Toxicology of Alcohol

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Toxicology of Alcohol




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Presentations text content in Toxicology of Alcohol

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Toxicology of Alcohol

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Toxicology

Toxicology

the study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms

Types:

Environmental

air, water, soil

Consumer

foods, cosmetics, drugs

Medical, clinical, forensic

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Forensic Toxicology

Postmortem

—medical examiner or coronerCriminal—motor vehicle accidents (MVA)Workplace—drug testingSports—human and animalEnvironment—industrial, catastrophic, terrorism

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Toxicology

Toxic substances may:

Be a cause of deathContribute to deathCause impairmentExplain behavior

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Aspects of Toxicity

Dosage

The chemical or physical form of the substance

The mode of entry into the body

Body weight and physiological conditions of the victim, including age and sex

The time period of exposure

The presence of other chemicals in the body or in the dose

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Lethal Dose

LD

50

refers to the dose of a substance that kills half the test population, usually within four hours

Expressed in milligrams of substance per kilogram of body weight

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Toxicity Classification

LD

50

(rat,oral)

Correlation to Ingestion by 150-lb Adult Human

Toxicity

<1 mg/kg

a taste to a drop

extreme

1–50 mg/kg

to a teaspoon

high

50–500 mg/kg

to an ounce

moderate

500–5,000 mg/kg

to a pint

slight

5–15 g/kg

to a quart

practically nontoxic

Over 15 g/kg

more than 1 quart

relatively harmless

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Symptoms of Various Types of Poisoning

Symptom/Evidence

Characteristic burns around the lips and mouth of victimRed or pink patches on the chest andthigh, unusually bright red lividityBlack vomitGreenish-brown vomitYellow vomitCoffee-brown vomit, onion or garlic odorBurnt almond odorExtreme diarrheaNausea and vomiting, unconsciousnesspossibly blindness

Type of Poison

Caustic poison (lye)

Carbon monoxide

Sulfuric acid

Hydrochloric acid

Nitric acid

Phosphorus

Cyanide

Arsenic, mercury

Methyl (wood) or isopropyl

(rubbing) alcohol

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To Prove a Case

Prove a crime was committed

Motive

Intent

Access to poison

Access to victim

Death was homicidal

Death was caused by poison

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Alcohol—

Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH)

Most abused drug in America

About 40 percent of all traffic deaths are alcohol-related

Toxic

affecting the central nervous system, especially the brain

Colorless liquid, generally diluted in water

Acts as a depressant

Alcohol appears in blood within minutes of consumption; 30–90 minutes for full absorption

Detoxification

about 90 percent in the liver

About 5 percent is excreted unchanged in breath, perspiration, and urine

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Introduction

A major branch of forensic toxicology deals with the measurement of alcohol in the body for matters that pertain to violations of criminal law.

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Rate of Absorption

Depends on:

Amount of alcohol consumedThe alcohol content of the beverageTime taken to consume itQuantity and type of food present in the stomachPhysiology of the consumer

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Toxicology of Alcohol

The analysis of alcohol exemplifies the primary objective of forensic toxicology—the detection and isolation of drugs in the body for the purpose of determining their influence on human behavior.Alcohol, or ethyl alcohol, is a colorless liquid normally diluted with water and consumed as a beverage.

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Toxicology of Alcohol

Like any depressant, alcohol principally effects the central nervous system, particularly the brain.

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Alcohol & Circulatory System

Humans have a closed circulatory system consisting of a heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries.

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Alcohol & Circulatory System

Alcohol is absorbed from the stomach and small intestines into the blood stream.

Alcohol is carried to the liver where the process of its destruction starts.

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Alcohol & Circulatory System

Blood, carrying alcohol, moves to the heart and is pumped to the lungs.

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Alcohol & Circulatory System

In the lungs, carbon dioxide and alcohol leave the blood and oxygen enters the blood in the air sacs known as alveoli.

Then the carbon dioxide and alcohol are exhaled during breathing.

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