GCSE MUSIC REVISION x What are the meanings of the following musical keywords and terms
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GCSE MUSIC REVISION x What are the meanings of the following musical keywords and terms

Texture 2 Pitch 3 Dynamics 4 Tempo 5 Melody 6 Rhythm 7 Crescendo 8 Diminuendo 9 Part harmony 10 Time signature 11 Ostinato 12 Call and Response 13 Sequence 14 Imitation 15 Riff 16 Motif 17 Theme 18 Binary Form 19 Ternary Form 20 Cadence 21 Key signa

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GCSE MUSIC REVISION x What are the meanings of the following musical keywords and terms

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GCSE MUSIC REVISION x What are the meanings of the following musical keywords and terms? 1. Texture 2. Pitch 3. Dynamics 4. Tempo 5. Melody 6. Rhythm 7. Crescendo 8. Diminuendo 9. Part harmony 10. Time signature 11. Ostinato 12. Call and Response 13. Sequence 14. Imitation 15. Riff 16. Motif 17. Theme 18. Binary Form 19. Ternary Form 20. Cadence 21. Key signature 22. Improvisation 23. Glissando 24. Concerto 25. Atonal 26. What are the differences between Major, Minor and Atonal? _________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________ _______ __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 27. Name 3 features of music from the Romantic Period _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ _________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 28. Describe the 12 bar blues ________________________________________

_________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________
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29. Name 2 examples of musical theatre _______________________________ __________________________ _________________________________________________________ 30. Name 2 classical structures _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 31. Explain 3 features of Afric an music

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 32. What are the 3 main elements of Indian Music? ____________________________ _____________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 33. What is Sonata form? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________ ________________________ _________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________ 34. What is the difference between Rap and Hip Hop? _________________________________________________________ ___________ ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 35. Describe how Samba, Salsa and Tango are different in style _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ ______________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 36. Name 2

instruments used in Indian Music _________________________________________________________ _____________________ ____________________________________ 37. Write out DR TIMPTOT with all the relevant keywords and meanings. 38. What does Allegro mean? ____________________________ 39. What does Legato mean? _____________________________ 40. What does Fortissimo mean? ________________ __________
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GCSE MUSIC Revision KEYWORDS: Pitch how high or low the notes/music. Dynamics volume, loud or soft Tempo speed, how fast or slow Texture layers of sound, 1 instrument is a thin texture, 3

instruments or more achieves a thicker texture. The more in struments the more layers of sound the thicker the texture. Instrumentation what instruments are playing and how. Mood how the music makes you feel Structure how the music is put together eg in a song the structure might be verse, chorus, verse, chor us, bridge, chorus, coda. In a sonata the structure would be exposition, development and recapitulation (remember looking at classical structures) Tonality what is the key of the mus ic, is it major or minor or ato nal? Atonal the music has no clear key and is not major or minor Major the

music/chords sound happy Minor the music/chords sound sad Time signature how many beats are in a bar Rhythm the beat Melody the tune Part Harmony voices/instruments playing at the same time but playing diffe rent notes that fit together. Unison Different instruments playing the same thing at the same time Crescendo the music gets gradually louder Diminuendo the music gets gradually softer/quieter Ostinato a repeated pattern of notes, a repeated rhythm Call and response musical question and answer used a lot in African and calypso music. A soloist sings or plays a phrase to which a larger group

responds with an answering phrase. Motif like a theme tune (the Jaws theme is like a theme tune for the mai n character of the shark) or a repeated phrase that represents a character or a mood. A cappella unaccompanied singing. Singing with no instruments. Accentuation the way that certain notes are emphasised by being on a stronger beat. Alto a low female singing voice Baroque Music music typical from 1600 to 1750. Bass a low male voice or the lowest sounding part of a piece of music Binary form a musical structure in 2 sections (AB) Cadence a group of chords at the end of a phrase as an

ending to that phrase. Canon a melody on 1 instrument is later repeated by another instrument whilst the first instrument continues to play.
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Chamber music Music written for entertainment with just 1 instrument per part. Choir a group of singers performing tog ether Coda the final section of a piece of music. Concerto a composition for one or more solo instruments accompanied by an orchestra. Dominant the 5 th note of a major or minor scale. Fusion music in which 2 or more distinctive styles are blended t ogether eg folk rock Glissando a slide along the notes from one pitch to

another Harmony the combination of sounds to produce a chord or a progression of chords. Hook a short and memorable musical idea in pop music. Improvisation the creation of mu sic whilst actually performing it. Interval the distance between 2 notes eg the distance between C and G is 5 notes so it would be an interval of a 5 th or a perfect 5 th Key signature an indication at the very start of the musical score of what key the music is in. Lyrics the words of a song Modulation when the music moves from one key to another eg from C major to A minor. Ornamentation use of decorative notes common

in the Baroque period. Syncopation accented notes that sound off the beat or o n a weak beat of the EDU$MD]]\UK\WKP Sonata Form A musical structure consisting of 3 sections (see revision notes) Soprano high female singing voice Strophic song a song in which each verse has the same music. Symphony A large scale composit ion for an orchestra. Ternary Form A piece of music in 3 parts ABA Theme and Variation a composition which has a theme and then variations on this theme where the theme is altered in some way to make it sound different. Tonic the

first note of a majo r or minor scale. Verse and Chorus a standard form used in popular song in which a chorus is repeated after most verses. Waltz A piece of music for dance with 3 beats in a bar. (oom pah pah) Etude a short piece of classical music for a solo instrumen ff the music is very loud f the music is loud mf the music is moderately loud mp the music is moderately quiet p the music is quiet pp the music is very quiet.
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Areas to Research The listening exam covers 3 areas: x The Western Classical Tra dition x Popular Music of the 20 th and 21 st Centuries x World Music.

You should listen to the suggested listening examples and try to describe the music you hear using the musical keywords. HJLQVWHDGRIWKHPXVLFPDGHD loud noise and all the instruments we re SOD\LQJ\RXVKRXOGZULWH 7KHG\QDPLFVLQWKHPXVLFDOH[WUDFWZHUHORXG mainly because there were several layers of sound and a thick texture as PDQ\LQVWUXPHQWVZHUHSOD\LQJLQXQLVRQ7KHVHLQVWUXPHQWVZHUH

DQGWKH\ZHUHSOD\LQJHJWKHPHORG\ an accompaniment, chords, a quaver pattern, an ostinato rhythm etc) WKLVFUHDWHGWKHHIIHFWRI The Western Classical Tradition x The Baroque Period Vivaldi 4 seasons, Bach Brandenburg, Handel Water Music) x Classical Structures The concerto (Hay dn Trumpet concerto, Tchaikovsky Violin concerto N0. 1 in D) The Sonata (Scarlatti Piano sonata in G minor, Chopin Piano sonata NO.2 in B flat Minor) x Music for voices Gibbons The Silver Swan, Puccini Nessu n Dorma) x

Chamber Music ( Haydn String Quartet in C, Stravinsky 8 minatures for 15 players) Popular Music of the 20 th and 21 st Centuries x The Blues (Johnson Come into my kitchen, Clapton Sunshine of my love) x VVRQJ (Lennon/McCartney She Loves Yo u, Jagger/Richards ,&DQW Get No Satisfaction) x Rock, RnB and Hip Hop (Page/Plant Stairway To Heaven, West Gold Digger, Ne Yo Take a Bow) x Musical Theatre (Schwartz Defying Gravity, Bart ,P5HYLHZLQJWKH Situation, Lloyd Webber Any Dream Will D o)
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x Film

Music (Williams Star Wars, Marianelli Atonement, Zimmer Gladiator. Listen to these extracts and try to describe how the music creates the effect/atmosphere needed for the film) World Music x Music of the Caribbean (World of music Caribbean various artists) x Music of Africa (The Spirit of Africa various artists, South African Music a Rough Guide) x Music of India (The Sounds of India Ravi Shankar)
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Revision Notes Western Classical Traditions THE BAROQUE ORCHESTRA The origi ns of the modern orchestra date back to the Baroque period (1600 1750) when many courts established small

orchestras to provide entertainment. By the start of the 18 th century the orchestra was based on the string family violins, violas and cellos which were supported by one or more instruments such as the harpsichord or organ that could fill out the harmony where necessary. The combination of strings and harpsichord is one of the most characteristic sounds of the Baroque orchestra. OLVWHQWR%DFKV%UD QGHQEXUJ If the music was grand or ceremonial trumpets and timpani were added to create

ULFKHUWH[WXUHVOLVWHQWR=DGRNWKH3ULHVW (listen to Music for the Royal Fireworks by Handel) SONATA FORM Sonata form is a musical structure that first came a bout at the beginning of the classical period (1750 1810). The music for a sonata is composed in 3 sections, the exposition, the development and the recapitulation. In the exposition section the main theme (main melody or musical phrase) is heard. In the d evelopment section this theme is developed and extended with new ideas and then in the recapitulation section we

return to the original theme. OLVWHQWRDQ\RI0R]DUWVVRQDWDV THE CONCERTO A concerto is a piece of classical music written for 1 solo in strument accompanied by an orchestra. The solo instrument plays the main part whilst the orchestra plays a supporting role. OLVWHQWR0R]DUWVIOXWH&RQFHUWRQR CHAMBER MUSIC Is music written for small groups of instruments that first became popul ar in the classical period when smaller groups of musicians were used for entertainment. The music has one part

for each performer so is a bit like 4 part harmony. Chamber music does not usually include parts for solo instruments. OLVWHQWR+D\GQVVWULQ g quartet opus 20 no.4 in D major) MUSIC FOR VOICE The main development in music for voice in the classical period was the reformation of OPERA. This is when orchestral music and song are combined with staging, acting and costumes. Haydn, Mozart and Beet hoven all wrot e extensively for voice in the classical period.
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Popular Music of the 20 th and 21 st Centuries THE BLUES The Blues began as an

African American song form in the south of the USA. In these early days the blues was performed by a solo singer to the accompaniment of guitar and the song lyrics had a sad quality to them. Later the blues moved to larger cities like New Orleans where it influenced the development of Jazz and by the 1920s blues singers were accompanied by bands made up of clarinets, trumpets, piano and double bass. The blues consists of a repeated pattern with 4 beats in a bar. The pattern is usually 12 bars long and regularly takes the following form: C C C C F F C C G F C C (remember playing the 12 bar

blues in class) Blues musicians create melodies based on this chor d structure and using the blues scale. They also improvise (make it up as you go along) melodies whilst the other musicians stick to playing the chords. Blues singers often bend the pitch of notes and slide between notes as they sing. These effects can be very expressive, communicating to the listener the sadness and sense of injustice expressed in the words of many blues songs. MUSICAL THEATRE Before the days of Rock and Roll (Rock and roll first came about in the 1950s) many popular songs were from Music al Theatre

productions. Usually called musicals, these were plays and sometimes films which featured songs and choruses. The singing was accompanied by an orchestra and occurred at importane moments in the play. Song melodies from musicals were often playe d by jazz musicians who used them as the basis for improvisation. . Famous composers of musicals included Irving Berlin, Cole Porter and Richard Rodgers.

,Q$QGUHZ/OR\G:HEEHUFRPSRVHGDVKRUWPXVLFDOIRUVFKRRO-RVHSKDQGWKH Amazing Technicolour D UHDPFRDWOLVWHQWRWKHVRQJVIURPWKLVPXVLFDO this was influenced in style both by rock music and jazz. Joseph proved the starting point for a series of longer musicals by Lloyd Webber which have become world famous they include: x Evita x Cats x The Phantom of The Opera x Les Miserable (try and

listen to songs from these musicals) 1960s SONG During the 1960s Britain became famous for its rock scene, groups like The Beatles, The Rolling Stones and The Who wrote and performed songs in their own distinctive st \OHV%RWKWKH5ROOLQJ6WRQHVDQG7KH:KRHPSKDVLVHGDVSHFWVRIUK\WKPQEOXHV LQWKHLUVRQJV3HUIRUPDQFHVZHUHORXGO\DPSOLILHGDQGW\SLFDOO\LQYROYHGIUDQWLF guitars and drums and

wild vocals.
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OLVWHQWR7KH5ROOLQJ6WRQHV6DWLVIDFWLRQDQG7KH:K RV0\*HQHUDWLRQ The Beatles created a new and original style of pop music that was influenced by rock n roll, rhythm n blues and folk music. Their first releases were cheerful dance songs DWDIDVWWHPSRVXFKDV/RYH0H'ROLVWHQWRWKLVDQG3OHDV

H3OHDVH0HOLVWHQWR this). Later their music became more adventurous as they began to experiment with unusual instruments and write unconventional lyrics. OLVWHQWR/RYH0H'RDQG6WUDZEHUU\)LHOGV)RUHYHUDQGFRPSDUHWKHGLIIHUHQFH RAP Rap emerged as an alternative to disco in American inner cities at the end of the 1970s. The musical backing for rap was borrowed from existing records. The DJ Grandmaster flash (listen to his

work) used a drum machine to link 2 tracks on vinyl records on 2 tu rntables together. Another DJ, Grand Wizard Theodor was among the ILUVWWRXVHWKHWHFKQLTXHRIVFUDWFKLQJ6RPHH[DPSOHVRIHDUO\UDSVRQJVDUH:KLWH /LQHVDQG5DSSHUV'HOLJKWE\*UDQGPDVWHU)ODVK More recently Snoop dogg, So Solid Crew, Missy Elliot t and Eminem have become leaders in the field of rap. HIP HOP A form of Rap called Hip Hop

emerged in New York during the 1970s. The term was XVHGWRGHILQHWKHPXVLFGDQFHDQGDUWRI1HZ dance included break dancing and dancing with robot like movements. Much of the art associated with Hip Hop 6took the form of Graffiti. Hip hop has influenced some MD]]DQGVRXOPXVLFLDQV&KDND.KDQVVLQJOH,)HHO)RU introduction. (listen to Soulja Boy 7 HOOHP&UDQN7KDW MUSIC FOR FILM In the Listening exam there

will be a question about Music for Film that will concentrate on how the composer has used musical devices/keywords to create a specific dramatic effect such as: x Creating a sense of time or pl ace x Creating an appropriate mood x Depicting characters (motif) x Creating and releasing tension You need to think carefully about how the composer had composed the music in such a way that it represents and supports the action or characters in the film. In J aws, the shark itself is not seen until over an hour into the film but its presence is felt through the repeated use of the well known shark

motif. This musical idea is incredibly simple but highly effective. The music and your imagination creates the fear rather than anything you see in the first part of the film as the composer uses the shark motif to PDQLSXODWHWKHDXGLHQFHVHPRWLRQV
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World Music SAMBA The Samba is the national dance of Brazil. Its drums and complex percussion rhythms derive from We st Africa while its syncopated harmonies are played on Portuguese guitars. The dance has two main types that are called rural and urban. The rural type is usually performed by smaller

bands and is more adventurous rhythmically. Urban sambas are often playe d by large bands using saxophones, trumpets and keyboards. CALL AND RESPONSE vocal effects are also common. The samba is usually in a major key and has 2 or 4 beats in a bar. Lots of percussion instruments are used to create thick rhythmic textures. (liste QWR6ZLQJGH&DPSR*UDQGH SALSA The Salsa is a dance form the Caribbean island of Cuba .Cuban musicians emigrating to the US have made salsa an important element 0of the dance scene in Miami and New York. The dance is

recognised by its syncopated rhyt hms and energetic movements and use of percussion instruments like bongo drums, claves, guiro and maracas. It uses a repeated rhythm that is often heard on claves (a bit like a woodblock) and the other instruments fir their parts around this central rhythm OLVWHQWR&XPELDSD&ROXPELD TANGO The Tango is a well known dance from Argentina. It has 2 or 4 beats in a bar and can be easily recognised by its repeated rhythmic pattern. It uses instruments such as violin, piano and double bass so it sounds v ery

different from the Samba and Salsa. OLVWHQWR/LEHUWDQJRE\3LD]ROOD JAMAICAN MUSIC During the 1960s 2 forms of popular music emerged from Jamaica, they were Ska and Rocksteady. SKA was developed in the ghettoes of Kingston, Jamaica at the be ginning of the 1960s. It uses swing rhythms from rhythm and blues to create an off beat rhythm that is characteristic of all reggae music. ROCKSTEADY was slower than SKA and had more complicated song melodies. It focused on short repeated patterns called riffs. REGGAE was a later version of Ska and

Rocksteady but with a slower more relaxed feel. It has 4 beats in a bar but the emphasis is on beat 2 and beat 4. The lyrics of reggae songs had themes of poverty and were often linked to Rastafarianism. (l LVWHQWR7UHQFKWRZQ5RFNDQG/LYHQ8S Wailers) It was not until the 1970s that reggae became known in Britain. Eric Claptom UHFRUGHGDFRYHUYHUVLRQRI%RE0DUOH\V,6KRW7KH6KHULIIDQG0DUOH\VZRUN became more well k

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OLVWHQWR$VZDGV%DFNWR$IULFD MUSIC OF AFRICA African music has strongly influenced the music of the west and performers of western popular songs have been strongly influenced by African American forms of music like the blues, rhythm and blu HVMD]]DQGVRXO6RQJVRQ3DXO6LPRQV Graceland album mix elements from South African Music with a rock style due to collaborations with South

$IULFDQVLQJHUV/DG\VPLWK%ODFN0DPED]RWU\DQGOLVWHQ to these on youtube) THE MUSIC OF INDIA Indian inst ruments like the Sitar and Tabla have been used in popular songs since the 60s. Most Indian Music is made up of 3 main parts, the raga (melodies) the tala (the rhythm) and drone (a long, low pitched note that is continuous). Bhangra is a type of Indian mus ic from north indian traditional music and uses a combination of western rock and Indian instruments. ***listen to: x Ravi Shankar x Kula Shaker (a western band

heavily influenced by Indian music) x Apache Indian (a fusion of bhangra and reggae) x Asian Dub Found ation ( Indian music mixed with rap, reggae and rock) x 6DQJHHWDV3\DU.D+DL%DLUL
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Italian Terms Italian words are often used to describe music so it would be really useful to understand the following vocabulary: A cappella sung with no instrumental accompaniment Agitato excited and fast Allegro moderately quick Allegretto a moderate pace Andante at a walking pace Accelerando getting gradually faster Adagio slow Battaglia a piece

suggesting a battle Cantata a piece for or chestra and singers Capriccio a lively piece of music Coda the end of a piece Crescendo gradually getting louder Con fuoco with a fiery manner Con sordino with mute Con brio with spirit Cantabile in a singing style Dolce softly and sweetly Diminuendo gradually getting quieter Da Capo repeat from the start Falsetto a vocal technique that allows a man to sing higher notes (like Matt Cardle) Fortissimo (ff) very loud Forte (f) loud Fine the end Grazioso gracefully Glissando a sl ide along the notes in scale from one pitch to another Legato smooth Largo

very slow Maestoso majestically Mezzo half Pianissimo (pp) very quiet Piano (p) quiet Pizzicato plucked (string instruments) Poco a little
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Poco a poco little by little Portamento to slide between notes (similar to glissando) Presto very fast Rubato free flowing, with feeling Rallentando gradually getting slower Tremolo like a drum roll but on a pitched instrument Tutti everyone together Staccato deta ched Vivace vivacious, up tempo Molto very Piu more Ma non troppo but not too much.