European experience with migration and integration problems

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European experience with migration and integration problems




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Presentations text content in European experience with migration and integration problems

Slide1

European experience with migration and integration problems:Ways for overcoming xenophobia and extremism

ELDR&YABLOKO International Conference

Youth under Threat of Extremism and Xenophobia. A Liberal Response

Slide2

In 2010, the UN estimated the stock of international migrants at 214 million in 2010, meaning that 3.1 percent of the world’s 6.9 billion people were living outside their home countries.

Five different types of migration:

Labour

migration

Refugees and Asylum Seekers

Ethnic Migration

Migration from former colonies

Migration from high-qualified elites

Slide3

In 2010, 47.3 million people lived in the EU, who were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million)

(EUROSTAT, 2011)

Slide4

More important are the figures of immigrants in percentage of the population:

In the EU there are 9.4% (legal) immigrants, however with important differences between the EU Member States

Austria features the highest rate with 15.4% of immigrants, whilst Italy and Portugal show the lowest rate (6.9% and 7.5% respectively.

Another relevant figure

is the ratio of immigrants born outside the EU; the European average is of 6.3%.

Here again, Austria, Spain and Sweden feature the highest rate (around 9%), Italy and Portugal the lowest (5.3% and 5.7% respectively).

Slide5

France, Germany

and

the

UK

have

slightly

higher

rates

of

(legal)

immigrants

than

the

European

average

(

the

immigrant

rate

varies

between

11%

and

12%

of

foreign

born

population

,

of

which

two

third

are

born

outside

the

EU).

The

variation

between

the

EU Member States

is

not

related

to

the

different

policies

of

naturalization

as

the

criteria

is

born

outside

the

country

and

not

citizenship

.

H

owever

,

the

EUROSTAT

data

can

not

control

for

illegal

immigration

.

Slide6

There is no obvious correlation between right-wing populism and immigration:

For instance in Germany the right-wing parties are

irrelevant, although Germany is confronted

with some politically motivated terrorist

activities; in Eastern Germany racists attacks and xenophobia are more frequent but do not translate in the rise of populist parties.

In France, the right-wing party ‘Front national’ has a quite fluid support, accounting for 10% - 20% of the voters;

In Austria, however, the right-wing

FPOe

and the more moderate right-wing

BZOe

account for 30% of the electorate.

Slide7

It

is

quite

likely

that

integration

policies

as

well

as

the

political

discourse

play

an

important

role

in

the

degree

of

importance

of

the

right-wing

.

In France

and

Austria,

the

discourse

and

the

practices

of

the

government

has

led

to

the

rise

of

the

populist

parties

;

the

German

government‘s

discourse

is

more

moderate.

The

use

of

the

xenophobic

discourse

of

the

right-wing

by

the

mainstream

parties

strenghtens

the

populist

parties

as

it

legitimises

a

xenophobic

public

discourse

.

Liberal

strategies

are

important

to

counteract

racism

,

xenophobia

,

and

the

rise

of

populism

.

Slide8

Liberal

Policies

are

based

upon

the

conviction

that

Human

Rights

are

universal;

nobody

can

be

discriminated

against

on

the

grounds

of

race

,

citizenship

,

gender

,

or

religious

beliefs

;

Immigration

is

both

a

challenge

and

an

opportunity

for

the

hosting

countries.

Provided

that

integration

policies

are

comprehensive

and

encourage

the

migrant

family

to

participate

fully

in

the

host

societies

it

is

beneficial

for

both

the

migrants

and

the

immigration

countries;

Slide9

Integration

does

not

mean

assimilation

; in a Liberal

perspective

intrusion

in

the

private

sphere

is

unacceptable

.

Furthermore

,

cultural

habits

of

migrants

enrich

the

culture

of

the

host

societies

.

However

,

immigrants

must

respect

the

values

and

the

habits

of

the

host

societies

.

In order

to

promote

the

integration

of

immigrants

Liberal

strategies

have

to

rest

on (

political

and

cultural

)

education

,

language

acquisition

and

care

for

the

second

and

third

generation

.

Facilitating

the

naturalisation

of

immigrants

and

allowing

for

dual

citizenship

,

provided

that

the

immigrants

prove

an

active

interest

in

the

integration

in

the

host

society

.

Ghettoisation

is

a

major

threat

to

a

successful

integration

of

immigrants

.

Slide10

Integration

of

immigrants

is

not

only

an

obligation

for

the

hosting

societies

.

Ignoring

integration

problems

created

by

fundamentalist

immigrant

groups

encourages

xenophobic

reactions

.

Liberals

demand

active

participation

of

immigrants

in

the

integration

process

.

Liberal

principles

guarantee

a

successful

integration

:

tolerance

,

performance

,

freedom

and

responsibility

.

Slide11

Thank you for your patience!

Slide12

Slide13

Slide14

Slide15

Slide16


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