Welcome to Ancient Greece

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Welcome to Ancient Greece




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Presentations text content in Welcome to Ancient Greece

Slide1

Welcome to Ancient Greece

Religion

Politics

Economics

Social Structures

Geography

Achievements

Slide2

800-700 BC

:

Monarchies begin to be replaced by Aristocratic Republics

Archaic Period 800 BC - 500 BC

621 BC: Draco's code of law - Athens.

546 BC: Persian invasion and conquest of Greek territories through out Asia Minor

507 BC:

Cleisthenes' democratic constitution.

776 BC

:

Date of the first Olympic games.

600 BC

:

Coin currency introduced

566 BC

:

Panathenaic festivals established

Slide3

Classical Period 500 - 330 BC

490 BC

First Persian invasion of Greece, the Battle of Marathon.

480 BC Second Persian invasion of Greece, Spartans are defeated at Thermopylae, Athens is occupied by the Persians. The Persians are finally defeated at Salamis.

The founding of the Delian League.

431 - 404 BC

The Peloponnesian War

404 BC

Athens Surrenders to Sparta

336-323 BC

Alexander the Great’s reign

About

450 BC

,

Sophocles wins more awards for plays than any other playwright

443 - 429 BC

Pericles is leader of Athens during the Golden Age

Massive public building program and construction

of Parthenon

430 BC Plague in Athens

411 BC

Revolts in Athens

Slide4

Hellenistic Period 330 - 30 BC

323-148 BC:

Greek City States remain relatively independent; however, warfare between rival leagues continues

200-196 BC: First Roman victories over Greece

146 BC:Corinth destroyed by Rome

86 BC:

Athens sacked by Rome

About

300 BC:

Euclid wrote The Elements

About

200 BC:

Winged Victory (Nike) created

Slide5

Geography Absolute Location:

42ºN 34.6ºN

19.1°E 29.9°E

Slide6

Relative Location:

East of Italy and Adriatic Sea

North of Mediterranean Sea and Africa

West of Turkey and Aegean Sea

South of Albania, Bulgaria, Serbia

Slide7

Region:

The Balkan peninsula

Slide8

Regions

: The SeaThe most consistent influence on the physical environment of Greece is the sea

Greece has one of the longest coastlines in the world – 15,000 kmNo point on the mainland of Greece is more than 100 km from the waterGreece has more than 2,000 islandshttp://greece.russiansabroad.com/country_page.aspx?page=112

Slide9

Regions: The Mountains

Second major physical featureCovers more than ¾ of Greece’s surface areaMore than 20 peaks higher than 2,000 m

Their general pattern is from northeast to southwest“The continuous settling and shifting of this comparatively young mountain range makes the entire region, from Epirus on the Albanian border south to Crete, prone to earthquakes.” http://greece.russiansabroad.com/country_page.aspx?page=112

Slide10

Movement

The three major mountain regions in Greece and the deep basins and valleys between them hampered movement In fact, they had the effect of isolating areas and fostered the independence of individual city states

Slide11

Movement

If the mountains formed a barrier to movement, water encouraged itGreece’s river levels change drastically and irregularly from season to season and were not a dependable aid to movement

Sea travel has been the primary form of transportation – both promoting contact between areas and exposing Greece to attack from enemies

Slide12

Place: Physical Characteristics

The Greek Islands are known for beautiful beaches and clear blue water.

Many of the Greek Islands are part of what used to be a chain of mountains

http://www.travel-greece-hotels.com/system/files/image/lefkada-beach.jpg

http://www.tripadvisor.co.uk/Tourism-g189499-Skiathos_Sporades-Vacations.html

Slide13

Place: Physical Characteristics

The Greeks believed that the Oracle at Delphi would “see” when she descended into the Corycian Cave.

Ancient Greeks looked at the mountains around them and determined that the gods lived on the top of Mt. Olympus.

www.drjclassics.com

Slide14

Place: Physical Characteristics

www.drjclassics.com

Farming was difficult in Greece, although olive trees flourished. This is known as the Sea of Olives or Plain of Amphissa.

Slide15

Place: Human Characteristics

The Acropolis, site of the Parthenon, the Temple of Athena Nike, and the Theater of Dionysus at its base, is one of the most famous landmarks in the world.

Slide16

Place: Human Characteristics

Acropolis then

http://www.ncssm.edu/library/dirt/Anna%20Morton/Location.html

Acropolis now

http://www.avahotel.gr/athens-map/acropolis.htm

Slide17

Religion:

Gods in our image Polytheistic

Explained occurrences in NatureGods – human form, emotions, behaviorsInterfered in lives of mortalsWorship and sacrifices intended to keep gods happy for survival and prosperity

www.fairfield.k12.ct.us/Rogerludlowe/crogerludlowe03/webquests/mythweb/Godspic.bmp

Slide18

Family Tree of Greek Gods

www.greekgodsyogurt.com/html/img/tree.jpg

Read the Greek Creation Myth

here

and then return

Slide19

Achievements

ArtsThree periods of art in Ancient Greece:

Archaic about 1000 BC – 450 BC Simplest style, clean linesClassical about 450 BC – 330 BC More complex, more natural poses

Hellenistic about 330 BC – 30 BC Most ornate of all, used more outside of Greecewww.crystalinks.com/greekart.html

Slide20

Achievements

Architecture - Columns

Doric: earliest style, no decoration, plain squared topsIonic: middle style, narrower at top, curled on each side at topCorinthian: last style, most ornate

http://threes.com/cms/images/stories/history/greek.jpg

Slide21

Achievements

Architecture - Acropolis

The Acropolis hill – “Sacred Rock” – last line of defense in time of crisis Fortified citadel on hill above city Added to over time Original buildings made of wood Destroyed by fire and war and rebuilt

http://www.acropolis-greek-parthenon.com/

Slide22

Achievements

Architecture - Acropolis Then

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Parthenon.htm

This link includes a visual timeline of the Acropolis

Slide23

Achievements

Architecture - Acropolis Now

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Parthenon.htm

Slide24

Achievements:

Architecture - ParthenonTemple to Athena – patron of Athens

Columns are Doric and curve at top to create illusionDimensions created to house statue of Athena

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Parthenon.htm

Slide25

Achievements

In Math, Show Your Work

Geometry:Euclid’s Elements13 VolumesEach volume has definitions, postulates and then theorems

Every statement is proven, no matter how obviousIncludes circles, tangents, plane geometry, prime numbers, perfect numbersBefore Euclid any mathematician could have his own postulates

Euclid’s work helped standardize mathematics

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Euclid's_postulates.png

www.crystalinks.com/euclid.html

Slide26

Achievements

Sculpture- KourosArchaic period

Statues not intended to represent individuals – represent an idealKouroi always young men, standing nudeDepicts motion, one leg and/or one arm forwardArchaic smile

The Calf-Bearer

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Parthenon.htm

Slide27

Achievements

Sculpture: NikeHellenistic periodWhite marble, represented prow of ship

Posed ready to “deliver shout of victory”Noted for “naturalistic pose and rendering of figure’s draped garments, depicted as if rippling in strong sea breeze…”

Nike, Winged Victory

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winged_Victory_of_Samothrace

Slide28

Achievements

Theater/DramaTheater not purely for entertainment; part of state religious festival

Originally chorus of 12 men and one actor3 tragedians chosen to present 4 plays each as part of competition“’tragedy’ refers to tragic drama: … in which a central character called a tragic hero suffers some serious misfortune which is not accidental and therefore meaningless, but is significant in that the misfortune is logically connected with the hero's actions. Tragedy stresses the vulnerability of human beings whose suffering is brought on by a combination of human and divine actions, but is generally undeserved with regard to its harshness. “

http://www.greektheatre.gr/constr.html

http://picasaweb.google.com/shankar.nandini/AthensGreece#5211586780202029922

http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/netshots/tragedy.htm

Slide29

Achievements

Drama: AeschylusAeschylus: first of the three most prize winning Greek playwrights

Also a soldier and actorFirst to introduce second actor to plays; allowed for more characters to be introduced and greater variation in plot

http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/drama/p/Aeschylus.htm

http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Mythology/RM/OrestesMei.jpg

Slide30

Achievements

Drama: SophoclesSophocles earned about 20 awards for first place in dramatic competitions

Reduced the importance of the Chorus by adding a third actorInvented skenographia (scene painting) to illustrate the background

Oedipus gouges out his eyes after discovering the true nature of his crime.

http://www.come-and-hear.com/editor/oedipus.jpg

http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/drama/p/Sophocles.htm

Slide31

Achievements

Drama: EuripidesLast of the three Great Tragedians

Focused on mythological themes and heroesFirst to write roles for strong female charactersFirst to introduce intrigue and comedy into plays

http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/books/article3504131.ece

http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/medeaeuripides/p/Euripides.htm

Slide32

Politics: Democracy

City-States – PoliMonarchyWarrior Aristocracies, often led by tyrant

Democracy (Please follow the following three links and return) Draco’s Code of Laws

Solon’s reforms Cleisthenes First democracy about 500 BC Assembly of male citizens

www.crystalinks.com/greekcities.html

Slide33

Draco’s Code of Laws

Around 620 BC Draco, the lawgiver, wrote the first known written law of Ancient Greece. Draco was an Athenian lawgiver whose harsh legal code punished both trivial and serious crimes in Athens with death--hence the continued use of the word draconian to describe repressive legal measures. Today the word draconian means harsh or severe. Draco's laws were shockingly severe, so severe that they were said to have been written not in ink but in blood. Solon succeeded him in about 594 BC

http://oghs.euhsd.k12.ca.us/staff/burtnowski/rise.html Back

Slide34

Solon’ Reforms

Solon's great contribution to the future good of Athens was his new code of laws. The first written code at Athens, that of Draco, was still in force.. Solon revised every statute except that on homicide and made Athenian law altogether more humane. His code, though supplemented and modified, remained the foundation of Athenian statute law until the end of the 5th century, and parts of it were embodied in the new codification made at that time

http://oghs.euhsd.k12.ca.us/staff/burtnowski/rise.html

Back

Slide35

Economics: Living Wage

5th and 4th centuries BC, Greece had most advanced economy in known world

Some historians believe it was the most advanced pre-industrial economy of its timeAverage daily wage of Greek worker – about 12 kg of wheatAverage daily wage of Egyptian worker – about 3.75 kg of wheat during about same time

www.wikipedia.org/wiki/ancientgreece

Slide36

Social:

Changeable Social StatusIn Athens:

Family ties did not confer social privilegesFour social classes, based on wealthEarn more money, could change classWomen and slaves could own property but had no political rights

Slaves could earn freedomPublicly owned slaves

In Sparta:Spartan kings came from one of two familiesAll male citizens equal after completion of educationSlaves had no power or statusHelots – slaves who were captured in war, treated harshly

www.wikipedia.org/wiki/ancientgreece


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