Pragmatism and Curriculum (Tyler’s Model) Pragmatism and Curriculum (Tyler’s Model)

Pragmatism and Curriculum (Tyler’s Model) - PowerPoint Presentation

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Uploaded On 2016-06-20

Pragmatism and Curriculum (Tyler’s Model) - PPT Presentation

M Kumail Badami MPhil in Ed 1 What is the purpose of the education 2 What educational experiences will attain the purposes 3 How can these experiences be effectively organized 4 How can we determine when the purposes are met ID: 370813

experience education dewey experiences education experience experiences dewey social control learners learning subject matter freedom traditional process life 1938




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Pragmatism and Curriculum (Tyler’s Model)

M. Kumail Badami (MPhil in Ed.)Slide2

1) What is the purpose of the education?

2) What

educational experiences will attain the purposes?3) How can these experiences be effectively organized?4) How can we determine when the purposes are met?

Tyler’s Curriculum DevelopmentSlide3

John Dewey is known as Father of Pragmatism.

Dewey's educational theories were presented in

My Pedagogic Creed (1897), The School and Society (1900),


Child and the Curriculum (1902), Democracy and Education (1916) and Experience and Education (1938). Classical pragmatic Philosopher arePierceJamesDewey

Philosophy of PragmatismSlide4

Experience and Education (1938) is an analysis of both traditional and progressive education.


vs Progressive EducationTraditional education consists of a rigid regimentation, ignoring the capacities and interests of the learner.


education allows excessive individualism and spontaneity which Dewey says is “a deceptive index of freedom”.Traditional v/s Progressive EducationSlide5

Complete rejection of traditional education only presents new


Educators must recognize and understand the connection between education and personal experience.Contd.Slide6


The challenge for experience based education is to provide learners with quality experiences that will result in growth and creativity in their subsequent experiences. Dewey refers to this principle as the continuity of

experience. or the experiential continuum, a principle necessary for the philosophy of educative experience (p. 28).The

continuity principle is involved in attempts to discriminate between experiences that are educationally worthwhile, and those that are not

.Interactionboth the objective and internal conditions of an experienceJudging the value of an experience should factor in what the experience moves towards and into. The educator has a responsibility to evaluate the direction a learning experience is heading.In an experience, interaction occurs between an individual, objects, and other people.

The experience becomes what it is because of this transaction between an individual and what constitutes his or her environment


Two PrinciplesSlide7

Dewey (1938) relates the principles of continuity and interaction to educational problems and challenges.

He chooses social control because of the social process that makes up the educative

experience.Everyone experiences social control. It often occurs in agreement and by the members of a group for the benefit of the entire


An example of social control that occurs in agreement in a school setting with children is the games played at recess, and team sports games such as soccer, hockey, baseball, and football.Dewey (1938) explains that these games involve rules that order the children’s conduct.He states that both the rules and the conduct of the game are standardized, and hold the sanction of tradition and precedentSocial ControlSlide8

The control is social, but individuals are part of a community, not outside of it.

It is not the will or desire of any one person to establish order, but rather it is the moving spirit of the entire

group.Control of individuals is based on classroom activities and on the situations that maintains these activities.The principle that development of experience comes about through interaction means that education is essentially a social process.


Dewey (1938) presents the other side of the problem of social control: the nature of freedom


A common mistake is to identify freedom with movement or the physical side of activity.Dewey believes that one cannot separate the physical side of activity from the internal side; that is, from desire, purpose, and freedom of thought.Traditional education imposed a limitation on outer movement when they introduced fixed rows of desks filled with students who were permitted movement only at certain signals. This was a detriment to both intellectual and moral freedom


Three advantages to increasing outward freedom.Educator to gain valuable knowledge of the learners. (artificial uniformity)Nature of the learning process. (hands-on experience)Means for maintaining normal physical and mental health.

The Nature of FreedomSlide10

Subject matter must fall within the scope of ordinary life


Prior life experience must progress developmentally into a fuller and more organized form.The challenge for the educator exists in the selection those existing experiences that have the promise and potential of presenting new problems that will stimulate new ways in learners to observe and judge,


ultimately expanding the area of new and further experience.Traditional education focuses on subject matter selected and arranged on what adults thought would be useful for the young at some time in the future.Progressive Organization of Subject MatterSlide11


responsibility to

ensure the following two outcomes:that the problem grows out of the conditions of a present experience that is within the range of the capacity of learners.that the problem is significant enough to motivate learners to seek more information and to stimulate the production of new ideas.

These two outcomes become the basis for further experiences where the educator can present new problems. This process should take the form of a continuous

spiral.Educators should introduce learners to scientific subject matter and its facts and laws through the familiarity with everyday social applications such as the use of appliances that utilize electricity, heat, and light.The scientific method is the only authentic means.Contd.Slide12

According to John Dewey:

, in 

Democracy and Education he asserts, “Since growth is the characteristic of life, education is all one with growing; it has no end beyond itself” (MW 9: 58)The aim of education is to enable individuals to continue their education … the object and reward of learning is continued capacity for growth.

Dewey believes that democracy is the social structure that contributes most to freeing intelligence to grow, and, therefore, education should be democratic

. 1) What is the purpose of the education?Slide13

Cooperative endeavor.


matter consisting of facts, information, and ideas. Continuous process of reconstructing experience.

2) What educational experiences will attain the purposes


Parents were attracted by a curriculum that emphasized the child instead of the subject matter, where the learning process was at least as important as what was learned, and where curiosity was encouraged.

3) How can these experiences be effectively organized


Assessment is integral to learning


The key to good assessment is simply providing feedback to students about their achievement and their potential.They must present opportunities for student learning, observe when they have achieved a satisfactory habit of thinking or doing, and then present additional opportunities for new habit formations. This is the purpose of assessment and instruction -- to help students achieve new and higher level habits


 Assessment related to real ongoing life in society.There should be a three-way unity of instruction, assessment, and real life experiences.All assessments of student progress, if provided as feedback and integrated into instruction, should help the student to stimulate growth and form new habits.4) How can we determine when the purposes are met?Slide16

Thank You