Overview of Human Growth and Development
Presentations text content in Overview of Human Growth and Development
Overview of Human Growth and Development
, B. , Hays, D. , Crockett, S. ,Miller, E. (2011).
Mastering the National Counselor Examination and the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination
. Upper Saddle, N. J.: Pearson Education, Inc.Slide2
Involves the changes in human beings between conception and death.
Influenced by genetic and environmental conditions
Described within the physical, cognitive, moral, emotional, personality, and social development domains.Slide3
Prenatal period (conception to birth)
Infancy (birth to 2 years)
Toddlerhood ( 2 – 3 years)
Early childhood (3 – 5 years)
Middle childhood ( 6 -12 years)
Adolescents (13 – 19 years)
Young adulthood (19 – 30 years)
Middle adulthood (about 30 – 60 years)
Late adulthood ( about 60 – 75 years)
Old age ( about 75+)Slide4
Types of Aging2
Biological aging – metabolic changes
Anabolism: the body building to peak potential and occurs from birth to an age that varies by individual.
Catabolism: the body’s usually slow deterioration from peak through an individual’s death.Slide5
Types of Aging cont.
Psychological aging: one’s perception of personal age. E.g. one may “feel” young or “feel” old.
Social aging: how one’s chronological age is viewed within the societal or cultural context and is affected by vocation and socioeconomic status. E.g. how aged citizens are regarded in Eastern cultures
Categorizing theories of human development3
to study a behavioral process (e.g. aggression) in a number of unrelated animals rather than one particular animal group.)
Categorizing theories of human development
Active and Reactive theoriesSlide8
Special Designs in Human Development Research 4
Cross-sectional design studies
Longitudinal design studies
The Central Nervous System5
Human development relies heavily on cognitive and physical processes, thus making development and maturation of the central nervous system critical.Slide10
Development of the Central Nervous System
Central nervous system: Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system: the network of nerves that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body (e.g. fingers, arms, toes, legs)
Growth of the brains involves: the addition of new neurons and interconnectedness of these neurons and myelination (i.e. insulation of the neuron to enhance speed of neural transmissions).Slide11
The hindbrain: responsible for life maintenance and survival functions (medulla oblongata, cerebellum,
, reticular activating system)
The midbrain: connects the hindbrain and the forebrain, controls eye muscles, relays auditory and visual information to the brain’s center for higher level thinking.
The forebrain: consists of the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for higher order behavior and conscious thought (left and right hemisphere, corpus
, cerebral cortex –occipital lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, frontal lobe)Slide12
Other structures in the brain
Hemispheric specialization or lateralizationSlide13
Sickle cell anemia
Sex chromosomal diseases
Learning = a relatively permanent change in behavior or thinking resulting from an individual’s experiences.
Learning theorists propose that individuals observe and react to their environment.
Stimulus-response theories and social learning theories.Slide15
Ivan Pavlov – studies on the salivation of dogs when presented with food powder.
Classical conditioning experiments
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – meat powder
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – neutral –tone, bell..
Conditioned Response (CR)Slide16
Establishing a classically conditioned response
Simultaneous conditioning: US and CS presented at the same time.
Delayed conditioning: CS begins first but overlaps presentation of the US – most effective
Backward conditioning: The US is presented before the CS.
John B. Watson
“father of American behaviorism”
“if you cannot observe it, it doesn’t exist”
Development involves learned associations between stimuli and responses.
“Little Albert” experiment – Watson attempted to condition a phobia into an 11-month-old infant and then attempted to
CS (white rat) w/ US (loud noise) caused UR (startled response).Slide18
Applied classical conditioning procedures to psychotherapy
The principle of reciprocal inhibition
Other techniques based on classical conditioning:
Edward L. Thorndike – Law of Effect
B.F. Skinner – positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement; punishment
– primary or secondary
We observe and learn from what we experience in the social context by considering new information, constructing meaning from it, and using it in future interactions, frequently without receiving any overt reinforcement.
John Dollard and Neal MillerSlide21
Social learning theory – based on the principle that people learn through observation, imitation, and modeling.
An individual can observe a model perform some behavior, then imitate that behavior without receiving any tangible reinforcement, thereby demonstrating new learning even in the absence of a contingency.Slide22
Observational learning: learning through passive observation.
Modeling: demonstrating how a behavior is performed so that it may be learned and passed on.
Effective modeling: Attention; Retention; Reproduction; Motivation
Modeling more effective: observers and models are of similar demographics or have positive interpersonal attributesSlide23
individual’s confidence in his or her ability to perform a given behavior or accomplish a given task.Slide24
The Dollard and Miller Approach
Influenced by the psychoanalytic, behavioral, and social science
“Drive” or incentive theorists. Anxiety and psychological disturbances were learned from experiences.
As people develop, they form habits that allow them to respond predictably to social and other stimuli.
Three primary types of conflicts: approach-approach; approach-avoidance; avoidance-avoidance.Slide25
How individuals construct meaning from their experiences by using thought processes across various developmental levels.
Cognitive complexity is strongly related to reasoning and behaviorSlide26
Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory
J. P. believed that growth in mental development depended on one’s ability to order and classify new information = organization
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
stage (birth – 2)
Preoperational stage (2 – 7)
Concrete operational stage(7 – 11)
Formal operational stage (11+ years)Slide28
Lev Vygotsky’s Cognitive developmental theory
A Russian psychologist who developed a constructionist, cognitive developmental theory that integrated language as well as social and cultural influences.
Cognitive progress facilitated by language development and occurred in a social context.
Zone of proximal development
Cognition and memory
Other important concepts in cognitive development
Intelligence; crystallized intelligence
Learning theory: children acquire language by observing and imitating other who are using language
Nativist approach (Noam Chomsky):the human brain is genetically programmed to enable people to create and understand language. Humans have the capacity to learn any language through exposure.
Interactionist approach: a combination of learning and nativist approaches is responsible for language development through social and cultural influences.Slide32
Important concept of language development
Milestones in early language development
Sigmund Freud – Psychosexual theory
Erik Erikson – psychosocial theory
– ego development theory
Maslow’s humanistic theory
Ethological theories of Lorenz,
, Ainsworth, HarlowSlide34
Sigmund Freud (1925)
Defense mechanisms: repression, regression, displacement, projection, rationalization, compensation, denial, reaction formationSlide35
People must resolve various conflicts resulting from the psychic or libidinal energy focused within different parts of the body as one matures.
Fixation: an inability to resolve an important conflict, either due to an
of a need in any stage.
Oral stage; Anal stage; Phallic stage; Latency stage; Genital stageSlide36
Psychosocial theory of Erik Erikson
Focused on an individual’s learned social interactions within the environment as a key influence on ego development
Erikson believed that personality continues to evolve throughout the lifespan and that people can reconstruct their personalities at any stage of the lifespan.
Basic trust vs. distrust; Autonomy vs. sham and doubt; Initiative vs. guilt; Industry vs. inferiority; Identity vs. role confusion; Intimacy vs. Isolation; Generativity vs. stagnation; Integrity vs. Despair.Slide37
Ego development theory of Jane Loevinger
An ego development stage theory that explained human personality development progression and fixation:
Humanistic theory of Abraham Maslow
Holistic and views humans as intrinsically good.
People make choices about themselves based on self-perceptions and perceived circumstances.
of needs – humans have an innate desire for self-actualization
Physiological, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization needs.
Self-actualization needs not usually met until middle adulthood (over 60). Characteristics: acceptance of self and others, spontaneity, autonomy, creativeness, resistance to enculturation, problem centering, and continued freshness of appreciation.Slide39
Ethological theories of Konrad Lorenz, John Bowlby, Mary Ainsworth, Harry Harlow
Lorenz – experiments on imprinting; duck attaches to first moving object it encounters after hatching; Imprinting is irreversible and example of a critical period or sensitive period.
–infants being born with an innate potential for attachment. Infants have the ability to form a natural bond with a caregiver, thus enabling the infant to explore the environment without fear of abandonment. A failure to attach to a caregiver early in life is believed to affect trust and intimacy in latter development. Three stages in infants exposed to prolonged separations: protest; despair; detachment.Slide40
Mary Ainsworth – four patterns of attachment:
Harry Harlow – experiments with infant rhesus monkeys placed in cages with wire surrogate mothers, one with a bottle to provide food and another with a terry cloth covering (comfort and warmth). Preferred contact comfort with the terrycloth monkey.Slide42
Is helpful in explaining two normal developmental phenomena observed in human infants:
Stranger anxiety (6 months –fearful of presence of strangers – enhanced visual acuity, onset of object permanence, increasing cognitive awareness)
Separation anxiety (in infants 1 -2 years; extreme distress when separation from a primary caregiver occurs. Anxiety is short lived after the disappearance of the caregiver.Slide43
Identity means an understanding of oneself as a separate, distinct individual and springs from a synthesis of successive identifications with other people into a consistent, coherent, and unique whole.
Student, athlete, peer/friend, family member
Sex role and gender role development
Sexual identity – biological features as determined by chromosomal information
Gender identity – psychosocial awareness of one’s maleness or femaleness and thus contains an environmental or cultural component
Gender roles – socially defined behaviors associated wit a particular sex
Androgyny – gender neutral concepts (everyone drives cars, cleans living areas, establishes a career)
Gender role conflict – when an individual feels anxiety and dissonance as previously held gender expectations conflict with changing gender roles.Slide45
(1933) described social play categories: nonsocial activity; parallel play; associative play; cooperative play.Slide46
Adjustment to Aging and Death
(1975) proposed four stages of retirement:
Immediately after retirement
Periods of enchantment
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross – on Grief
Shock and denial
Bargaining and guilt
Involves an individual’s growing ability to distinguish right from wrong and to act in accordance with those distinctions.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development – most influential
Kohlberg – see 3 levels and 6 stagesSlide49
Three stage theory:
Orientation to Individual Survival
Goodness as Self-Sacrifice
Morality of NonviolenceSlide50
Jean Piaget’s on morality
2. Moral realism stage
3. Moral relativism stageSlide51
Lifespan theories: Individual task development and milestones
Developmental milestone approach by Arnold Gesell
developmental task approach
Roger Gould’s adult developmental theory
Robert Peck’s phase theory of adult development
Daniel Levinson’s adult male development theorySlide52
(1992) – The
Carol Gilligan (1982) – In a different voice,
(1976) – Passages: Predictable crises in adult life.Slide53
Generational considerations in Human Development
General Issue (GI) generation: 1891 – 1924
Silent Generation: 1925 – 1942
Baby Boomer Generation: 1943 -1960
Generation X: 1961-1981
(Generation Y): 1982 -2000Slide54
Joining families through marriage
Welcoming children into the family
Later family lifeSlide55
Authoritative or democratic or egalitarian
Permissive or laissez-faire
Divorce and remarriage
Crisis, resilience, and wellness
ABC-C model of family crisis and stress (Hill, 1949)
Risk and resiliency factors
The Search Institute (2005):
Boundaries and expectations
Constructive use of time
Commitment to learning
Refers to an integration of mind, body, and spirit resulting in positive well-being.
Physical: exercise, nutrition
Essential: spirituality, gender identity, cultural identity, self-care
Social: friendship, love
Coping: leisure, stress management, self-worth, realistic beliefs
Creative: thinking, emotions, control, work, positive humorSlide60
Disorders usually diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescents
Motor skills disorders
Pervasive developmental disorders
Attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorders
Other disorders of infancy, childhood, or adolescents
Separation anxiety disorder
See DSM 5 for other mental disordersSlide61Slide62Slide63Slide64Slide65Slide66Slide67Slide68