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Astrophysical Jets:   Observations and
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Theory Mario Livio Space Telescope Science Institute Which Systems Have Highly Collimated Jets Object Physical System Young Stellar Objects Accreting Star HMXBs Accreting NS or BH Xray Transients ID: 778598 Download

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disk jets ray jet jets disk jet ray collimation black accretion acceleration radio disks hole outflows angular momentum ngc

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Slide1

Astrophysical Jets:

Observations and Theory

Mario Livio

Space Telescope Science Institute

Slide2

Which Systems Have Highly Collimated Jets?

Object Physical System

Young Stellar Objects

Accreting Star

HMXBsAccreting NS or BHX-ray TransientsAccreting BHLMXBsAccreting NSSupersoft X-ray SourcesAccreting WDSymbiotic starsAccreting WDPulsars (?)Rotating NSPlanetary Nebulae (?)Accreting Nucleus or Interacting Winds

Stellar

ObjectPhysical SystemAGNAccreting Supermassive BHGRBsAccreting BH

Extragalactic

Slide3

Jets in Young Stellar Objects

Slide4

HH1 Jet 1994-2007

Slide5

HH 901 Carina Nebula

Slide6

Jet in M87: From

60 kpc to 0.06 pc

Slide7

Superluminal Motion in M87 HST-1Do FR I radio galaxies have relativistic jets like BL Lacs?

Slide8

“Superluminal” sources

GRS 1915+105V ~ 0.9cSome extragalactic jets showV > 0.995c

Slide9

Gamma Ray Burst Hosts

Slide10

STScI-PRC99-32

Southern Crab Nebula

He2-104

Symbiotic Systems

Slide11

Jets in Planetary Nebulae?

NGC 7009

NGC 6543

NGC 3918

NGC 6826NGC 5307

Slide12

High mass x-ray binaries

SS 433

Slide13

Supersoft X-Ray Sources

RXJ 0513-69

Slide14

Pulsar Jets (?)

Chandra

Crab Pulsar

Vela Pulsar

Chandra

Slide15

Do jet-producing systems have accretion disks?What are the

absolutely necessary ingredients for the mechanism of jet acceleration and collimation?YSOs

Yes

SSS

YesH/LMXBsYesBHXTsYesGRBsWe don’t knowAGNYesPNeNot clear

Slide16

[O I] l6300 Profiles

for T Tauri Stars Redshifted component not seen because of disk.

Slide17

X-Ray Spectroscopy of Accretion Disks in AGNsMCG-6-30-15

Gravitational redshift plus Doppler shift

Slide18

Do Jets Require an Accretion Disk?

Qualified Yes“Interacting winds”, “ion torus”, Pulsars, GRBs, need more work

Slide19

Do Accretion Disks Require Jets or Outflows?

Are outflows/jets the main mechanism for transport/removal of angular momentum?Angular momentum carried by wind

Slide20

Do Accretion Disks Require Jets or Outflows?

Angular momentum that needs to be removed from disk

For

r

A ~ 10r, only 1% of the accreted mass needs to be lost in wind.

Slide21

Behavior of Disk Radius During Dwarf Nova Outburst

At outburst, matter diffuses inward. Angular momentum of that matter is transferred to outer parts of the disk.

Radius expands

Observationally:

Disks in U Gem, OY Car, HT Cas and Z Cha larger in outburst.U Gem

Slide22

Behavior of Disk Radius During

Dwarf Nova OutburstTheory: disk instability

Slide23

Do accretion disks require jets or outflows for angular momentum removal?

Probably not.More observations of rotation in jets and bipolar outflows are needed (velocity gradients).

Slide24

Other Clues on JetsJet Origin

ObjectExample

V

jet

/VescapeYSOsHH30, 34Vj ~ 100-350km/sVesc ~ 500km/s~1AGNM87; radio sourcesΓ ≳ 3; Γ ≲ 10 ~1GRBsΓ ~ 100

~1XRBsSS 433;

Cyg X-3Vj ~ 0.6c~1XRTsGRO 1655-40GRS 1915+105V

j ≳ 0.9c~1

Pne

Fliers,

Ansae

V ~ 200km/s

~1

SSS

0513-69

V

j

~ 3800km/s

~1

Slide25

Other Clues on JetsJets originate from the

center of the accretion disk!Models which work at all radii are probably not the “correct” ones, (e.g. self similar).

Slide26

Black Hole Jets – x-ray transients

Two states: dissipation and disk luminosity, bulk flow and jet.

Slide27

New Timescale

Timescale for jettj ~ td2R/H

1/f power spectrum below a break frequency.

Slide28

Main Question:

Which ingredients play a major role in the acceleration and collimation?

Slide29

Ingredients which may not

be absolutely necessary

YSOs

AGN

XRBsSSSGRBsCVsCentral object near break-up rotationNo?No, ????Relativistic central objectNo

YesYes

NoYesNo“Funnel”No (?)

No (?)No (?)

No

Yes (?)

No

L

L

Edd

(Radiation pressure)

(wind can be driven)

No

No

No

Yes

?

No

Extensive hot atmosphere

(gas pressure)

Yes (?)

Yes

No

No

Yes (?)

No

Boundary layer

Yes (?)

No

?

Yes (?)

No

Yes (?)

Slide30

What Does Work?

A reasonably ordered large-scale magnetic field threading the disk!

Slide31

Magneto-Centrifugal Jet Acceleration and Collimation

Acceleration like a bead on a wire up to the Alfven surface. Acceleration optimal around inclination of 60°.

Slide32

Collimation Outside Alfven Surface

Collimation by hoop stress?

BUT

Kink Instability

Slide33

Poloidal CollimationNecessary Conditions

Rdisk/Robject = Significant number of decades Bz

largest at inner disk but

largest at

outer disk e.g. Bz ~ (r/Rin)-1Good collimation obtained forRAlfven ~ RdiskConsequencesMinimum opening angle of jetΘmin ~ (Rin/Rout)1/2

Slide34

M87 VLBA at 43 GHz

Slide35

M87

Slide36

Long GRB: Collapse of Massive Star

Slide37

Short GRB: Collision of Two Neutron Stars

Slide38

Are There Additional Ingredients?Why are there radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN?

Why do CVs appear not to produce jets while SSS do?How can pulsars produce jets?

Slide39

ConjectureThe production of powerful jets requires an additional heat/wind source.

Solutions to transsonic flow in disk corona: for strong B a potential difference exists even for i > 30 (Δφ ~ B4

)

.

Slide40

Radio Loud vs. Radio Quiet AGN

Central engine

parameters:

Slide41

Recent simulations: Magnetic “Tower”

Slide42

Simulation results for

spinning black holeOutgoing velocity ~0.4-0.6c in funnel wall jetPoynting flux dominates within funnelBoth pressure and Lorentz forces important for acceleration

Existence of funnel jet depends on establishing radial funnel field

Jet luminosity increases with hole spin – Poynting flux jet is powered by the black hole

Slide43

Simulations: dependence on black hole spin

a/M

η

EM

-0.900.0230.000.00030.500.00630.90

0.0460.93

0.0380.950.0720.99

0.21

Slide44

Spins of Black Holes?R

ISCO, a*, determined on the basis of x-ray continuum data (even beyond thermal-dominant state).Study of plunging orbits important. Spin estimates based on stress-free inner boundary condition give upper limit on a*?

Source

M

(Mʘ)a*GRO J1655-406.3±0.27~0.74U 1543-479.4±1.0~0.8XTE J1550-5649.1±0.61~0.34A0620-00

6.61±0.25

~0.12GRS 1915+10514±4.4~0.975

Slide45

Correlation between jet power and BH spin

Slide46

Critical ObservationsDeterminations of the collimation scale

in all classes of objects.Detection and measurement of rotation and of toroidal magnetic fields in jets and bipolar outflows.Searches for jets in other SSS

, in

PNe

, in other XRTs (during flares, e.g. A0620-00, GS2023+338, GS 1124-683, Cen X-4, AQL X-1), and other symbiotic systems, in CVs!Determination of black hole masses in AGN.Determination of black hole spins.Observations of collimated jets in pulsars.Afterglow light curves and breaks in GRBs.Differences between short and long burst in GRBs.

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