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Canoeing Merit Badge Workbook This workbook can help you but you still need to read the merit badge pamphlet. This Workbook can help you organize your thoughts as you prepare to meet with your merit badge counselor. You still must satisfy your counselor that you can demonstrate each skill and have learned the information. You should use the work space provided for each requirement to keep track of which requirements have been completed, and to make notes for discussing the item with your counselor, not for providing full and complete answers. If a requirement says that you must take an action using words such as "discuss", "show", "tell", "explain", "demonstrate", "identify", etc, that is what you must do. Merit Badge Counselors may not require the use of this or any similar workbooks. No one may add or subtract from the official requirements found in Scouts BSA Requirements (Pub. 33216 – SKU 653801). The requirements were last issued or revised in 2018 • This workbook was updated in June 2020. Scout’s Name: __________________________________________ Unit: __________________________________________ Counselor’s Name: ____________________ Phone No.: _______________________ Email: _________________________ Workbook © Copyright 2020 - U.S. Scouting Service Project, Inc. - All Rights Reserved Requirements © Copyright, Boy Scouts of America (Used with permission.) This workbook may be reproduced and used locally by Scouts and Scouters for purposes consistent with the programs of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA), the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) or other Scouting and Guiding Organizations. However it may NOT be used or reproduced for electronic redistribution or for commercial or other non-Scouting purposes without the express permission of the U. S. Scouting Service Project, Inc. (USSSP). http://www.USScouts.Org • http://www.MeritBadge.Org Please submit errors, omissions, comments or suggestions about this workbook to: Workbooks@USScouts.Org Comments or suggestions for changes to the requirements for the merit badge should be sent to: Merit.Badge@Scouting.Org ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Do the following: a. Explain to your counselor the most likely hazards you may encounter while participating in canoeing activities and what you should do to anticipate, help prevent, mitigate, and respond to these hazards. Canoeing Scout'sName:________________________ Canoeing-MeritBadgeWorkbook Page.2of1 b.Reviewprevention,symptoms,andfirst-aidtreatmentforthefollowinginjuriesorillnessesthatcouldoccurwhile canoeing:blisters,cold-watershockandhypothermia,dehydration,heat-relatedillnesses,sunburn,sprains,and strains. Blisters: Cold-Water Shockand Hypothermia Dehydration: Heat- Related Illnesses Sprains Strains: c.DiscusstheBSASafetyAfloatpolicy.Tellhowitappliestocanoeingactivities. Canoeing Scout'sName:________________________ Canoeing-MeritBadgeWorkbook Page.3of1 �F 2.Beforedoingthefollowingrequirements,successfullycompletetheBSAswimmertest:Jumpfeetfirstintowateroverthe headindepth.Leveloffandswim75yardsinastrongmannerusingoneormoreofthefollowingstrokes:sidestroke, breaststroke,trudgen,orcrawl;thenswim25yardsusinganeasy,restingbackstroke.The100yardsmustbe completedinoneswimwithoutstopsandmustincludeatleastonesharpturn.Aftercompletingtheswim,restby floating. 3.Dothefollowing: a.Nameandpointoutthemajorpartsofacanoe. b.Describehowthelengthandshapeofacanoeaffectitsperformance. c.Discusstheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofthedifferentmaterialsusedtomakecanoes. Material Advantages Disadvantages Canoeing Scout'sName:________________________ Canoeing-MeritBadgeWorkbook Page.4of1 4.Dothefollowing: a.Nameandpointoutthepartsofapaddle. Explainthedifferencebetweenastraightandbent-shaftpaddleandwheneachisbestused. �F b.Demonstratehowtocorrectlysizeapaddleforapaddlerinasittingpositionandakneelingposition. Canoeing Scout'sName:________________________ Canoeing-MeritBadgeWorkbook Page.5of1 5.Dothefollowing: a.Discusswithyourcounselorthecharacteristicsoflifejacketsmostappropriateforcanoeingandtellwhyalife jacketmustalwaysbewornwhilepaddling. �F b.Demonstratehowtoselectandproperlyfitthecorrectsizelifejacket. 6.Discusswithyourcounselorthegeneralcareandmaintenanceofcanoes,paddles,andothercanoeingequipment. Canoeing Scout'sName:________________________ Canoeing-MeritBadgeWorkbook Page.6of1 7.Dothefollowing: a.Discusswhatpersonalandgroupequipmentwouldbeappropriateforacanoecampingtrip. Personal: Group: Describehowpersonalandgroupequipmentcanbepackedandprotectedfromwater. �F b.Usingthecontainersandpacksfromrequirement7a,demonstratehowtoloadandsecurethecontainersand otherequipmentinthecanoe. Canoeing Scout's Name: ________________________ Canoeing - Merit Badge Workbook Page. 7 of 13 c. Using appropriate knots, including a trucker’s hitch, tautline hitch, and bowline, demonstrate how to secure a canoe to a vehicle or a trailer, or if these are not available, a rack on land. 8. With a companion, use a properly equipped canoe to demonstrate the following: a. Safely carry and launch the canoe from a dock or shore (both, if possible). b. Safely land the canoe on a dock or shore (both, if possible) and return it to its proper storage location. c. Demonstrate kneeling and sitting positions in a canoe and explain the proper use for each position. d. Change places while afloat in the canoe. 9. With a companion, use a properly equipped canoe to demonstrate the following: a. In deep water, exit the canoe and get back in without capsizing. b. Safely perform a controlled capsize of the canoe and demonstrate how staying with a capsized canoe will support both paddlers. c. Swim, tow, or push a swamped canoe 50 feet to shallow water. In the shallow water, empty the swamped canoe and reenter it. d. In deep water, rescue a swamped canoe and its paddlers by emptying the swamped canoe and helping the paddlers safely reenter their boat without capsizing. 10. With a companion, use a properly equipped canoe to demonstrate the following paddling strokes as both a bow and stern paddler: a. Forward stroke b. Backstroke c. Draw For stern paddling only: d. J-stroke e. Pushaway f. Forward sweep g Reverse sweep h. Rudder-Stern pry-stroke 11. Using the strokes in requirement 10, and in an order determined by your counselor, use a properly equipped canoe to demonstrate the following tandem maneuvers while paddling on opposite sides and without changing sides. Each paddler must demonstrate these maneuvers in both the bow and stern and on opposite paddling sides: a. Pivot or spin the canoe in either direction. b. Move the canoe sideways or abeam in either direction. c. Stop the canoe. d. Move the canoe in a straight line for 50 yards. 12. Use a properly equipped canoe to demonstrate solo canoe handling: a. Launch from shore or a pier (both, if possible). b. Using a single-blade paddle and paddling only on one side, demonstrate proper form and use of the forward stroke, backstroke, draw stroke, pushaway stroke, forward sweep, reverse or back sweep, and J-stroke. Repeat while paddling on the other side. c. Using a single-blade paddle and paddling only on one side, demonstrate proper form and use of a combination of a forward stroke, rudder stroke, and stern pry by canoeing to a target 50 yards away. Repeat while paddling on the other side. d. Make a proper landing at a dock or shore (both, if possible). Store canoe properly (with assistance, if needed). Canoeing Scout'sName:________________________ Canoeing-MeritBadgeWorkbook Page.8of1 13.Discussthefollowingtypesofcanoeing: a.OlympicCanoe Sprint b.Flatwaterand RiverTouring c.Outrigger d.Marathon Canoeing Scout's Name: ________________________ Canoeing - Merit Badge Workbook Page. 9 of 13 e. Freestyle f. Whitewater g. Canoe poling When working on merit badges, Scouts and Scouters should be aware of some vital information in the current edition of the Guide to Advancement (BSA publication 33088).Important excerpts from that publication can be downloaded from http://usscouts.org/advance/docs/GTA-Excerpts-meritbadges.pdf . You can download a complete copy of the Guide to Advancement from http://www.scouting.org/filestore/pdf/33088.pdf . SAFETYAFLOAT Page1of2 Canoeing-MeritBadgeWorkbook Page.10of1 BSAgroupsshalluseSafetyAfloatforallboatingactivities.Adult leaderssupervisingactivitiesafloatmusthavecompletedSafety Afloattrainingwithintheprevioustwoyears.CubScoutactivities afloatarelimitedtocouncilordistricteventsthatdonotinclude movingwaterorfloattrips(expeditions).SafetyAfloatstandards applytotheuseofcanoes,kayaks,rowboats,rafts,floatingtubes, sailboats,motorboats(includingwaterskiing),andothersmall craft,butdonotapplytotransportationonlargecommercial vesselssuchasferriesandcruiseships.Parasailing(beingtowed airbornebehindaboatusingaparachute),kitesurfing(usinga wakeboardtowedbyakite),andrecreationaluseofpersonal watercraft(smallsit-on-topmotorboatspropelledbywaterjets)are notauthorizedBSAactivities. SafetyAfloattrainingmaybeobtainedfromtheBSAOnline LearningCenteratwww.scouting.org,atcouncilsummercamps, andatothercouncilanddistricttrainingevents.Confirmationof trainingisrequiredonlocalandnationaltourpermitsfortripsthat involveboating.Additionalguidanceonappropriateskilllevels andtrainingresourcesisprovidedinthe AquaticsSupervision guideavailablefromcouncilservicecenters. 1. QualifiedSupervision Allactivityafloatmustbesupervisedbyamatureand conscientiousadultage21orolderwhounderstandsand knowinglyacceptsresponsibilityforthewellbeingandsafety ofthoseinhisorhercareandwhoistrainedinand committedtocompliancewiththeninepointsofBSASafety Afloat.Thatsupervisormustbeskilledinthesafeoperation ofthecraftforthespecificactivity,knowledgeableinaccident prevention,andpreparedforemergencysituations.Ifthe adultwithSafetyAfloattraininglacksthenecessaryboat operatingandsafetyskills,thenheorshemayserveasthe supervisoronlyifassistedbyotheradults,campstaff personnel,orprofessionaltourguideswhohavethe appropriateskills.Additionalleadershipisprovidedinratios ofonetrainedadult,staffmember,orguideper10 participants.ForCubScouts,theleadershipratioisone trainedadult,staffmember,orguideperfiveparticipants.At leastoneleadermustbetrainedinfirstaidincludingCPR. Anyswimmingdoneinconjunctionwiththeactivityafloat mustbesupervisedinaccordancewithBSASafeSwim Defensestandards.Itisstronglyrecommendedthatallunits haveatleastoneadultorolderyouthmembercurrently trainedinBSAAquaticsSupervision:PaddleCraftSafetyto assistintheplanningandconductofallactivitiesafloat. 2. PersonalHealthReview Acompletehealthhistoryisrequiredofallparticipantsas evidenceoffitnessforboatingactivities.Formsforminors mustbesignedbyaparentorlegalguardian.Participants shouldbeaskedtorelateanyrecentincidentsofillnessor injuryjustpriortotheactivity.Supervisionandprotection shouldbeadjustedtoanticipateanypotentialrisks associatedwithindividualhealthconditions.Forsignificant healthconditions,theadultsupervisorshouldrequirean examinationbyaphysicianandconsultwithparent, guardian,orcaregiverforappropriateprecautions. 3. SwimmingAbility Operationofanyboatonafloattripislimitedtoyouthand adultswhohavecompletedtheBSAswimmerclassification test.Swimmersmustcompletethefollowingtest,which shouldbeadministeredannually. Jumpfeetfirstintowaterovertheheadindepth.Leveloff andswim75yardsinastrongmannerusingoneormoreof thefollowingstrokes:sidestroke,breaststroke,trudgen,or crawl;thenswim25yardsusinganeasy,restingbackstroke. The100yardsmustbecompletedinoneswimwithoutstops andmustincludeatleastonesharpturn.Aftercompleting theswim,restbyfloating. Foractivityafloat,thosenotclassifiedasaswimmerare limitedtomultipersoncraftduringoutingsorfloattripson calmwaterwithlittlelikelihoodofcapsizingorfalling overboard.Theymayoperateafixed-seatrowboatorpedal boataccompaniedbyabuddywhoisaswimmer.Theymay rideinacanoeorotherpaddlecraftwithanadultswimmer skilledinthatcraftasabuddy.Theymayrideaspartofa grouponamotorboatorsailboatoperatedbyaskilledadult. 4. LifeJackets ProperlyfittedU.S.CoastGuard–approvedlifejacketsmust bewornbyallpersonsengagedinboatingactivity(rowing, canoeing,sailing,boardsailing,motorboating,waterskiing, rafting,tubing,andkayaking).TypeIIIlifejacketsare recommendedforgeneralrecreationaluse. Forvesselsover20feetinlength,lifejacketsneednotbe wornwhenparticipantsarebelowdeckorondeckwhenthe qualifiedsupervisoraboardthevesseldeterminesthatitis prudenttoabidebyless-restrictivestateandfederal regulationsconcerningtheuseandstorageoflifejackets,for example,whenacruisingvesselwithsafetyrailsisat anchor.Allparticipantsnotclassifiedasswimmersmust wearalifejacketwhenondeckunderway. Lifejacketsneednotbewornwhenanactivityfallsunder SafeSwimDefenseguidelines—forexample,whenan inflatedraftisusedinapoolorwhensnorkelingfroman anchoredcraft. 5. BuddySystem Allparticipantsinanactivityafloatarepairedasbuddieswho arealwaysawareofeachother’ssituationandpreparedto soundanalarmandlendassistanceimmediatelywhen needed.Whenseveralcraftareusedonafloattrip,each boatonthewatershouldhavea“buddyboat.”Allbuddy pairsmustbeaccountedforatregularintervalsduringthe activityandcheckedoffthewaterbythequalifiedsupervisor attheconclusionoftheactivity.Buddieseitherrideinthe sameboatorstayneareachotherinsingle-personcraft. SAFETYAFLOAT Page2of2 Canoeing-MeritBadgeWorkbook Page.11of1 6. SkillProficiency Everyoneinanactivityafloatmusthavesufficientknowledgeand skilltoparticipatesafely.Passengersshouldknowhowtheir movementaffectsboatstabilityandhaveabasicunderstandingof self-rescue.Boatoperatorsmustmeetgovernmentrequirements, beabletomaintaincontroloftheircraft,knowhowchangesinthe environmentinfluencethatcontrol,andundertakeactivitiesonlythat arewithintheirpersonalandgroupcapabilities. Contentoftrainingexercisesshouldbeappropriatefortheage, size,andexperienceoftheparticipants,andshouldcoverbasic skillsoncalmwateroflimitedextentbeforeproceedingtoadvanced skillsinvolvingcurrent,waves,highwinds,orextendeddistance.At aminimum,instructorsforcanoesandkayaksshouldbeableto demonstratethehandlingandrescueskillsrequiredforBSA AquaticsSupervision:PaddleCraftSafety.Allinstructorsmust havealeastoneassistantwhocanrecognizeandrespond appropriatelyiftheinstructor’ssafetyiscompromised. Anyoneengagedinrecreationalboatingusinghumanpoweredcraft onflatwaterpondsorcontrolledlakeareasfreeofconflicting activitiesshouldbeinstructedinbasicsafetyprocedurespriorto launch,andallowedtoproceedaftertheyhavedemonstratedthe abilitytocontroltheboatadequatelytoreturntoshoreatwill. Forrecreationalsailing,atleastonepersonaboardshouldbeable todemonstratebasicsailingproficiency(tacking,reaching,and running)sufficienttoreturntheboattothelaunchpoint.Extended cruisingonalargesailboatrequireseitheraprofessionalcaptainor anadultwithsufficientexperiencetoqualifyasabareboatskipper. Motorboatsmaybeoperatedbyyouth,subjecttostate requirements,onlywhenaccompaniedintheboatbyan experiencedleaderorcampstaffmemberwhomeetsstate requirementsformotorboatoperation.Extendedcruisingonalarge powerboatrequireseitheraprofessionalcaptainoranadultwith similarqualifications. Beforeaunitusinghuman-poweredcraftcontrolledbyyouth embarksonafloattriporexcursionthatcoversanextended distanceorlastslongerthanfourhours,eachparticipantshould receiveeitheraminimumofthreehourstrainingandsupervised practice,ordemonstrateproficiencyinmaneuveringthecraft effectivelyovera100-yardcourseandrecoveringfromacapsize. UnittripsonwhitewateraboveClassIImustbedonewitheithera professionalguideineachcraftorafterallparticipantshave receivedAmericanCanoeAssociationorequivalenttrainingforthe classofwaterandtypeofcraftinvolved. 7. Planning Properplanningisnecessarytoensureasafe,enjoyableexercise afloat.Allplansshouldincludeascheduleditinerary,notificationof appropriateparties,communicationarrangements,contingenciesin caseoffoulweatherorequipmentfailure,andemergencyresponse options. Preparation. Anyboatingactivityrequiresaccesstotheproper equipmentandtransportationofgearandparticipantstothesite. Determinewhatstateandlocalregulationsareapplicable.Get permissiontouseorcrossprivateproperty.Determinewhether personalresourceswillbeusedorwhetheroutfitterswillsupply equipment,food,andshuttleservices.Listsofgroupandpersonal equipmentandsuppliesmustbecompiledandchecked.Even shorttripsrequireselectingaroute,checkingwaterlevels,and determiningalternativepull-outlocations.Changesinwaterlevel, especiallyonmovingwater,mayposesignificant,variablesafety concerns.Obtaincurrentchartsandinformationaboutthe waterwayandconsultthosewhohavetraveledtherouterecently. FloatPlan. Completethepreparationbywritingadetaileditinerary, orfloatplan,notingput-inandpulloutlocationsandwaypoints, alongwiththeapproximatetimethegroupshouldarriveateach. Traveltimeshouldbeestimatedgenerously. Notification. Filethe floatplanwithparents,thelocalcouncilofficeiftravelingonrunning water,andlocalauthoritiesifappropriate.Assignamemberofthe unitcommitteetoalertauthoritiesifprearrangedcheck-insare overdue.Makesureeveryoneispromptlynotifiedwhenthetripis concluded. Weather .Checktheweatherforecastjustbeforesettingout,and keepanalertweathereye.Anticipatechangesandbringallcraft ashorewhenroughweatherthreatens.Waitatleast30minutes beforeresumingactivitiesafterthelastincidenceofthunderor lightning. Contingencies .Planningmustidentifypossibleemergenciesand othercircumstancesthatcouldforceachangeofplans.Develop alternativeplansforeachsituation.Identifylocalemergency resourcessuchasEMSsystems,sheriff’sdepartments,orranger stations.Checkyourprimarycommunicationsystem,andidentify backups,suchasthenearestresidencetoacampsite.Cellphones andradiosmaylosecoverage,runoutofpower,orsufferwater damage. 8. Equipment Allcraftmustbesuitablefortheactivity,beseaworthy,andfloatif capsized.Allcraftandequipmentmustmeetregulatorystandards, beproperlysized,andbeingoodrepair.Spares,repairmaterials, andemergencygearmustbecarriedasappropriate.Lifejackets andpaddlesmustbesizedtotheparticipants.Properlydesigned andfittedhelmetsmustbewornwhenrunningrapidsratedabove ClassII.Emergencyequipmentsuchasthrowbags,signaldevices, flashlights,heatsources,first-aidkits,radios,andmapsmustbe readyforuse.Spareequipment,repairmaterials,extrafoodand water,anddryclothesshouldbeappropriatefortheactivity.All gearshouldbestowedtopreventlossandwaterdamage.Forfloat tripswithmultiplecraft,thenumberofcraftshouldbesufficientto carrythepartyifaboatisdisabled,andcriticalsuppliesshouldbe dividedamongthecraft. 9. Discipline Rulesareeffectiveonlywhenfollowed.Allparticipantsshould know,understand,andrespecttherulesandproceduresforsafe boatingactivitiesprovidedbySafetyAfloatguidelines.Applicable rulesshouldbediscussedpriortotheoutingandreviewedforall participantsneartheboardingareajustbeforetheactivityafloat begins.Peoplearemorelikelytofollowdirectionswhentheyknow thereasonsforrulesandprocedures.Consistent,impartially appliedrulessupportedbyskillandgoodjudgmentprovide stepping-stonestoasafe,enjoyableouting. ForadditionalinformationonSafetyAfloat,goto www.scouting.org/HealthandSafety/Aquatics/safety-afloat.aspx . SAFESWIMDEFENSE Page1of2 Canoeing-MeritBadgeWorkbook Page.12of1 BSAgroupsshalluseSafeSwimDefenseforallswimming activities.Adultleaderssupervisingaswimmingactivitymusthave completedSafeSwimDefensetrainingwithintheprevioustwo years.SafeSwimDefensestandardsapplyatbackyard,hotel, apartment,andpublicpools;atestablishedwaterfrontswimareas suchasbeachesatstateparksandU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers lakes;andatalltemporaryswimmingareassuchasalake,river, orocean.SafeSwimDefensedoesnotapplytoboatingorwater activitiessuchaswaterskiingorswampedboatdrillsthatare coveredbySafetyAfloatguidelines.SafeSwimDefenseappliesto othernonswimmingactivitieswheneverparticipantsenterwater overkneedeeporwhensubmersionislikely,forexample,when fordingastream,seiningforbait,orconstructingabridgeasa pioneeringproject.Snorkelinginopenwaterrequireseach participanttohavedemonstratedknowledgeandskillsequivalent tothoseforSnorkelingBSAinadditiontofollowingSafeSwim Defense.Scubaactivitiesmustbeconductedinaccordancewith theBSAScubapolicyfoundinthe GuidetoSafeScouting . Becauseofconcernswithhyperventilation,competitiveunderwater swimmingeventsarenotpermittedinScouting. SafeSwimDefensetrainingmaybeobtainedfromtheBSAOnline LearningCenteratolc.scouting.org,atcouncilsummercamps, andatothercouncilanddistricttrainingevents.Confirmationof trainingisrequiredonlocalandnationaltourpermitsfortripsthat involveswimming.Additionalinformationonvariousswimming venuesisprovidedintheAquaticsSupervisionguideavailable fromcouncilservicecenters. 1. QualifiedSupervision Allswimmingactivitymustbesupervisedbyamatureand conscientiousadultage21orolderwhounderstandsand knowinglyacceptsresponsibilityforthewell-beingandsafety ofthoseinhisorhercare,andwhoistrainedinand committedtocompliancewiththeeightpointsofBSASafe SwimDefense.Itisstronglyrecommendedthatallunitshave atleastoneadultorolderyouthmembercurrentlytrainedin BSAAquaticsSupervision:SwimmingandWaterRescueor BSALifeguardtoassistinplanningandconductingall swimmingactivities. 2. PersonalHealthReview Acompletehealthhistoryisrequiredofallparticipantsas evidenceoffitnessforswimmingactivities.Formsforminors mustbesignedbyaparentorlegalguardian.Participants shouldbeaskedtorelateanyrecentincidentsofillnessor injuryjustpriortotheactivity.Supervisionandprotection shouldbeadjustedtoanticipateanypotentialrisksassociated withindividualhealthconditions.Forsignificanthealth conditions,theadultsupervisorshouldrequirean examinationbyaphysicianandconsultwiththeparent, guardian,orcaregiverforappropriateprecautions. 3. SafeArea Allswimmingareasmustbecarefullyinspectedandprepared forsafetypriortoeachactivity.Waterdepth,quality, temperature,movement,andclarityareimportant considerations.Hazardsmustbeeliminatedorisolatedby conspicuousmarkingsanddiscussedwithparticipants. ControlledAccess: Theremustbesafeareasforall participatingabilitygroupstoenterandleavethewater. Swimmingareasofappropriatedepthmustbedefinedfor eachabilitygroup.Theentireareamustbewithineasyreach ofdesignatedrescuepersonnel.Theareamustbeclearof boattraffic,surfing,orothernonswimmingactivities. BottomConditionsandDepth: Thebottommustbeclearof treesanddebris.Abruptchangesindeptharenotallowedin thenonswimmerarea.Isolatedunderwaterhazardsshouldbe markedwithfloats.Rescuepersonnelmustbeabletoeasily reachthebottom.Maximumrecommendedwaterdepthin clearwateris12feet.Maximumwaterdepthinturbidwateris 8feet. Visibility: Underwaterswimminganddivingareprohibitedin turbidwater.Turbidwaterexistswhenaswimmertreading watercannotseehisfeet.Swimmingatnightisallowedonly inareaswithwaterclarityandlightingsufficientforgood visibilitybothaboveandbelowthesurface. DivingandElevatedEntry: Divingispermittedonlyinto clear,unobstructedwaterfromheightsnogreaterthan40 inches.Waterdepthmustbeatleast7feet.Bottomdepth contoursbelowdivingboardsandelevatedsurfacesrequire greaterwaterdepthsandmustconformtostateregulations. Personsshouldnotjumpintowaterfromheightsgreaterthan theyaretall,andshouldjumponlyintowaterchestdeepor greaterwithminimalriskfromcontactwiththebottom.No elevatedentryispermittedwherethepersonmustclearany obstacle,includingland. WaterTemperature: Comfortablewatertemperaturefor swimmingisnear80degrees.Activityinwaterat70degrees orlessshouldbeoflimiteddurationandcloselymonitoredfor negativeeffectsofchilling. WaterQuality: Bodiesofstagnant,foulwater,areaswith significantalgaeorfoam,orareaspollutedbylivestockor waterfowlshouldbeavoided.Complywithanysignsposted bylocalhealthauthorities.Swimmingisnotallowedin swimmingpoolswithgreen,murky,orcloudywater. MovingWater: Participantsshouldbeabletoeasilyregain andmaintaintheirfootingincurrentsorwaves.Areaswith largewaves,swiftlyflowingcurrents,ormoderatecurrents thatflowtowardtheopenseaorintoareasofdangershould beavoided. Weather:Participants shouldbemovedfromthewatertoa positionofsafetywheneverlightningorthunderthreatens. Waitatleast30minutesafterthelastlightningflashor thunderbeforeleavingshelter.Takeprecautionstoprevent sunburn,dehydration,andhypothermia. LifeJacketUse: Swimminginclearwaterover12feetdeep, inturbidwaterover8feetdeep,orinflowingwatermaybe allowedifallparticipantswearproperlyfitted,CoastGuard– approvedlifejacketsandthesupervisordeterminesthat swimmingwithlifejacketsissafeunderthecircumstances. SAFESWIMDEFENSE Page2of2 Canoeing-MeritBadgeWorkbook Page.13of1 4. ResponsePersonnel(Lifeguards) Everyswimmingactivitymustbecloselyandcontinuously monitoredbyatrainedrescueteamonthealertforandready torespondduringemergencies.Professionallytrained lifeguardssatisfythisneedwhenprovidedbyaregulated facilityortouroperator.Whenlifeguardsarenotprovidedby others,theadultsupervisormustassignatleasttworescue personnel,withadditionalnumberstomaintainaratioofone rescuertoevery10participants.Thesupervisormustprovide instructionandrescueequipmentandassignareasof responsibilityasoutlinedinAquaticsSupervision,No.34346. Thequalifiedsupervisor,thedesignatedresponsepersonnel, andthelookoutworktogetherasasafetyteam.An emergencyactionplanshouldbeformulatedandsharedwith participantsasappropriate. 5. Lookout Thelookoutcontinuouslymonitorstheconductoftheswim, identifiesanydeparturesfromSafeSwimDefenseguidelines, alertsrescuepersonnelasneeded,andmonitorstheweather andenvironment.Thelookoutshouldhaveaclearviewofthe entireareabutbecloseenoughforeasyverbal communication.Thelookoutmusthaveasound understandingofSafeSwimDefensebutisnotrequiredto performrescues.Theadultsupervisormayserve simultaneouslyasthelookoutbutmustassignthetaskto someoneelseifengagedinactivitiesthatprecludefocused observation. 6. AbilityGroups Allyouthandadultparticipantsaredesignatedasswimmers, beginners,ornonswimmersbasedonswimmingability confirmedbystandardizedBSAswimclassificationtests. Eachgroupisassignedaspecificswimmingareawithdepths consistentwiththoseabilities.Theclassificationtestsshould berenewedannually,preferablyatthebeginningofthe season. Swimmerspassthistest: Jumpfeetfirstintowateroverthe headindepth.Leveloffandswim75yardsinastrong mannerusingoneormoreofthefollowingstrokes: sidestroke,breaststroke,trudgen,orcrawl;thenswim25 yardsusinganeasyrestingbackstroke.The100yardsmust becompletedinoneswimwithoutstopsandmustincludeat leastonesharpturn.Aftercompletingtheswim,restby floating. Beginnerspassthistest: Jumpfeetfirstintowateroverthe headindepth,leveloff,andswim25feetonthesurface. Stop,turnsharply,resumeswimmingandreturntothe startingplace. Anyonewhohasnotcompletedeitherthebeginneror swimmertestsisclassifiedasanonswimmer. Thenonswimmerareashouldbenomorethanwaisttochest deepandshouldbeenclosedbyphysicalboundariessuchas theshore,apier,orlines.Theenclosedbeginnerareashould containwaterofstandingdepthandmayextendtodepths justoverthehead.Theswimmerareamaybeupto12feetin depthinclearwaterandshouldbedefinedbyfloatsorother markers. 7. BuddySystem Everyparticipantispairedwithanother.Buddiesstay together,monitoreachother,andalertthesafetyteamif eitherneedsassistanceorismissing.Buddiescheckintoand outoftheareatogether. Buddiesarenormallyinthesameabilitygroupandremainin theirassignedarea.Iftheyarenotofthesameabilitygroup, thentheyswimintheareaassignedtothebuddywiththe lesserability. Abuddycheckremindsparticipantsoftheirobligationto monitortheirbuddiesandindicateshowcloselythebuddies arekeepingtrackofeachother.Roughlyevery10minutes,or asneededtokeepthebuddiestogether,thelookout,orother persondesignatedbythesupervisor,givesanaudiblesignal, suchasasinglewhistleblast,andacallfor“Buddies.” Buddiesareexpectedtoraiseeachother’shandbefore completionofaslow,audiblecountto10.Buddiesthattake longertofindeachothershouldberemindedoftheir responsibilityfortheother’ssafety. Onceeveryonehasabuddy,acountismadebyareaand comparedwiththetotalnumberknowntobeinthewater. Afterthecountisconfirmed,asignalisgiventoresume swimming. 8. Discipline Rulesareeffectiveonlywhenfollowed.Allparticipantsshould know,understand,andrespecttherulesandproceduresfor safeswimmingprovidedbySafeSwimDefenseguidelines. Applicablerulesshouldbediscussedpriortotheoutingand reviewedforallparticipantsatthewater’sedgejustbefore theswimmingactivitybegins.Peoplearemorelikelytofollow directionswhentheyknowthereasonsforrulesand procedures.Consistent,impartiallyappliedrulessupportedby skillandgoodjudgmentprovidestepping-stonestoasafe, enjoyableouting. - FormoreinformationregardingSafeSwimDefense,goto www.scouting.org/HealthandSafety/Aquatics/safe-swim.aspx.

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