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Public health doctor specializing in respiratory disease Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1 Emerging Infectious Diseases National Center for Emerging and ID: 368283

flu pneumonia pneumococcal disease pneumonia flu disease pneumococcal infectious emerging vaccines diseases pneumococcus cases people pandemic h1n1 lungs 2009




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Dr. George Nelson

Public health doctor specializing in respiratory diseaseCenters for Disease Control and Prevention

Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1

Emerging Infectious Diseases

National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases

Emerging Infectious Diseases June 2012

Based on the articleInvasive Pneumococcal Disease and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Denver, Colorado, USA

George E. Nelson, Kenneth A.


, David L.


, Bernard W.


, and

Matthew R. MooreSlide2

What is pneumonia?

PneumoniaInfection of the lungs.Alveoli (air sacs of lungs) fill with fluid and pus, making breathing more

difficult.Pneumococcal pneumonia

Caused by bacteria called pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae).

Can also be caused by other bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites.Slide3

How is pneumonia spread?

Most cases of pneumonia are spread person-to-person by coughing out of tiny droplets.Some pathogens can live in nose and throat without causing disease.

But when inhaled into lungs, they can cause pneumonia.

While many people are exposed to pneumococcus, usually only those with underlying health issues develop pneumonia. Slide4

Who is at higher risk for pneumonia?

People with some medical conditions are at higher risk for pneumonia, including: heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, etc.Smoking also increases risk of developing


What is invasive pneumococcal disease?

Occurs when pneumococcus gets into part of the body normally free of bacteria.Pneumococcus in blood = bacteremia.

Pneumococcus in spinal fluid = meningitis.People with bacteremia and meningitis can become very sick, disabled, and in 10-15% of adult cases they


What is the relationship between flu and pneumonia?

During flu pandemics before 2009, up to 1 in 3 flu victims developed pneumonia.2009 H1N1 flu pandemic Study found more than

3 times the number of cases of invasive pneumococcal disease than expected during the month that the flu peaked in Denver.

Up to 62% of the cases of pneumococcal pneumonia may have been associated with pandemic H1N1.Slide7

What vaccines will help protect you from pneumonia?

In the United States, there are several vaccines available for preventing pneumonia:2 pneumococcal vaccines

vaccines against Haemophilus

influenzae type b (Hib

), whooping cough, chickenpox, measles, and fluAdults should check with their doctors – they may need vaccines or boosters to vaccinations that they got as


Recommended public health strategies

Raise awarenessLet patients and healthcare providers know about the relationship between flu and pneumococcal pneumonia.Alert people to look for complications of bacterial pneumonia after flu

infection.Advocate for vaccination

Especially with flu and pneumococcal vaccines.Slide9

For more information please contact,

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Journal,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop D61, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA

Telephone: 1-404-639-1960/Fax: 1-404-639-1954E-mail: eideditor@cdc.gov Web: http://www.cdc.gov/eid/

The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious DiseasesEmerging Infectious DiseasesThank you to all authorsGeorge E. Nelson, Kenneth A. Gershman, David L. Swerdlow, Bernard W. Beall, and Matthew R. Moore