Ensuring Alcohol Programs Can Beat Legal

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Challenges. The . Importance of the EBT in this Process. Ed Conde. New Orleans, LA 2017. . Alcohol Countermeasures . Laboratory. Ed Conde. Surface Transportation Human Factors . Division. 617-494-2428. ID: 681844 Download Presentation

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Ensuring Alcohol Programs Can Beat Legal




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Slide1

Ensuring Alcohol Programs Can Beat Legal ChallengesThe Importance of the EBT in this Process

Ed Conde

New Orleans, LA 2017

Slide2

Alcohol Countermeasures

Laboratory

Ed Conde

Surface Transportation Human Factors

Division

617-494-2428

edward.conde@dot.gov

Slide3
Overview

Who we are and what we doTop causes of lost cases

Slide4
I. Who We Are

Alcohol Countermeasures Laboratory We are responsible for testing all of the breath alcohol measuring devices that are used by police and in workplace testing.We fail most devices that we test.Our mission is to ensure that all devices that we pass are precise and accurate.

We testify at many legal challenges to approved breath testers.

Slide5
Why Are

We Important?All devices used for workplace testing must be on the NHTSA Conforming Products Lists (CPLs) Alcohol Screening Devices (ASDs) used for preliminary tests must be on the Conforming Products List (CPL) for Alcohol Screening DevicesEvidential Breath Testers (EBTs) used for confirmation tests must be on the Conforming Products List (CPL) for Evidential Breath Testers

Calibration Units (CUs) used for accuracy checks must be on the Conforming Products List (CPL) for Calibrating Units

Slide6
Alcohol Screening Devices (ASDs)

Used for Workplace Preliminary Tests

Slide7
Evidential Breath Testers (EBTs)

Used

for

Workplace

Confirmation Tests

Slide8
Calibration Units (CUs)

Used to Calibrate EBTs and Screeners and for Accuracy Checks

Compressed Gas Calibrator (alcohol in inert gas)

Also known as “Dry Gas”

Slide9
Wet Bath Calibrator

Used for some

Volpe testing

.

Slide10
Laboratory Sponsor

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Office of Research and Program DevelopmentImpaired Driving DivisionBehavioral Safety Research Division

Slide11
Laboratory Personnel

Ed CondeEmployed at Volpe since 1986With Alcohol Lab since 2001Program Manager since January 2005 Art FloresProgram Manager 1970-2005

Contractor 2005-2012

Alan Kauffman

Chief Technician

Chris Scarpone

Technician

Slide12

1970s: Development of NHTSA Model Specifications for evidential breath testers (EBTs) Development of Breath Alcohol Sampling Simulator (BASS) Testing of submitted EBTs NHTSA Blood Alcohol Proficiency Program established1980s: Development of model specifications for calibrating devices (CUs)

Testing of submitted EBTs, CUs

1990s

:

Develop Model Specifications for Preliminary Screening Devices (PBTs) Testing of submitted PBTs, CUs, EBTs

2000s

:

Updating of BASS device

Help develop worldwide alcohol device test standard (OIML)

Development of Model Specifications for Ignition Interlock Devices

Alcohol Program History

Slide13
Program Tasks

Model Specifications: Develop NHTSA model specifications and methods for evaluation of submitted police and workplace alcohol testing devices. Device Testing: Evaluate domestic and international breath alcohol testers for precision and accuracy at a variety of operating conditions. Blood Proficiency Program: Prepare blood alcohol proficiency samples and ship them to over 200 domestic and international blood test laboratories.

Slide14
Program Tasks (cont’d)

4. Court Testimony: Provide expert trial testimony regarding the validity of the police breath alcohol test as directed by NHTSA. 5. International Recommendation for EBTs: Participate in the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) working group to develop a draft international recommendation for the evaluation of EBTs. 6.

Technical Support

: Provide rapid response technical support on alcohol related issues.

Slide15
How breath devices are tested

Most tests are performed using wet-bath Calibrating UnitsThe Breath Sampling Efficiency Test uses a robotic impaired driver (BASS) to blow human-like blows

Slide16
BASS

Slide17
Breath Alcohol Sample Simulator (

BASS)The BASS is a computer controlled breath alcohol sample generator designed at the Volpe Center.The BASS was designed to mimic a drinking human’s breath.

The

BASS

can vary the strength and duration of the blow.

The BASS can vary the delivered alcohol concentration over time.The BASS produces repeatable human-like breath samples without the difficulties associated with human drinking subjects.

Slide18
Model Specifications

Model Specifications describe the tests and methods that are used to evaluate devices

Evidential Breath Testers (

EBTs)

Alcohol Screening

Devices

(ASDs)

Calibrating Units (

CUs)

Slide19
Conforming Products Lists (CPLs)

Devices that conform to NHTSA’s Model Specifications are published to NHTSA’s Conforming Products Lists (CPLs)The lists are updated periodically and published in the Federal RegisterWorkplace Rules require that Breath Alcohol Devices used must be listed on the CPLs.Also found on Volpe web site:

http://www.volpe.dot.gov/coi/ees/work/alctechnical.html

Slide20
Volpe Website

Volpe Center Alcohol Countermeasures website can be found at:

http://

www.volpe.dot.gov/safety-management-and-human-factors/surface-transportation-human-factors/alcohol-measuring-device

Alcohol Measuring Device Testing

NHTSA Evidential Breath Testers (EBT's) Model Specifications

Test procedure and Requirements.

(PDF, 171KB)

NHTSA EBT Conforming Products List

Devices that conformed to the EBT Model Specifications.

(PDF, 66KB) (updated 01/14/08)

NHTSA Alcohol Screening Devices (ASD's) Model Specifications

Test procedure and Requirements.

(PDF, 70KB)

NHTSA ASD Conforming Products List

Devices that conformed to the ASD Model Specifications.

(PDF, 55KB)

NHTSA Calibrating Units (CU's) Model Specifications and

Conforming Products List

Test procedure and Requirements

;

Devices that conformed to the CU Model Specifications.

(PDF, 109KB)

Slide21
Volpe Website – Workplace

Workplace Testing

Rules

(

PDF)Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs) for Alcohol Test Devices Used in Workplace Testing ProgramsEBT QAP template (MS Word)ASD QAP template (MS Word)CU QAP templates:Wet Bath Calibration

 (MS Word)

Dry Gas Calibration

 (MS Word

Slide22
C

ourt Testimony

We have testified in cases involving:

Police subject testing

Workplace subject testing

We have testified in:Federal CourtState Court

State Supreme Court

Slide23
II. Top causes of lost cases

Hardware/Software IssuesManufacturers InstructionsRecord KeepingTest Procedure

Slide24
Top causes of lost cases

Hardware/Software IssuesDevice modified from the one on the CPLScreener, EBT, or Calibrator no longer on CPLExpired Gas Tank or Alcohol Solution

Slide25
Workplace Rules – Screening Tests

§ 40.229 What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests

?

EBTs and ASDs on the NHTSA conforming products lists (CPL) for evidential and non-evidential devices are the only devices you are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part.

Slide26
Workplace Rules – Confirmation

§ 40.231 What devices are used to conduct alcohol confirmation tests?

(a) EBTs on the NHTSA CPL for evidential devices that meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section are the only devices you may use to conduct alcohol confirmation tests under this part.

Slide27
Workplace Rules – Use of EBTs

§ 40.233 What are the requirements for proper use and care of EBTs?

(

c) As the user of the

EBT,

you must do the following:

(

2) In conducting external calibration checks, you must use only calibration devices appearing on

NHTSA's CPL

for “Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Tests

.”

Slide28
Devices Modified

Evidential Breath Testers (EBTs), Screeners, and Calibrating Units are tested and approved with specific hardware & softwareChanges to these devices that are not approved by NHTSA may affect their standing on the Conforming Products List (CPL)

Slide29
Devices No Longer on CPL

Check periodically to ensure that Screeners, EBTs, and Calibrators are still on the CPLsA device can be removed from the CPL if the manufacturer changes it and then it does not conform to the Model Specifications

Slide30
Expired Gas & Solutions

Check all ethanol gas tanks for the expiration date and record it. Make sure the expiration date is known to all users and that a backup unexpired gas tank is on siteCheck all Alcohol Solutions (if used) for expiration dates

Slide31
Top causes of lost cases

2) Manufacturer’s InstructionsOperating ManualQuality Assurance Plan (QAP)Users all certified

Slide32
Workplace Rules – Use of EBTs

§ 40.233 What are the requirements for proper use and care of EBTs?

(

c) As the user of the

EBT,

you must do the following:

(

1) You must follow the manufacturer's

instructions,

including performance of external calibration checks at the intervals the instructions specify

.

Slide33
O

perating ManualThe Operating Manuals should be read thoroughly and kept near Evidential Breath Testers, Screeners, and CalibratorsThe Operating Manual should be consulted whenever a question arises about proper instrument usage

Slide34
Manual

Slide35
Quality Assurance Plans (QAPs)

QAPs are special instructions for workplace testing personnel. They are available from the manufacturers.All calibration devices, screening devices, and evidential breath testers used in workplace testing have QAPsEvery test site should have QAPs for all devices displayed where test personnel can see themAll test personnel should be very familiar with the QAPs for all devices

Slide36
EBT Quality Assurance Plan (QAP)

Slide37
EBT Quality Assurance Plan (QAP)

2) A Verification must be conducted every thirty (30) days and as soon as circumstances permit after a positive alcohol test as defined by user policy and DOT regulations.3) A Verification must also be conducted if the air blank procedure fails to show .000 after 2 consecutive attempts.4) A Verification must be performed if the unit has undergone repair

Slide38
Screening Device QAP

AK GlobalTech Corp Quality Assurance  Calibration Checks: Any device on the DOT’s Conforming Products List (CPL) may be used for calibration checks.  Calibration #1, Calibrator at BrAC 0.05: Revo should be within +/-0.005 agreement.Calibration #2, Calibrator at BrAC 0.10: Revo should be within +/-0.005 agreement.Interval between calibration checks: 30 days or 100 tests, whichever comes first

.

Interval

between maintenance (replacement of the sensor module*): 12 months or 1000 tests, whichever comes first.

Slide39
Calibration Device QAP

ILMO Specialty Gas ProductsQuality Assurance Plan Breath Alcohol Calibration Standard Test site requirementsTemperature: 30 degrees F to 115 degrees FHumidity: Up to 99% relative humidity (non-condensing)Other: Barometric Pressure or altitude correction should be made  Authorized valves: C-10 Event(s) which require Breath Alcohol Calibration Standard be taken out of service:When cylinder is empty or does not have enough pressure to engage regulator’s first stage.Cylinder is leaking.

Slide40
Users All Certified

Make sure that all Users all certified by the manufacturer if necessary

Slide41
Workplace Rules – Use of EBTs

§ 40.233 What are the requirements for proper use and care of EBTs?

(

c) As the user of the

EBT),

you must do the following:

(

5) You must ensure that inspection, maintenance, and calibration of the EBT are performed by its manufacturer or a maintenance representative certified either by the manufacturer or by a state health agency

or other

appropriate state agency

.

Slide42
Top causes of lost cases

3) Record KeepingCalibration Logs Complete?– follow QAP?Calibration Check Logs Complete? – follow QAP?Maintenance Records – follow recommendations?

Slide43
Calibration

A calibration is very different than a calibration check (also known as accuracy check or verification)A calibration actually changes the way the device measures alcoholThink of it as being similar to adjusting the zero dial on a scale.It is very important that users keep a log of all calibrations and ensure that all calibrations are performed at the proper time and by the proper person – check the QAP and the manual.

Slide44
Workplace Rules – Use of EBTs

§ 40.233 What are the requirements for proper use and care of EBTs?

(

c) As the user of the

EBT,

you must do the following:

(

4) You must maintain records of the inspection, maintenance, and calibration of EBTs as provided

in §

40.333(a)(2)

.

Slide45
Calibration Checks

Calibration Checks (Accuracy checks, verifications) are different from calibrationsA calibration check is simply a measurement to verify that the breath tester is properly calibrated at the time of the testThink of it as putting a 50 pound weight on a scale and verifying that the scale measures 50 poundsIt is very important that users keep a log of all calibration checks and ensure that all calibration checks are performed at the proper time and by the proper person – Check the QAP and manual.

Slide46
Maintenance Records

Device maintenance should be performed as instructed in the operating manual and in the QAP.It is very important that users keep a log of all maintenance and ensure that all maintenance is performed at the proper time listed and by the proper person – Check the QAP and the manual.If the device needs to be sent to the manufacturer periodically then do it within the time specifiedSensors and other components do not last forever. Suspect a device when error messages appear

Slide47
Workplace Rules – Use of EBTs

§ 40.233 What are the requirements for proper use and care of EBTs?

(

c) As the user of the

EBT),

you must do the following:

(

4) You must maintain records of the inspection, maintenance, and calibration of EBTs as provided

in §

40.333(a)(2)

.

(5) You must ensure that inspection, maintenance, and calibration of the EBT are performed by its manufacturer or a maintenance representative certified either by the manufacturer or by a state health agency or other appropriate state agency.

Slide48
Top causes of lost cases

4) Test ProcedureAir Blank before test? Why?Calibration Check before and after test. Why?Waiting Period before test. Why?2 tests 15 minutes apart. Why?Error messages ignored.

Slide49
Air Blank

Air Blank - a test of the air around a breath tester to ensure that no alcohol is presentA zero air blank ensures that any alcohol measured by the breath tester is from the test subject

Slide50
Workplace Rules - Fatal Flaws

§ 40.267 What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled

?

As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are

“fatal flaws

.”

(

c) In the case of a confirmation test:

(

2) The BAT does not conduct an air blank before the confirmation test

(3) There is not a 0.00 result on the air blank conducted before the confirmation test

Slide51
Calibration Check Before & After

A Calibration Check should be done before and after a positive subject testCalibration Checks before and after a positive subject test prove that the breath tester was calibrated properly during the subject testCalibration Checks should be done as often as specified in the QAP – usually every 30 daysIt is good practice to do a Calibration Check as soon as possible after a positive test

Slide52
Workplace Rules - Fatal Flaws

§ 40.267 What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled

?

As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are

“fatal flaws

.”

(

5) The next external calibration check of the EBT produces a result that differs by more than the tolerance stated in the QAP from the known value of the test standard. In this case, every result of 0.02 or above obtained on the EBT since the last valid external calibration check is

cancelled

Slide53
Waiting Period

A 15 minute Waiting Period before a breath test ensures that any lingering alcohol in the mouth has a chance to dissipateMouth Alcohol can severely affect a breath test resultAn example of Mouth Alcohol would be swishing alcohol in your mouth, spitting it out, and immediately blowing into a breath tester

Slide54
Workplace Rules – First Steps

Subpart M - Alcohol Confirmation Tests

§ 40.251 What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

As

the BAT for an alcohol confirmation test, you must follow these steps to begin the confirmation test process:

 

You

must carry out a requirement for a waiting period before the confirmation test, by taking the following steps

:

(1) You must ensure that the waiting period lasts at least 15 minutes, starting with the completion of the screening test. After the waiting period has elapsed, you should begin the confirmation test as soon as possible, but not more than 30 minutes after the completion of the screening test

.

Slide55
2 Tests 15 minutes apart

There should be at least a 15 minute wait between the screening test and the confirmation testA large discrepancy between the screening result and the confirmation result may be a sign of mouth alcohol

Slide56
Workplace Rules - Fatal Flaws

§ 40.267 What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled

?

As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are

“fatal flaws

.”

(

c) In the case of a confirmation test:

(1) The BAT conducts the confirmation test before the end of the minimum 15-minute waiting period

Slide57
Error Messages

Always suspect the instrument when error messages are displayedSensors and other components can degrade and fail over timeConsult the manual or contact the manufacturer when error messages are displayed

Slide58
Conclusion

Do not modify a breath tester or calibratorCheck the CPLsCheck Expiration DatesRefer to operating manual and QAPsMake sure that users are certifiedKeep good logs and maintenance records

Slide59
Conclusion (cont.)

Take good air blanks Do calibration checks before and after positive tests15 minute wait between Preliminary and Confirmation test to rule out mouth alcoholSimilar results on the preliminary test and the confirmation test confirm that there was no mouth alcoholDo not ignore error messages and continue to test


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