Chapter Eight Chapter Eight

Chapter Eight - PowerPoint Presentation

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Chapter Eight - PPT Presentation

Theories of Message Processing Classic Models of Persuasion Cognitive Dissonance Theory Developed by Festinger Individuals have a need for consistency between attitudes and behaviors When we behave in inconsistent ways we feel discomfort ID: 373369

problematic theory behavior integration theory problematic integration behavior route judgments elm persuasion developed processing message messages http attitude amp




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Chapter Eight

Theories of Message ProcessingSlide2

Classic Models of Persuasion:

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Developed by Festinger

Individuals have a need for


between attitudes and behaviors

When we behave in inconsistent ways, we feel discomfort

Thus, if we behave in an inconsistent way, we might change our attitudes to match behaviorSlide3

Classic Models of Persuasion:

Theory of Reasoned Action

Developed by Fishbein and Ajzen

Argues that best predictor of behavior is

behavioral intention


BI is predicted by


(sum of weighted beliefs: pos. & neg.) and by

subjective norms

(influence of others in the social environment)Slide4

Extension of Reasoned Action:

Theory of Planned Behavior




Perc’d Beh.





Classic Models of Persuasion:

Social Judgment Theory

Developed by M. Sherif, C. Sherif, and colleagues

Proposes that statements about a particular “attitude object” can be arrayed to include latitudes of




, and


Attitude change will be influenced by how new messages fit among these “latitudes”Slide6


In Illinois, “It is unlawful to carry or possess any firearm on any public street or other public lands within the corporate limits of a city, village, or incorporated town, except law enforcement officers...”

This law should be changed.

What is your latitude of acceptance?

What is your latitude of rejection?

What is your latitude of noncommitment?

Acceptance non-com RejectionSlide7

Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

Developed by Petty and Cacioppo

Two routes to persuasion--

Central route

involves careful scrutiny of message logic and arguments

Peripheral route

involves consideration of cues in the message environment such as source credibility and message designSlide8

Which Route Do We Take?

ELM proposes that people will take the central or peripheral route based on several factors


. If people see the message as relevant, they will be motivated to process centrally


. People must have the ability and be in a situation where central processing is possibleSlide9

Outcomes of the Two Routes

Messages processed through the


route lead to attitude change that is “relatively enduring, resistant, and predictive of behavior.”

Messages processed through the


route lead to attitude change that will be “relatively temporary, susceptible [to change], and unpredictive of behavior.”Slide10

ELM: Critiques of the Model

There has been a great deal of research stemming from ELM

ELM has also been criticized:

First, many critics point out that it is possible to take


routes to persuasion

Second, many critics believe the ELM is difficult to falsifySlide11

Heuristic-Systematic Model

Developed by Chaiken

Another dual processing model

Systematic processing (like central route in ELM)

Heuristic processing (simple decision rules—not much effort in processing)

Experts can be trusted

Consensus implies correctness

When consistent, additive effects

When inconsistent, systematic supercedes, when person is highly motivatedSlide12

Inoculation Theory:

Originally proposed by McGuire, has been developed by Pfau and Burgoon

Inoculation Theory is a theory of


to persuasion based on the analogy of biological inoculation against diseaseSlide13

Components of the Process


: A forewarning that a challenge to existing attitudes is possible or likely

Refutational preemption

: A message in which specific challenges to existing attitudes are raised and refuted

Booster Messages

are sometimes included in the inoculation process as wellSlide14

The Process and Tests

Inoculation Theory proposes that when you are presented with a warning and weak arguments against one of your beliefs, you will be able to fight off that attack and subsequent attacks

Tests of the theory provide some support, but only in limited circumstances (e.g., adolescent smoking behavior)Slide15

Problematic Integration Theory

Problematic Integration Theory (PIT) proposed by Babrow as a more general theory of how individuals receive, process, and make sense of messages

PIT has most often been applied to health-related messages, but it has wide possible application in communicationSlide16

What is being Integrated?

PIT proposes two kinds of judgments about events and issues in our lives

Probabilistic judgments

involve an assessment of how likely something is to occur

Evaluative judgments

involve an assessment of the relative good/bad outcome of a state of affairs

Not independent assessmentsSlide17

When is Integration Problematic?

The integration of some judgments is


problematic (e.g., high likelihood of a positive event or low likelihood of negative event)

Four forms of integration are proposed as problematic:

Divergence, uncertainty, ambivalence, and impossibilitySlide18

Problematic Integration (Table 8.1)


—Discrepancy between probability & evaluative judgments



—Unknowns so can’t make judgments



—Mutually exclusive alternatives (similar evaluation or different)

Example? Impossibility

—an event will not happenExample?Slide19

PIT & Communication

Communication serves as a medium and a resource for problematic integration (language constitutes problematic and evaluative judgments)

Comm. is a channel through which perceptions and beliefs about problematic integration flow.

Communication helps resolve the problemsSlide20


Health communication

Social support groups—e.g., may be good to increase uncertainty about prognosis of breast cancer if original diagnosis was bad

End-of-life decisions—Information to help patients cope rather than to make “informed” choices


Applications: PSAs


(I learned it by…)







(I’m trying it …)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CPu-W06ZMgg&feature=relmfu (just once)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6YaO4PMBrJI (shower)