Sinks of social exclusion or springboards for social mobili

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Hal . Pawson. . & Shanaka Herath, . City . Futures Research Centre, University of New South . Wales. Paper to. : Housing Studies Association Conference, York, 8-10 April 2015. Presentation overview. ID: 581252 Download Presentation

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Sinks of social exclusion or springboards for social mobili




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Slide1

Sinks of social exclusion or springboards for social mobility? Analysing the roles of disadvantaged places in urban Australia

Hal Pawson & Shanaka Herath, City Futures Research Centre, University of New South WalesPaper to: Housing Studies Association Conference, York, 8-10 April 2015

Slide2

Presentation overview

Theoretical and policy context

Survey fieldwork locations and methodology

Poverty and economic exclusion

Views about the local area

Housing market dynamics

Conclusions

Slide3

1. Framing the survey

Slide4

Theoretical and policy context

Growing socio-spatial polarisation in Australia’s major cities

Dominant narrative: spatial concentrations of disadvantage inherently detrimental to local residents due to ‘neighbourhood effects’ –

i.e

:

‘…living

in a neighbourhood which is predominantly poor is itself a source of disadvantage’

(Atkinson &

Kintrea

, 2001)

Contrary idea that ‘low status suburbs’ may:

feature substantial social capital

play vital role in urban systems – e.g. migrant gateway function

Slide5

Questions for the research

H

ow applicable to the Australian context are US-sourced ideas on neighbourhood effects?

How comparable is the depth of spatially concentrated disadvantage in urban Australia?

To what extent are residents subject to measureable ‘social exclusion’?

Can lower

status neighbourhoods perform a

springboard function?

Slide6

Survey context

Survey incorporated within larger 3-year study on disadvantaged places in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane

Followed on from, and informed by:

L

arge scale secondary data analysis to identify and classify disadvantaged suburbs

Qualitative fieldwork to investigate the experience of living in disadvantaged places from perspective of residents and other local stakeholders

Series of research reports already published by AHURI on the above

Slide7

Profile of ‘disadvantaged suburb’ cohort

Disadvantaged suburbs defined in relation to SEIFA lowest quintile (Australia-wide)177 in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane10% of all suburbs, 16% of combined city populationDisproportionate no of renters (43%) but owners still in majoritySocial housing overrepresented but still only small fractionMap follows

Slide8

2. Survey methodology

Slide9

Survey methodology

Fieldwork in four contrasting ‘disadvantaged suburbs’ in Sydney

801 doorstep interviews by professional fieldwork firm (

approx

200 per area)

Sample split equally between

recent movers

longer-established residents

Slide10

Sydney fieldwork locations and profiles

Chosen to ‘represent’ each of 4 socio-economically distinct types of

disadv

.

suburb

Fieldwork

locations: 20-60 km from Sydney CBD

Incomes

relatively low and unemployment

high

Ethnic and tenure

profiles quite

diverse

Slide11

Housing tenure and property condition

External condition of…OwnedBeing purchasedPrivate rentalPublic rentalAll tenuresDwelling1218710Landscape/ garden24251315Street6416911

% in each tenure rated as having ‘poor’ or ‘very poor’ external condition/ surroundings:

Slide12

3

. Poverty and economic exclusion

Slide13

Gauging the depth of deprivation

Responses to question:

‘Over the past year have any of the following happened to you because of a shortage of money?’

33% of study area residents affected by specified ‘deprivation’ in past year

Two thirds higher than Sydney norm (20%)

Differential greater for ‘more serious’ problems –

e.g

:

‘pawned or sold item’

‘unable to heat home’

‘went without meals’

But only a minority demonstrably ‘doing it tough’

Slide14

Respondent views on their locality

Place attachment and positive sentiments appear

high

Balance of respondents believed their areas recently improving

Certainly not classic sink neighbourhoods

But problem issues also quite widely

perceived

Purchasers esp. disaffected –

e.g

:

‘I belong in this neighbourhood’: 49%

‘I would get out of this neighbourhood if I could’: 49%

Slide15

4. Dimensions of Exclusion

Slide16

Constructing synthetic indicators for ‘dimensions of exclusion’

Exclusion dimensionSurvey questionsAccessThere are good local facilities and activities for young children*The area is well served by public transport*The area has good access to primary schools*The area has good access to health services*Civic engagementI visit my neighbours in their homes*Attendance at local eventsMembership of local groupsCommunity identityThere is a strong sense of community in this neighbourhood*I feel I belong in this neighbourhood*EconomicMonthly household incomeDifficulty in paying for essentialsNeighbourhoodMy local area is a safe place to live*Car hooning is a problem here*

*Question asked in form of a statement with which respondents were asked to agree or disagree

Slide17

Dimensions of exclusion by tenure

Two thirds of households ‘excluded’ on at least 1 dimensionStrong differentiation of exclusion dimensions by tenureV high incidence of economic exclusion for renters – only slightly higher in public housingPolarisation within owner occupied sector on:Civic engagementNeighbourhoodAccess

Exclusion dimension

Owner

Pur

-chaser

Private renter

Social renter

Access

26

48

26

29

Civic engagement

26

6

15

20

Community identity

24

23

21

24

Economic

5

5

36

40

Neighbourhood

26

6

23

20

Slide18

Share of total excluded households located in each tenure

What is the composition of the ‘excluded population’ in disadvantaged suburbs?

Need to factor in:Incidence of exclusion in each tenure (last slide)tenure profile of all disadvantaged suburbsOn economic exclusion vast majority are renters but mostly private not public

Slide19

5

. Housing market dynamics

Slide20

Mobility dynamics: inter-tenure moves

Vast majority of owner occupier moves involve FHBsVast majority of private renter moves within private rental

Slide21

Mobility dynamics: inter-area moves

More than two thirds of recently moved homeowners from elsewherePRS moves mostly localBut need to factor in v high mobility incidence in PRSThus, a quarter of all current private tenants moved into current area within last 5 yearsA relatively high % of ‘possible mover’ homeowners aspire to leave the area in future

Slide22

6

. Conclusions

Slide23

Conclusions

Depth of spatially concentrated disadvantage in urban Australia moderate rather than extreme

Place attachment and community activity high but local social problems also quite widely perceived

Economic exclusion largely concentrated in rental housing – private renters account for substantial majority within overall ‘excluded population’

Disadvantaged areas appear to play an important ‘home ownership gateway’ function

Much greater self-containment of private rental markets implies restraints on onward mobility for private renters

Slide24

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