Overview of Human Growth and Development

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Erford. , B. , Hays, D. , Crockett, S. ,Miller, E. (2011). . Mastering the National Counselor Examination and the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination. . Upper Saddle, N. J.: Pearson Education, Inc.. ID: 362347 Download Presentation

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Overview of Human Growth and Development




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Slide1

Overview of Human Growth and Development

Erford

, B. , Hays, D. , Crockett, S. ,Miller, E. (2011).

Mastering the National Counselor Examination and the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination

. Upper Saddle, N. J.: Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide2

Development1

Involves the changes in human beings between conception and death.

Influenced by genetic and environmental conditions

Described within the physical, cognitive, moral, emotional, personality, and social development domains.

Slide3

Developmental stages

Prenatal period (conception to birth)

Infancy (birth to 2 years)

Toddlerhood ( 2 – 3 years)

Early childhood (3 – 5 years)

Middle childhood ( 6 -12 years)

Adolescents (13 – 19 years)

Young adulthood (19 – 30 years)

Middle adulthood (about 30 – 60 years)

Late adulthood ( about 60 – 75 years)

Old age ( about 75+)

Slide4

Types of Aging2

Biological aging – metabolic changes

Anabolism: the body building to peak potential and occurs from birth to an age that varies by individual.

Catabolism: the body’s usually slow deterioration from peak through an individual’s death.

Slide5

Types of Aging cont.

Psychological aging: one’s perception of personal age. E.g. one may “feel” young or “feel” old.

Social aging: how one’s chronological age is viewed within the societal or cultural context and is affected by vocation and socioeconomic status. E.g. how aged citizens are regarded in Eastern cultures

vs

Western cultures.

Slide6

Categorizing theories of human development3

Learning theories

Cognitive

Psychoanalytic (psychodynamic)

Humanistic

Ethological

to study a behavioral process (e.g. aggression) in a number of unrelated animals rather than one particular animal group.)

Language Development

Physical Development

Moral Development

Slide7

Categorizing theories of human development

Nature

vs

Nurture

Continuous Development

Discontinuous Development

Active and Reactive theories

Slide8

Special Designs in Human Development Research 4

Case study

Naturalistic study

Survey research

Correlational research

Cross-sectional design studies

Longitudinal design studies

Time-lag studies

Slide9

The Central Nervous System5

Human development relies heavily on cognitive and physical processes, thus making development and maturation of the central nervous system critical.

Slide10

Development of the Central Nervous System

Central nervous system: Brain and spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system: the network of nerves that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body (e.g. fingers, arms, toes, legs)

Growth of the brains involves: the addition of new neurons and interconnectedness of these neurons and myelination (i.e. insulation of the neuron to enhance speed of neural transmissions).

Slide11

The Brain

The hindbrain: responsible for life maintenance and survival functions (medulla oblongata, cerebellum,

pons

, reticular activating system)

The midbrain: connects the hindbrain and the forebrain, controls eye muscles, relays auditory and visual information to the brain’s center for higher level thinking.

The forebrain: consists of the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for higher order behavior and conscious thought (left and right hemisphere, corpus

callosum

, cerebral cortex –occipital lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, frontal lobe)

Slide12

Other structures in the brain

Thalamus

Limbic system

Hypothalamus

Amygdala

Hippocampus

Hemispheric specialization or lateralization

Slide13

Genetic disorders6

Autosomal

diseases

Phenylketonuria

Sickle cell anemia

Tay

-Sachs disease

X-linked diseases

Sex chromosomal diseases

Turner syndrome

Klinefelter’s

syndrome

Slide14

Learning theories7

Learning = a relatively permanent change in behavior or thinking resulting from an individual’s experiences.

Learning theorists propose that individuals observe and react to their environment.

Stimulus-response theories and social learning theories.

Slide15

Classical Conditioning

Ivan Pavlov – studies on the salivation of dogs when presented with food powder.

Classical conditioning experiments

Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – meat powder

Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – neutral –tone, bell..

Conditioned Response (CR)

Slide16

Establishing a classically conditioned response

Simultaneous conditioning: US and CS presented at the same time.

Delayed conditioning: CS begins first but overlaps presentation of the US – most effective

Backward conditioning: The US is presented before the CS.

Extinction

Spontaneous recovery

Stimulus generalization

Stimulus discrimination

Slide17

John B. Watson

“father of American behaviorism”

“if you cannot observe it, it doesn’t exist”

Development involves learned associations between stimuli and responses.

“Little Albert” experiment – Watson attempted to condition a phobia into an 11-month-old infant and then attempted to

decondition

the phobia.

CS (white rat) w/ US (loud noise) caused UR (startled response).

Slide18

Joseph Wolpe

Applied classical conditioning procedures to psychotherapy

The principle of reciprocal inhibition

Systematic desensitization

Other techniques based on classical conditioning:

counterconditioning

; aversive

counterconditioning

; flooding.

Slide19

Operant Conditioning

Edward L. Thorndike – Law of Effect

B.F. Skinner – positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement; punishment

Reinforcers

– primary or secondary

Reinforcement schedules

Slide20

Social Learning

We observe and learn from what we experience in the social context by considering new information, constructing meaning from it, and using it in future interactions, frequently without receiving any overt reinforcement.

Albert

Bandura

John Dollard and Neal Miller

Slide21

Albert Bandura

Social learning theory – based on the principle that people learn through observation, imitation, and modeling.

An individual can observe a model perform some behavior, then imitate that behavior without receiving any tangible reinforcement, thereby demonstrating new learning even in the absence of a contingency.

Slide22

Bandura cont.

Observational learning: learning through passive observation.

Modeling: demonstrating how a behavior is performed so that it may be learned and passed on.

Effective modeling: Attention; Retention; Reproduction; Motivation

Modeling more effective: observers and models are of similar demographics or have positive interpersonal attributes

Slide23

Bandura cont.

Self-efficacy: refers

to

an

individual’s confidence in his or her ability to perform a given behavior or accomplish a given task.

Slide24

The Dollard and Miller Approach

Influenced by the psychoanalytic, behavioral, and social science

“Drive” or incentive theorists. Anxiety and psychological disturbances were learned from experiences.

As people develop, they form habits that allow them to respond predictably to social and other stimuli.

Three primary types of conflicts: approach-approach; approach-avoidance; avoidance-avoidance.

Slide25

Cognitive Development8

How individuals construct meaning from their experiences by using thought processes across various developmental levels.

Cognitive complexity is strongly related to reasoning and behavior

Slide26

Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

J. P. believed that growth in mental development depended on one’s ability to order and classify new information = organization

Adaptation

Assimilation

Accommodation

A schema

Equilibrium

Slide27

Piaget’s stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor

stage (birth – 2)

Preoperational stage (2 – 7)

Concrete operational stage(7 – 11)

Formal operational stage (11+ years)

Slide28

Lev Vygotsky’s Cognitive developmental theory

A Russian psychologist who developed a constructionist, cognitive developmental theory that integrated language as well as social and cultural influences.

Cognitive progress facilitated by language development and occurred in a social context.

Zone of proximal development

Scaffolding

Slide29

Cognition and memory

Sensory memory

Short-term memory

Long-term memory

Encode

Retrieval theory

Interference theory

Retroactive inhibition

Proactive inhibition

Yerkes-Dodson law

Slide30

Other important concepts in cognitive development

Cognitive dissonance

Confirmatory bias

Attribution theory

Imaginary audience

Personal fable

Intelligence; crystallized intelligence

Creativity

Slide31

Language development9

Learning theory: children acquire language by observing and imitating other who are using language

Nativist approach (Noam Chomsky):the human brain is genetically programmed to enable people to create and understand language. Humans have the capacity to learn any language through exposure.

Interactionist approach: a combination of learning and nativist approaches is responsible for language development through social and cultural influences.

Slide32

Important concept of language development

Psycholinguistics

Language

Semantics

Pragmatics

Phonology

Morphology

Dialect

Bocca’s

area

Wernicke’s

area

Arcuate

fasciculus

Milestones in early language development

Communication disorders

Slide33

Personality development10

Sigmund Freud – Psychosexual theory

Erik Erikson – psychosocial theory

Loevinger

– ego development theory

Maslow’s humanistic theory

Ethological theories of Lorenz,

Bowlby

, Ainsworth, Harlow

Slide34

Sigmund Freud (1925)

Libido

Id

Ego

Superego

Defense mechanisms: repression, regression, displacement, projection, rationalization, compensation, denial, reaction formation

Slide35

Freud cont.

People must resolve various conflicts resulting from the psychic or libidinal energy focused within different parts of the body as one matures.

Fixation: an inability to resolve an important conflict, either due to an

overgratification

or

undergratification

of a need in any stage.

Oral stage; Anal stage; Phallic stage; Latency stage; Genital stage

Slide36

Psychosocial theory of Erik Erikson

Focused on an individual’s learned social interactions within the environment as a key influence on ego development

Erikson believed that personality continues to evolve throughout the lifespan and that people can reconstruct their personalities at any stage of the lifespan.

Basic trust vs. distrust; Autonomy vs. sham and doubt; Initiative vs. guilt; Industry vs. inferiority; Identity vs. role confusion; Intimacy vs. Isolation; Generativity vs. stagnation; Integrity vs. Despair.

Slide37

Ego development theory of Jane Loevinger

An ego development stage theory that explained human personality development progression and fixation:

Presocial stage

Symbiotic stage

Impulsive stage

Self-protective stage

Conformist stage

Self-awareness stage

Conscientious

Individualistic

Autonomous

Integrated

Slide38

Humanistic theory of Abraham Maslow

Holistic and views humans as intrinsically good.

People make choices about themselves based on self-perceptions and perceived circumstances.

Hierachy

of needs – humans have an innate desire for self-actualization

Physiological, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization needs.

Self-actualization needs not usually met until middle adulthood (over 60). Characteristics: acceptance of self and others, spontaneity, autonomy, creativeness, resistance to enculturation, problem centering, and continued freshness of appreciation.

Slide39

Ethological theories of Konrad Lorenz, John Bowlby, Mary Ainsworth, Harry Harlow

Konrad

Lorenz – experiments on imprinting; duck attaches to first moving object it encounters after hatching; Imprinting is irreversible and example of a critical period or sensitive period.

John

Bowlby

–infants being born with an innate potential for attachment. Infants have the ability to form a natural bond with a caregiver, thus enabling the infant to explore the environment without fear of abandonment. A failure to attach to a caregiver early in life is believed to affect trust and intimacy in latter development. Three stages in infants exposed to prolonged separations: protest; despair; detachment.

Slide40

Cont.

Mary Ainsworth – four patterns of attachment:

Securely attached

Avoidantly

attached

Ambivalently attached

Disorganized attachment

Slide41

Cont.

Harry Harlow – experiments with infant rhesus monkeys placed in cages with wire surrogate mothers, one with a bottle to provide food and another with a terry cloth covering (comfort and warmth). Preferred contact comfort with the terrycloth monkey.

Slide42

Ethological theory

Is helpful in explaining two normal developmental phenomena observed in human infants:

Stranger anxiety (6 months –fearful of presence of strangers – enhanced visual acuity, onset of object permanence, increasing cognitive awareness)

Separation anxiety (in infants 1 -2 years; extreme distress when separation from a primary caregiver occurs. Anxiety is short lived after the disappearance of the caregiver.

Slide43

Identity development

Identity means an understanding of oneself as a separate, distinct individual and springs from a synthesis of successive identifications with other people into a consistent, coherent, and unique whole.

Student, athlete, peer/friend, family member

Normative identity

Deviant identity

Achieved identity

Ascribed identity

Slide44

Sex role and gender role development

Sexual identity – biological features as determined by chromosomal information

Gender identity – psychosocial awareness of one’s maleness or femaleness and thus contains an environmental or cultural component

Gender roles – socially defined behaviors associated wit a particular sex

Androgyny – gender neutral concepts (everyone drives cars, cleans living areas, establishes a career)

Gender role conflict – when an individual feels anxiety and dissonance as previously held gender expectations conflict with changing gender roles.

Slide45

Social development

Prosocial

behavior

Sociodramatic

play

Parten

(1933) described social play categories: nonsocial activity; parallel play; associative play; cooperative play.

Slide46

Adjustment to Aging and Death

Disengagement theory

Activity theory

Atchley

(1975) proposed four stages of retirement:

Preretirement

Immediately after retirement

Periods of enchantment

Reorientation

Slide47

Elisabeth Kubler-Ross – on Grief

Shock and denial

Anger

Bargaining and guilt

Hopelessness

Acceptance

Slide48

Moral development

Involves an individual’s growing ability to distinguish right from wrong and to act in accordance with those distinctions.

Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development – most influential

Kohlberg – see 3 levels and 6 stages

Slide49

Carol Gilligan

Three stage theory:

Orientation to Individual Survival

Goodness as Self-Sacrifice

Morality of Nonviolence

Slide50

Jean Piaget’s on morality

1.

Premoral

stage

2. Moral realism stage

3. Moral relativism stage

Slide51

Lifespan theories: Individual task development and milestones

Developmental milestone approach by Arnold Gesell

Robert

Havighurst’s

developmental task approach

Roger Gould’s adult developmental theory

Robert Peck’s phase theory of adult development

Daniel Levinson’s adult male development theory

Slide52

Women’s development

Carol

Tavris

(1992) – The

mismeasure

of woman

Carol Gilligan (1982) – In a different voice,

Gail

Sheehy

(1976) – Passages: Predictable crises in adult life.

Slide53

Generational considerations in Human Development

General Issue (GI) generation: 1891 – 1924

Silent Generation: 1925 – 1942

Baby Boomer Generation: 1943 -1960

Generation X: 1961-1981

Millennials

(Generation Y): 1982 -2000

Slide54

Family developments

Leaving home

Joining families through marriage

Welcoming children into the family

Raising adolescents

Launching

Later family life

Slide55

Parenting influences

Authoritarian

Authoritative or democratic or egalitarian

Permissive or laissez-faire

Uninvolved

Slide56

Divorce and remarriage

Maternal employment

Abuse

Slide57

Crisis, resilience, and wellness

Crisis

ABC-C model of family crisis and stress (Hill, 1949)

Transcrisis

Burnout

Compassion Fatigue

Vicarious trauma

Slide58

Risk and resiliency factors

The Search Institute (2005):

Support

Empowerment

Boundaries and expectations

Constructive use of time

Commitment to learning

Positive values

Social Competence

Positive Identity

Slide59

Wellness

Refers to an integration of mind, body, and spirit resulting in positive well-being.

Physical: exercise, nutrition

Essential: spirituality, gender identity, cultural identity, self-care

Social: friendship, love

Coping: leisure, stress management, self-worth, realistic beliefs

Creative: thinking, emotions, control, work, positive humor

Slide60

Disorders usually diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescents

Mental retardation

Learning disorders

Motor skills disorders

Pervasive developmental disorders

Attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorders

Tic disorders

Elimination disorders

Other disorders of infancy, childhood, or adolescents

Separation anxiety disorder

See DSM 5 for other mental disorders

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