A Marketing Information System and Market Research for
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A Marketing Information System and Market Research for Knowing your Visitor
A workshop presentation to BGANZ
Richard W. Benfield
Or is Memory and intuition better?
% Adults who garden? US UK
% people who say shopping as #1 tourism activity and % who say “Visiting Historic Sites”
Ave time spent in MallHow many museum visits are there per day in the USA? % Managers/Management in DisneyworldAverage spending per visit in restaurant per person (which city is highest?)Average Hotel Room rate ______ ? Of Americans say they have visited an art museum, history museum, aquarium, zoo, botanical garden, or science and technology centers within the past six months.
82 % 86%
A Marketing Information system
People, equipment and procedures
Gather, sort, analyze, evaluate and distributeTIMELY AND ACCURATE INFORMATIONTo Marketing managers
Historic Data and
Emphasizes External information
Focuses on solving problems
Operates on a project basisIs past and present oriented…for use in the future
How to do Market Research I
What is our problem and thus management decision needs to be made?
What information do we need to make that decision?
What extent/quality of information does the problem require?What is the time frame we have?
How to do Market Research II
Recognize a problem
Identify, define and delimit the problem
Set Research objectivesCreate the research designCollect the dataAnalyze the dataCommunicate the results
How to do Market Research III
There are two types of data:
1. Primary data
. Data collected specifically for this project often called hard/original data… THE SURVEY METHOD OR OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH OR THE semi- structured interview 2 Secondary data
Data collected by some others (Census, tax rolls, Visitor info center) for some other purpose but usable for this project.
Instrument Design and Development
Rate the Excellence of our staff
Do you think our exhibition is Kid friendly and they would think it cool?Ambiguous wordingWould you describe our exhibition as “Not bad” or “good”?Double Barreled wordingDid you and your children enjoy the exhibition?Missing alternativesWill you come to the extra events we put on in conjunction with Escher? Yes No?
Here is the issue: YOU DO NOT KNOW THE ANSWER …YOU MAY ONLY SUSPECT
(WHO USES THE WEB?)
GET THE NUMBERS YOU CANNOT ARGUE
Participant Observation in Queens Botanic garden
GPS (The Stalking Pervert!)
Data Gathering methods; a note on each
Hard to get back… No incentive (unless you slip the buck like
Dr Truly 15% 30% )No guarantee of consistency of resultRelatively cheapCan buy targeted mail listsAnthrax (and now Ricin) hurt the method
8 people become the decision for 15 million?
Cost (You must pay them)
($50.00 x 20 =$ 1000 x 3 = $3000)Moderator must be very good to elicit the best out of the peopleNot empirical: all qualitative/opinion
Only a specific clientele (Those who will give info over the phone –
Lots of refusalsLots of answering machinesExpensive for Long DistanceNo control
(Semi-structured) Personal interviews
One person does not an expert make
Reluctance on part of intervieweeQualitativeTime consuming
Video to Face book
and Delphi Technique
Where can you do it (Not in a mall)?
Many do not stop…representative?
InconvenientBias (Young ladies/men?)Long, boring and tiring
One overriding principal
GI - GO
The Ten Rules of Survey development
1. Obey my rules about wording
2. Open with a wiffle question
What do you do in your leisure time?
How many times have you been to our garden?
3. End with the sensitive questions
Sex (Its OK now to use “Sex’ it used to be gender) but it is still NOT a “Yes or No” proposition !
4. Group Demography together
EducationEthnicityGenderHousehold structureZip (Not where do you live)
5. Do not ask dumb questions
What gender are you?
6. Quantify the qualitativeLikert
7. Ask direct questions KISSWhat media do you watch?
8. Ask specific questionsSpecial event
9. Make the survey progressive/logical/ sequential
10.Always ask yourself …is this question useful?
What was the weather like when …
Can I do something with the results?
There seem to me to be five types of Garden survey
Basic Visitor surveys: who is our visitor?
PsychographicSatisfaction (upon exit) Did you like garden/ event/special show (exit interview)How people find out about your GardenEconomic surveys = Spending and origin (often called Economic Impact IMPLAN)How do you reach (new) visitors =Media habits and Social media is now hot.
A couple of things you should know:
Demographic (Empirical or Quantitative)
Data, cost, numbers
Psychographics (or qualitative)(Values, attitudes and lifestyles)Tough (how do you quantify/describe?) BUT it may be the way people behave (what if all the people going to Mark Twain House are history buffs i.e. not a demographic, income, age variable?)Likert scale: a graduated scale to express degree of preference (not an absolute proposition) or attitude Heavily qualitative1. Strongly agree2 Agree3. Neutral4, Disagree
5. Strongly disagree
OK Now you do a survey …
First survey ever
WHO IS OUR VISITOR?
How did they find you?Want to know patterns of movement within the garden (do they use café?)Spending outside/at/in the garden (Local Council is on your but to justify your existence)BIG ONE: Attitudes towards … (what did they like in your garden?)What is their Demographic profileWhat is their Psychographic Profile?
In Garden Tourism Market Research we usually need to know:
3. # in party4. # of days stayed5 Types of Transportation used6. Amount of planning for a trip7. Attractions visited
8. Events attended
9. Preferred activities
10. Opinion of events/attractions
12. Purpose of visit13. Reason for visit (Goals)
14. Extent goals met (Satisfaction)15. Repeat visits
Tourism Market Research Data (contd)
16. Types of accommodation
17. How did you hear of us? Source of info
Media habits18. Length of trip19. Constraints on travel20. Personal influences21. Use of Tour operator/travel agent
Simple Regression essentially predictive (on one variable)
Multiple regression (on multiple variables)Factor analysis (what emerges as the strongest factor)Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance Simple correlation Cluster analysis Commonalities in “cluster”Canonical correlation