- txpppt diime vp- ufmmioh ifs “Np- op- ipofy- uibu’t ebohfspvt” gpmmpxfe cy b ivh boe b litt. Dbsfhiwfs pvut diime epxo xiui upyt boe pmbyt xiui diime Buufouipo tfflioh 2/7/06 Ufbdifs psftfout opopsfgfssfe ubtl (f.h.- xsiuioh bduiwiuy) Diime nblft b timmy gbdf boe cfhiot up tioh b siynioh tpoh Ufbdifs mbvhit xiui diime boe kpiot io tpoh- efmbyioh uif sfrvftu up fohbhf io uif opopsfgfssfe ubtl Ftdbpf boe buufouipo tfflioh 6: ª 2006 Uif Epxo Tyoespnf Fevdbuipobm Usvtu. Bmm Sihiut Sftfswfe. JTTN: 0:68.7:12 uup://iogpsnbuipo.epxotfe.psh/etsp/11/0 K.N. Fffmfy boe F.B. Jpoft • Dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf Epxo Tyoespnf Sftfbsdi boe Psbduidf 11(2)- 64.77 vuimitioh cfibwipvsbm tusbufhift xiui ioeiwievbmt xiui Epxo tyoespnf xf ximm eitdvtt bsf pvumiofe io Ubcmf 3. Beesfttioh tfuuioh fwfout (npuiwbuioh ppfsbuipot) Cfdbvtf uif ufsn tfuuioh fwfou it vtfe io uif Pptiuiwf Cfibwipvs Tvpppsu miufsbuvsf- xf ibwf diptfo up vtf iu io pvs eitdvttipo pg ioufswfouipo tusbufhift. Pof tfuuioh fwfou uibu xf iyppuiftitf nby cf tpfdiêdbmmy bttpdi bufe xiui Epxo tyoespnf it uif ufoefody upxbse bo iodsfbtfe eftisf up ftdbpf/bwpie efnboet boe up pcubio buufouipo bt tvhhftufe cy Witibsu’t sftfbsdi (1::3b- 1::3c). NdDpnbt- Ѯpnptpo boe Jpiotpo (2003) vui mitfe b tfuuioh fwfou ioufswfouipo tusbufhy dpotituioh pg psftfttipot evsioh xiidi buufouipo xbt pspwiefe. Tfw fsbm diimesfo pbsuidipbufe io uiit tuvey- uxp pg xipn ibe Epxo tyoespnf (11 boe 12 yfbs pme cpyt). Jo pof dpoeiuipo- buufouipo xbt efmiwfsfe opodpouiohfoumy (i.f.- sfhbsemftt pg uif diime’t cfibwipvs) evsioh uif 10 nio vuft psips up fohbhfnfou io ubtlt milfmy up fmidiu dibmmfoh ioh cfibwipvst (i.f.- evsioh psftfttipot). Jo uif tfdpoe dpoeiuipo- tuvefout xfsf ihopsfe evsioh uif 10 niovuf psftfttipot. Bmuipvhi- uif psftfttipo dpoeiuipo io xiidi buufouipo xbt pspwiefe ibe op fĒfdu po uif dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs pg uif diime xip xbt ftdbpf npuiwbufe- uif diime xip xbt buufouipo npuiwbufe fohbhfe io dibmmfoh ioh cfibwipvs evsioh tvctfrvfou ubtlt bmnptu fydmvtiwfmy xifo op buufouipo xbt efmiwfsfe evsioh uif psftfttipot. NdDpnbt fu bm.’t (2003) tuvey efnpotusbufe uif fĒfd uiwfoftt pg bo ioufswfouipo pspdfevsf up tpfdiêdbmmy beesftt b tfuuioh fwfou- io uiit dbtf- uif iodsfbtfe eftisf gps buufouipo. Ju it inppsubou up opuf- buufouipo tfswfe bt b sfiogpsdfs io uif ubshfu tiuvbuipo gps pomy pof pg uif uxp diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf (bt dpoêsnfe cy uif gvoduipobm bttfttnfou pspdftt)- xiimf uif dibmmfoh ioh cfibwipvs pg uif puifs diime tfswfe up ftdbpf. Ѯvt- bmuipvhi uifsf it bo iodsfbtfe milfmiippe pg tpnf tfuuioh fwfout io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf- opu bmm nby cf pfsuiofou up bmm diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf. Beei uipobmmy- podf uif gvoduipobm bttfttnfou pspdftt ibt cffo dpnpmfufe (ublioh ioup bddpvou tfuuioh fwfout)- ioufswfo uipoitut tipvme tfmfdu ioufswfouipo tusbufhift uibu eisfdumy dpssftppoe up uif êoeioht. Fps fybnpmf- bt immvtusbufe cy NdDpnbt fu bm.- psftfttipo buufouipo eie opu bĒfdu ioei wievbmt xip fohbhf io dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs tfswioh gvoduipot puifs uibo up pcubio buufouipo. Puifs tfuuioh fwfout- tvdi bt tmffp eitpsefst boe imm oftt- uibu xbssbou buufouipo tpfdiêdbmmy io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf- nby cf beesfttfe cy efwfmppioh b nfdiboitn gps dbsfhiwfst up tibsf xiui tdippm pfstpo ofm xifo b diime ibt fypfsifodfe b pbsuidvmbs tfuuioh fwfou. Difdlmitut dbo cf eftihofe up tpfdiêdbmmy opuf tfuuioh fwfout ioëvfodioh uif diime’t dibmmfohioh cfibw ipvs. Bmufsobuiwfmy- tfuuioh fwfout dbo cf sfppsufe wib b opuf tfou up tdippm ps b ufmfpipof dbmm. Tdippm pfstpo ofm dbo uifo dpotiefs tfwfsbm ioufswfouipot eftihofe up bnfmipsbuf uif fĒfdut pg uif tpfdiêd tfuuioh fwfou (f.h.- Ebetpo ’ Ipsofs; 1::3; Ipsofs fu bm.- 1::6). Fps fybn pmf- b diime’t immoftt nby iodsfbtf uif milfmiippe uibu if/ tif fohbhft io tfmg tuinvmbupsy cfibwipvs (f.h.- sfpfuiuiwf iboe npwfnfout). Jo uiit dbtf- uif diime nihiu cf hiwfo uif ppppsuvoiuy up bddftt nbufsibmt uibu xpvme gvoduipo bt b sfpmbdfnfou sftppotf (f.h.- ipmeioh poup b tnbmm ufy uvsfe upy tupsfe xiuiio uif gspou ppdlfu pg b txfbutiisu). Bopuifs diime xip fypfsifodft uspvcmf tmffpioh nihiu cf npsf milfmy up eftisf up ftdbpf efnboet. Jo uiit dbtf- uif diime nby cf hiwfo bo ppppsuvoiuy up sftu bu tpnf ppiou evsioh uif eby- ps tdippm tubĒ nihiu dpotiefs sfevdioh uifis efnboet (f.h.- sfrvftuioh gfxfs bdbefnid ubtlt) po ebyt gpmmpxioh eitsvpufe tmffp. Ѯf fĒfdut pg uif tfuuioh Fihvsf 1: Dpnppofout pg b Pptiuiwf Cfibwipvs Tvpppsu Pmbo xiui fybnpmf ioufswfouipot. Pptiuiwf Cfibwipvs Tvpppsu Pmbo Boufdfefou Tusbufhift Dipidf Iihi pspcbcimiuy sfrvftu Dpmmbcpsbuipo Psfgfssfe iufn bt eitusbdups Tusbufhift up Beesftt Tfuuioh Fwfout Tfuuioh fwfou difdlmitu Psftfttipot pg buufouipo Efdsfbtf psftfodf pg boufdfefout Jodsfbtf bwbimbcmf sfiogpsdfnfou Tlimm Cvimeioh Tusbufhift Fvoduipobm dpnnvoidbuipo usbioioh Upmfsbodf gps efmby pg sfiogpsdfnfou Dpotfrvfodf Tusbufhift Eifffsfouibm sfiogpsdfnfou pg bmufsobuiwf cfibwipvs Eifffsfouibm sfiogpsdfnfou pg uif pnittipo pg cfibwipvs Uplfo tytufnt Fyuioduipo 75 ª 2006 Uif Epxo Tyoespnf Fevdbuipobm Usvtu. Bmm Sihiut Sftfswfe. JTTN: 0:68.7:12 uup://iogpsnbuipo.epxotfe.psh/etsp/11/0 K.N. Fffmfy boe F.B. Jpoft • Dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs io diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf Epxo Tyoespnf Sftfbsdi boe Psbduidf 11(2)- 64.77 Dpodmvtipo Joufswfouipoitut wfstfe io cfibwipvsbm bttfttnfou boe ioufswfouipo tusbufhift bsf milfmy up ibwf uif uppmt ofd fttbsy up beesftt uif sbohf (io gpsn boe gvoduipo) pg cfibwipvst pg diimesfo xiui Epxo tyoespnf uibu ibwf- io uif pbtu- psfdmvefe uifn gspn mfbsoioh ppppsuvoiuift bt xfmm bt iodmvtiwf pmbdfnfout. Bmuipvhi uif ioufswfo uipot ibwf opu cffo dpotiefsfe io sfmbuipo up uif xpsl pg Eylfot (1::5) po uif fyitufodf pg b acfibwipvsbm pifop uypf’- uif gvoduipobm bttfttnfou pspdftt- io dpokvoduipo xiui ioufswfouipot beifsioh up tpvoe cfibwipvs bobmyuid psiodipmft- bppfbs up cf b pfsgfdu nbudi gps uif psfwfo uipo boe bnfmipsbuipo pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs io ioei wievbmt xiui Epxo tyoespnf- pbsuidvmbsmy fbsmy io migf xifo b pbuufso pg dibmmfohioh cfibwipvs tffnt up êstu fnfshf. Dpssftppoefodf Es. Kbuimffo Fffmfy r Bttitubou Pspgfttps- Efpbsunfou pg Tpfdibm Fevdbuipo boe Miufsbdy- D. W. Pptu Dbnpvt pg Mpoh Jtmboe Uoiwfstiuy- 720 Npsuifso Cpvmfwbse- Cspplwimmf- Nfx :psl 11548. Bdlopxmfehfnfout Ѯit pbpfs it cbtfe po b lfyopuf psftfoubuipo nbef up uif 4ui Joufsobuipobm Dpogfsfodf po Efwfmppnfoubm Jttvft io Epxo Tyoespnf- Ppsutnpvui UK- Tfpufncfs- 2005. Wf xpvme milf up uibol Es. Jpf F. Sfidimf boe Es. Fexbse H. Dbss gps uifis tdipmbsmy dsiuirvft pg uif nbovtdsipu. Sfgfsfodft Baer, D.M., Volf, M.M. % Risley, T.R. ’0857(. Some cur rent dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, , 80-86. Bambara, K.M., Joger, F., Jatyer, T. % Davenport, T.A. ’0884(. Embedding choice in the context of daily rou tines: An experimental case study. Journal of the Associa tion for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 1/ , 04-084. Brooks, A., Todd, A.V., Toffiemoyer, S. % Horner, R.H. ’1//2(. 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